Asian Americans

Last updated

Asian Americans
%25 Asian by state.svg
Total population
20,916,028
5.9% of the population (2018) [1]
Chinese Americans: 5,143,982
Indian Americans: 4,506,308
Filipino Americans: 4,089,570
Vietnamese Americans: 2,162,610
Korean Americans: 1,894,131
Japanese Americans: 1,542,195
Bangladeshi Americans: 800,000
Pakistani Americans: 526,956
Thai Americans: 329,343
Hmong Americans: 320,164
Cambodian Americans: 300,360
Laotian Americans: 262,229
Taiwanese Americans: 306,076
Burmese Americans: 189,250
Nepalese Americans: 175,005
Indonesian Americans: 116,869
Sri Lankan Americans: 61,416
Regions with significant populations
California 5,556,592
New York 1,579,494
Texas 1,110,666
New Jersey 795,163
Hawaii 780,968
Illinois 668,694
Washington 604,251
Florida 573,083
Virginia 522,199
Pennsylvania 402,587
Languages
Religion
Christian (42%)
Unaffiliated (26%)
Buddhist (14%)
Hindu (10%)
Muslim (4%)
Sikh (1%)
Other (2%) including Jain, Zoroastrian, Tengrism, Shinto, and Chinese folk religion (Taoist and Confucian) [2]

Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry (including naturalized Americans who are immigrants from specific regions in Asia and descendants of such immigrants). [3] Although this term had historically been used for all the indigenous peoples of the continent of Asia, the usage of the term "Asian" by the United States Census Bureau excludes people with ethnic origins in certain parts of Asia, such as West Asia, who are now categorized as Middle Eastern Americans. [4] [5] The "Asian" census category includes people who indicate their race(s) on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Indonesian, Korean, Japanese, Malaysian, and Other Asian". [6] In 2018, Asian Americans comprised 5.4% of the U.S. population; including multiracial Asian Americans, that percentage increases to 6.5%. [7] In 2019, the estimated number of Asian Americans was 22.9 million. [8]
Chinese, Indian, and Filipino Americans make up the largest share of the Asian American population with 5 million, 4.3 million, and 4 million people respectively. These numbers equal 23%, 20%, and 18% of the total Asian American population, or 1.5% and 1.2% of the total US population. [9]
Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-19th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups, eventually prohibiting almost all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest-growing racial group in the United States. [10]

Contents

Terminology


As with other racial and ethnicity-based terms, formal and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were usually referred to as Yellow, Oriental , Asiatic, or Mongoloid . [11] [12] [13] Additionally, the American definition of 'Asian' originally included West Asian ethnic groups, particularly Turkish Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, Iranian Americans, Kurdish Americans, and certain Arab Americans, although in modern times, these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American. [14] [5] [15] The term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka in 1968 during the founding of the Asian American Political Alliance, [16] [17] and he is also credited with popularizing the term, which he meant to be used to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group". [11] [18] Prior to being included in the "Asian" category in the 1980s, many Americans of South Asian descent usually classified themselves as Caucasian or other. [19] Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified greatly to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia. [20]

Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is often shortened to Asian in common usage. [21] The most commonly used definition of Asian American is the U.S. Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. [6] This is chiefly because the census definitions determine many governmental classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. [22]

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the United States is most often thought of as a person of East Asian descent. [23] [24] In vernacular usage, "Asian" is usually used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds. [25] This differs from the U.S. Census definition [6] [26] and the Asian American Studies departments in many universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent to be "Asian". [27]

Census definition

In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent are classified as part of the Asian race; [28] while those with origins or ancestry in Central Asia (Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Tajiks, Kyrgyz, Afghans, etc.), Western Asia (Israelis, Turks, Persians, Kurds, Assyrians, Arabs, etc.), and the Caucasus (Georgians, Armenians, Azeris, etc.) are classified as "white" or "Middle Eastern". [4] [29] As such, "Asian" and "African" ancestry are seen as racial categories only for the purpose of the Census, with the definition referring to ancestry from parts of the Asian and African continents outside of West Asia, North Africa, and Central Asia.

