Bibb County, Georgia

Last updated
Bibb County, Georgia
Maconbibbcourthouse.jpg
Bibb County courthouse in Macon
Map of Georgia highlighting Bibb County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of Georgia
Map of USA GA.svg
Georgia's location within the U.S.
FoundedDecember 9, 1822
Named for William Wyatt Bibb
Seat Macon
Largest cityMacon
Area
  Total255 sq mi (660 km2)
  Land250 sq mi (647 km2)
  Water5.6 sq mi (15 km2), 2.2%
Population (est.)
  (2015)153,721
  Density623/sq mi (241/km2)
Congressional districts 2nd, 8th
Time zone Eastern: UTC−5/−4
Website www.co.bibb.ga.us

Bibb County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 155,547. [1] Bibb County is geographically located in the Central Georgia (Middle Georgia) region, and is the largest county in the Macon metropolitan area (Metropolitan Statistical Area).

County (United States) Subdivision used by most states in the United States of America

In the United States, a county is an administrative or political subdivision of a state that consists of a geographic region with specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs, respectively.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Georgia (U.S. state) State of the United States of America

Georgia is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Georgia is the 24th largest and 8th-most populous of the 50 United States. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, and to the west by Alabama. The state's nicknames include the Peach State and the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, a "beta(+)" global city, is both the state's capital and largest city. The Atlanta metropolitan area, with an estimated population of 5,949,951 in 2018, is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in the United States and contains about 60% of the entire state population.

Contents

Bibb County has a consolidated city-county government following a merger with its county seat and largest city, Macon, in 2014. They were later joined by the county's only other municipality, Payne City, in 2015. [2]

In United States local government, a consolidated city-county is a city and county that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. As such it is simultaneously a city, which is a municipal corporation, and a county, which is an administrative division of a state. It has the powers and responsibilities of both types of entities.

A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Taiwan and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, and historically in Jamaica.

Macon, Georgia Consolidated city-county in Georgia, United States

Macon, officially Macon–Bibb County, is a consolidated city-county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. Macon lies near the geographic center of the state, approximately 85 miles (137 km) south of Atlanta, hence the city's nickname "The Heart of Georgia".

History

Native Americans (mostly Creek) had inhabited the area which would become Bibb County for many centuries. They were forcibly relocated to today's Oklahoma in the Indian Removal in the 1830s, during the administration of President Andrew Jackson. The Indian tribes affected refer to this as the "Trail of Tears", since many died during the march west.

Native Americans in the United States Indigenous peoples of the United States (except Hawaii)

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. More than 570 federally recognized tribes live within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while "Native Americans" are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. The US Census does not include Native Hawaiians or Chamorro, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".

Oklahoma State of the United States of America

Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

Andrew Jackson 7th president of the United States

Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress. As president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union.

Bibb is one of the counties of the "Black Belt", which originally referred to the fertile dark soil in the uplands. The area was developed by white settlers and African American slaves into cotton plantations during the antebellum years. Cotton generated high profits, since was in demand in the textile mills of the northern states as well as in England. By the 1860 census, shortly before the American Civil War, more than a million enslaved African American lived in Georgia, and they constituted a majority of the population in much of the Black Belt.

Cotton Plant fiber from the genus Gossypium

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds.

Plantations in the American South large farms in the antebellum southern US, farmed by large numbers of enslaved Africans, typically growing cotton, tobacco, sugar, indigo, or rice

Plantations are an important aspect of the history of the American South, particularly the antebellum era. The mild subtropical climate, plentiful rainfall, and fertile soils of the southeastern United States allowed the flourishing of large plantations, where large numbers of workers, usually Africans held captive for slave labor, were required for agricultural production.

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy). The most studied and written about episode in U.S. history, the Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Bibb County was created by act of the State Legislature of Georgia on December 9, 1822, with Macon to be incorporated as a town/city in December 1823; designated the County Seat. It was carved from the earlier territories of the counties of Jones, Monroe, Houston, and Twiggs counties. The County Seat has never been changed since, and no other subsequent county in the state has ever been created ("erected") out of land from Bibb County.

Jones County, Georgia County in the United States

Jones County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,669. The county seat is Gray. The county was created on December 10, 1807 and named after U.S. Representative James Jones.

Monroe County, Georgia County in the United States

Monroe County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,424. The county seat is Forsyth. The county was created on May 15, 1821. The county was named for James Monroe.

Houston County, Georgia County in the United States

Houston County is a county located in the central portion of the U.S. state of Georgia. The estimated 2016 population is 152,122. Its county seat is Perry, although the city of Warner Robins is substantially larger in both area and population.