In 1980 and before, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with white and black or negro. [30] Asian Americans had also been classified as "other". [31] In 1977, the federal Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander". [32] By the 1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander (API)" was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry as a subcategory. [33] Beginning with the 2000 census, two separate categories were used: "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander". [34]

Debates and criticism

The definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts. Immigration status, citizenship (by birthright and by naturalization), acculturation, and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. [35] For example, restricting American to include only U.S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which generally refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners. [36]

In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category. [37] Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of 'Asian American' also frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, and why... the possible definitions of 'Asian-Pacific American' are many, complex, and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians, Iranians, and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study." [38] Jeff Yang, of The Wall Street Journal , writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, and as an identity is "in beta". [39] The majority of Asian Americans feel ambivalence about the term "Asian American" as a term by which to identify themselves. [40] Pyong Gap Min, a sociologist and Professor of Sociology at Queens College, has stated the term is merely political, used by Asian-American activists and further reinforced by the government. Beyond that, he feels that South Asians and East Asians do not have commonalities in "culture, physical characteristics, or pre-migrant historical experiences". [41]

Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctness, and usefulness of the term Asian American. The term "Asian" in Asian American most often comes under fire for only encompassing some of the diverse peoples of Asia, and for being considered a racial category instead of a non-racial "ethnic" category. This is namely due to the categorization of the racially different South Asians and East Asians as part of the same "race". [22] Furthermore, some South Asian Americans find more cultural similarities with West Asians then East Asians, the former of whom are not considered "Asian" under the U.S census. [42] Scholars have also found it difficult to determine why Asian Americans are considered a "race" while Americans of Hispanic and Latino heritage are a non-racial "ethnic group", given how similarly, the category of Asian American comprises of people with diverse origins. [43] Though it has been argued that South Asians and East Asians can be "justifiably" grouped together because of Buddhism's origins in South Asia. [44]

In contrast, leading social sciences and humanities scholars of race and Asian American identity point out that because of the racial constructions in the United States, including the social attitudes toward race and those of Asian ancestry, Asian Americans have a "shared racial experience." [45] Because of this shared experience, the term Asian American is argued as still being a useful panethnic category because of the similarity of some experiences among Asian Americans, including stereotypes specific to people in this category. [45] Despite this, others have stated that many Americans do not treat all Asian Americans equally, highlighting the fact that "Asian American" is generally synonymous with people of East Asian descent, thereby excluding people of Southeast Asian and South Asian origin. [46]

Demographics

Asian American population percentage by state in 2010 Asian American population percentage by state in 2010.svg
Asian American population percentage by state in 2010
Percentage of Asian American by county, 2010 Census Asian-as-a-Percentage-of-County-Population-2010 2200x1440.png
Percentage of Asian American by county, 2010 Census

The demographics of Asian Americans describe a heterogeneous group of people in the United States who can trace their ancestry to one or more countries in East, South or Southeast Asia. [47] Because they compose 6% of the entire U.S. population, the diversity of the group is often disregarded in media and news discussions of "Asians" or of "Asian Americans." [48] While there are some commonalities across ethnic subgroups, there are significant differences among different Asian ethnicities that are related to each group's history. [49] The Asian American population is greatly urbanized, with nearly three-quarters of them living in metropolitan areas with population greater than 2.5 million. [50] As of July 2015, California had the largest population of Asian Americans of any state, and Hawaii was the only state where Asian Americans were the majority of the population. [51]

The demographics of Asian Americans can further be subdivided into, as listed in alphabetical order:

This grouping is by country of origin before immigration to the United States, and not necessarily by ethnicity, as for example (nonexclusive), Singaporean Americans may be of Chinese, Indian, or Malay descent.

Asian Americans include multiracial or mixed race persons with origins or ancestry in both the above groups and another race, or multiple of the above groups.

Language

In 2010, there were 2.8 million people (5 and older) who spoke one of the Chinese languages at home; [52] after the Spanish language, it is the third most common language in the United States. [52] Other sizeable Asian languages are Tagalog, Vietnamese, and Korean, with all three having more than 1 million speakers in the United States. [52]

In 2012, Alaska, California, Hawaii, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Texas and Washington were publishing election material in Asian languages in accordance with the Voting Rights Act; [53] these languages include Tagalog, Mandarin Chinese, Vietnamese, Spanish, [54] Hindi and Bengali. [53] Election materials were also available in Gujarati, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, and Thai. [55] A 2013 poll found that 48 percent of Asian Americans considered media in their native language as their primary news source. [56]

The 2000 Census found the more prominent languages of the Asian American community to include the Chinese languages (Cantonese, Taishanese, and Hokkien), Tagalog, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese, Hindi, Urdu, Telugu and Gujarati. [57] In 2008, the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Tagalog, and Vietnamese languages are all used in elections in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Illinois, New York, Texas, and Washington state. [58]

Religion

A 2012 Pew Research Center study found the following breakdown of religious identity among Asian Americans: [59]

The percentage of Christians among Asian Americans has sharply declined since the 1990s, chiefly as a result of large-scale immigration from countries in which Christianity is a minority religion (China and India in particular). In 1990, 63% of the Asian Americans identified as Christians, while in 2001 only 43% did. [60] This development has been accompanied by a rise in traditional Asian religions, with the people identifying with them doubling during the same decade. [61]

History

Early immigration

Five images of the Filipino settlement at Saint Malo, Louisiana 5ViewsOfStMaloLouisiana1883.jpg
Five images of the Filipino settlement at Saint Malo, Louisiana

Because Asian Americans or their ancestors immigrated to the United States from many different countries, each Asian American population has its own unique immigration history. [62]

Filipinos have been in the territories that would become the United States since the 16th century. [63] In 1635, an "East Indian" is listed in Jamestown, Virginia; [64] preceding wider settlement of Indian immigrants on the East Coast in the 1790s and the West Coast in the 1800s. [65] In 1763, Filipinos established the small settlement of Saint Malo, Louisiana, after fleeing mistreatment aboard Spanish ships. [66] Since there were no Filipino women with them, these 'Manilamen', as they were known, married Cajun and Native American women. [67] The first Japanese person to come to the United States, and stay any significant period of time was Nakahama Manjirō who reached the East Coast in 1841, and Joseph Heco became the first Japanese American naturalized US citizen in 1858. [68]

Chinese sailors first came to Hawaii in 1789, [69] a few years after Captain James Cook came upon the island. Many settled and married Hawaiian women. Most Chinese, Korean and Japanese immigrants in Hawaii or San Francisco arrived in the 19th century as laborers to work on sugar plantations or construction place. [70] There were thousands of Asians in Hawaii when it was annexed to the United States in 1898. [71] Later, Filipinos also came to work as laborers, attracted by the job opportunities, although they were limited. [72] Okinawans would start migrating to Hawaii in 1900. [73]

Large-scale migration from Asia to the United States began when Chinese immigrants arrived on the West Coast in the mid-19th century. [74] Forming part of the California gold rush, these early Chinese immigrants participated intensively in the mining business and later in the construction of the transcontinental railroad. By 1852, the number of Chinese immigrants in San Francisco had jumped to more than 20,000. A wave of Japanese immigration to the United States began after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. [75] In 1898, all Filipinos in the Philippine Islands became American nationals when the United States took over colonial rule of the islands from Spain following the latter's defeat in the Spanish–American War. [76]

Exclusion era

Under United States law during this period, particularly the Naturalization Act of 1790, only "free white persons" were eligible to naturalize as American citizens. Ineligibility for citizenship prevented Asian immigrants from accessing a variety of rights, such as voting. [77] Bhicaji Balsara became the first known Indian-born person to gain naturalized U.S. citizenship. [78] Balsara's naturalization was not the norm but an exception; in a pair of cases, Ozawa v. United States (1922) and United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923), the Supreme Court upheld the racial qualification for citizenship and ruled that Asians were not "white persons". Second-generation Asian Americans, however, could become U.S. citizens due to the birthright citizenship clause of the Fourteenth Amendment; this guarantee was confirmed as applying regardless of race or ancestry by the Supreme Court in United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898). [79]