The county was named for Dr. William Wyatt Bibb, a physician from Elbert County, who was elected to and served in the U.S. House of Representatives and United States Senate from Georgia, moved to the new Alabama Territory, before being elected as the first Governor of the new State of Alabama.

William Wyatt Bibb first Governor of the U.S. state of Alabama

William Wyatt Bibb was a United States Senator from Georgia and the first Governor of the U.S. state of Alabama. Bibb County, Alabama, and Bibb County, Georgia, are named for him.

Physician professional who practices medicine

A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients, and methods of treatment—known as specialities—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice. Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines, such as anatomy and physiology, underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine.

Elbert County, Georgia County in the United States

Elbert County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,166. The county seat is Elberton. The county was established on December 10, 1790 and was named for Samuel Elbert.

During the Civil War, an estimated ten percent of the white males in the county lost their lives while serving the Confederate States Army. [3] The war ended slavery in Georgia, but it also left much of the state in ruins.

Civil War to present

After the Civil War and during the 20th century, the county seat of Macon continued to serve as the county's principal population center and hub of most significant landmarks and historical events.

On July 31, 2012, voters in the City of Macon (57.8 percent approval) and Bibb County (56.7 percent approval) passed a referendum to merge the governments of the city and the county, based on the authorization of House Bill 1171 passed by the Georgia General Assembly earlier in the year. [4] Four previous consolidation attempts (in 1933, 1960, 1972, and 1976) had failed. [5] [6] [7] The consolidation took effect on January 1, 2014, along with the de-annexation from the city of a small portion of land in Jones County.

In addition to Macon, Bibb County contained one other municipality, Payne City (or Payne), an enclave of around 200 people that was surrounded entirely by the pre-consolidation City of Macon. In the 2012 referendum, Payne City voters rejected consolidation by a vote of 9 to 7, so it was not merged into the consolidated government. In early 2015, at the request of the small city's government, the Georgia General Assembly passed a bill dissolving Payne City, merging it with the rest of Macon-Bibb County. [2]

Government and politics

Since the 2014 consolidation, Macon-Bibb has been governed by a mayor, elected at-large (county-wide), along with a nine-member county commission with members elected from single-member districts. [8] [9] [10]

Like all other Georgia counties, Bibb has an elected sheriff responsible for maintaining the jail. Bibb's sheriff also manages the county's law enforcement duties, with his deputies acting as the city and county police force. As of 2019, the current sheriff is David Davis. [11]

Elections

In 2013, the consolidated city-county held its first elections. Macon's then-mayor Robert Reichert received 49% of the vote in the general election on September 17 over the other five mayoral candidates; however, winning the election outright required the winner to capture a majority of the vote. He subsequently won 63% of the vote in a runoff election against former Macon mayor C. Jack Ellis. [12] Reichert was unopposed for re-election in 2016, following the death of his only opponent before the election. Under the city-county charter, the mayor is subject to term limits and may serve only two consecutive terms, so Reichert will leave office in December 2020. [13]

As an urban county with a majority African American population, Bibb County is one of the most consistently Democratic counties in Georgia in presidential elections, having only supported a Republican presidential candidate three times in its history.

Presidential elections results
Previous presidential elections results [14]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 38.4% 24,04358.8%36,7872.8% 1766
2012 39.5% 25,62359.5%38,5850.9% 595
2008 40.7% 27,03758.7%38,9870.6% 424
2004 48.6% 28,10750.7%29,3220.6% 359
2000 48.4% 24,07150.2%24,9961.4% 709
1996 41.6% 20,77853.5%26,7274.9% 2427
1992 36.7% 19,84751.9%28,07011.4% 6132
1988 50.0%22,17949.7% 22,0840.3% 133
1984 47.8% 24,17052.2%26,427
1980 31.5% 15,17566.0%31,7702.5% 1185
1976 28.7% 12,81971.3%31,902
1972 72.9%27,40227.1% 10,201
1968 32.6% 13,49025.6% 1057941.9%17,328
1964 59.0%25,64141.0% 17,831
1960 42.2% 10,52357.8%14,387
1956 32.6% 7,24267.4%14,966
1952 29.4% 6,12170.6%14,687
1948 27.3% 3,83749.8%7,01122.9% 3229
1944 26.0% 1,88474.0%5,352
1940 16.9% 1,37182.7%6,7290.5% 37
1936 7.3% 45292.3%5,7220.4% 23
1932 8.4% 40590.9%4,3720.6% 31
1928 47.6% 2,07852.4%2,289
1924 10.4% 45583.2%3,6476.5% 283
1920 18.4% 45881.6%2,030
1916 2.5% 5888.8%2,0488.7% 201
1912 3.7% 7190.8%1,7415.5% 105

United States Congress

SenatorsNamePartyAssumed OfficeLevel
 Senate Class 2 David Perdue Republican 2015Junior Senator
 Senate Class 3 Johnny Isakson Republican 2005Senior Senator
RepresentativesNamePartyAssumed Office
 District 2 Sanford Bishop Democratic 1993
 District 8 Austin Scott Republican 2011

Georgia General Assembly

Georgia State Senate

DistrictNamePartyAssumed office
 18 John F. Kennedy Republican 2015
 25 Burt Jones Republican 2013
 51 David Lucas Democratic 2011

Georgia House of Representatives

DistrictNamePartyAssumed office
 140 Robert Dickey Republican 2011
 141 Allen Peake Republican 2011
 142 Miriam Paris Democratic 2017
 143 James Beverly Democratic 2011
 144 Bubber Epps Republican 2008

[15] [16] [17]

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 255 square miles (660 km2), of which 250 square miles (650 km2) is land and 5.6 square miles (15 km2) (2.2%) is water. [18] The entirety of Bibb County is located in the Upper Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. [19]

Adjacent counties

National protected areas

Transportation

Major highways

Pedestrians and cycling

  • Heritage Trail
  • Ocmulgee Heritage Trail

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1830 7,154
1840 9,80237.0%
1850 12,69929.6%
1860 16,29128.3%
1870 21,25530.5%
1880 27,14727.7%
1890 42,37056.1%
1900 50,47319.1%
1910 56,64612.2%
1920 71,30425.9%
1930 77,0428.0%
1940 83,7838.7%
1950 114,07936.2%
1960 141,24923.8%
1970 143,4181.5%
1980 150,2564.8%
1990 149,967−0.2%
2000 153,8872.6%
2010 155,5471.1%
Est. 2016152,760 [20] −1.8%
U.S. Decennial Census [21]
1790-1960 [22] 1900-1990 [23]
1990-2000 [24] 2010-2013 [1]

2000 census

As of the census [25] of 2000, there were 153,887 people, 59,667 households, and 39,797 families residing in the county. The population density was 616 people per square mile (238/km²). There were 67,194 housing units at an average density of 269 per square mile (104/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 50.13% White, 47.32% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 1.08% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, and 0.81% from two or more races. 1.31% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 59,667 households out of which 31.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.30% were married couples living together, 20.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.30% were non-families. 28.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.06.

In the county, the population was distributed with 26.60% under the age of 18, 10.10% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, and 12.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.20 males.

The population tables show a dramatic reduction in population growth from 1920 to 1940, less than half the amounts for censuses before and after these dates; during this period, tens of thousands of African Americans left the state for cities in the North and Midwest, as part of the Great Migration to escape the oppression of Jim Crow and lynchings, for better jobs, education and living conditions. Through such migration, they went from being mostly rural people to being more urbanized than the average in the United States, which has become a mostly suburban population in terms of where residences are located.

The median income for a household in the county was $34,532, and the median income for a family was $43,479. Males had a median income of $34,263 versus $25,540 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,058. About 15.50% of families and 19.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.20% of those under age 18 and 13.10% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 155,547 people, 60,295 households, and 38,714 families residing in the county. [26] The population density was 622.8 inhabitants per square mile (240.5/km2). There were 69,662 housing units at an average density of 278.9 per square mile (107.7/km2). [27] The racial makeup of the county was 52.1% black or African American, 43.2% white, 1.6% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.3% from other races, and 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.8% of the population. [26] In terms of ancestry, 8.8% were English, 7.6% were American, 6.6% were Irish, and 5.2% were German. [28]

Of the 60,295 households, 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 22.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.8% were non-families, and 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age was 35.6 years. [26]

The median income for a household in the county was $38,798 and the median income for a family was $52,158. Males had a median income of $41,219 versus $31,477 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,436. About 16.4% of families and 22.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.0% of those under age 18 and 12.8% of those age 65 or over. [29]

Recreation

Lake Tobesofkee in the Wintertime Lake Tobesofkee near Lizella, Georgia.JPG
Lake Tobesofkee in the Wintertime

Lake Tobesofkee, about 10 miles (16 km) west of Macon, has three parks. Claystone, Sandy Beach, and Arrowhead Parks, each with a beach, and children's playgrounds. Sandy Beach has lighted tennis courts, a water park with many attractions, and a softball field. [30]

Communities

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

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Coordinates: 32°48′N83°42′W / 32.80°N 83.70°W / 32.80; -83.70