From the 1880s to the 1920s, the United States passed laws inaugurating an era of exclusion of Asian immigrants. Although the exact number of Asian immigrants was small compared to that of immigrants from other regions, much of it was concentrated in the West, and the increase caused some nativist sentiment which was known as the "yellow peril". Congress passed restrictive legislation which prohibited nearly all Chinese immigration to the United States in the 1880s. [80] Japanese immigration was sharply curtailed by a diplomatic agreement in 1907. The Asiatic Barred Zone Act in 1917 further barred immigration from nearly all of Asia, the "Asiatic Zone". [81] The Immigration Act of 1924 provided that no "alien ineligible for citizenship" could be admitted as an immigrant to the United States, consolidating the prohibition of Asian immigration. [82]

World War II

President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 on February 19, 1942, resulting in the internment of Japanese Americans, among others. Over 100,000 people of Japanese descent, mostly on the West Coast, were forcibly removed, in an action later considered ineffective and racist.

Postwar immigration

World War II-era legislation and judicial rulings[ which? ] gradually increased the ability of Asian Americans to immigrate and become naturalized citizens. Immigration rapidly increased following the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 as well as the influx of refugees from conflicts occurring in Southeast Asia such as the Vietnam War. Asian American immigrants have a significant percentage of individuals who have already achieved professional status, a first among immigration groups. [83]

The number of Asian immigrants to the United States "grew from 491,000 in 1960 to about 12.8 million in 2014, representing a 2,597 percent increase." [84] Asian Americans were the fastest-growing racial group between 2000 and 2010. [62] [85] By 2012, more immigrants came from Asia than from Latin America. [86] In 2015, Pew Research Center found that from 2010 to 2015 more immigrants came from Asia than from Latin America, and that since 1965; Asians have made up a quarter of all immigrants to the United States. [87]

Asians have made up an increasing proportion of the foreign-born Americans: "In 1960, Asians represented 5 percent of the U.S. foreign-born population; by 2014, their share grew to 30 percent of the nation's 42.4 million immigrants." [84] As of 2016, "Asia is the second-largest region of birth (after Latin America) of U.S. immigrants." [84] In 2013, China surpassed Mexico as the top single country of origin for immigrants to the U.S. [88] Asian immigrants "are more likely than the overall foreign-born population to be naturalized citizens"; in 2014, 59% of Asian immigrants had U.S. citizenship, compared to 47% of all immigrants. [84] Postwar Asian immigration to the U.S. has been diverse: in 2014, 31% of Asian immigrants to the U.S. were from East Asia (predominately China and Korea); 27.7% were from South Asia (predominately India); 32.6% were from Southeastern Asia (predominately the Philippines and Vietnam) and 8.3% were from Western Asia. [84]

Asian American movement

Awkwafina (right) with Ken Jeong Ken Jeong & Awkwafina.png
Awkwafina (right) with Ken Jeong

Prior to the 1960s, Asian immigrants and their descendants had organized and agitated for social or political purposes according to their particular ethnicity: Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, or Asian Indian. The Asian American movement (a term coined by historian and activist Yuji Ichioka) gathered all those groups into a coalition, recognizing that they shared common problems with racial discrimination and common opposition to American imperialism, particularly in Asia. The movement developed during the 1960s, inspired in part by the Civil Rights Movement and the protests against the Vietnam War. "Drawing influences from the Black Power and antiwar movements, the Asian American movement forged a coalitional politics that united Asians of varying ethnicities and declared solidarity with other Third World people in the United States and abroad. Segments of the movement struggled for community control of education, provided social services and defended affordable housing in Asian ghettoes, organized exploited workers, protested against U.S. imperialism, and built new multiethnic cultural institutions." [89] William Wei described the movement as "rooted in a past history of oppression and a present struggle for liberation." [90] The movement as such was most active during the 1960s and 1970s. [89]

Increasingly Asian American students demanded university-level research and teaching into Asian history and the interaction with the United States. They supported multiculturalism but opposed affirmative action that amounted to an Asian quota on their admission. [91] [92] [93]

Notable contributions

Arts and entertainment

Constance Wu in 2015 (cropped).jpg
Constance Wu in August 2015
Patsymink.jpg
Patsy Mink entered the U.S. House of Representatives in 1965 as the first non-white woman in either chamber of Congress.
Kamala Harris Vice Presidential Portrait.jpg
Kamala Harris, the daughter of an Indian immigrant, became the first Asian American Vice President of the United States.
Sundar pichai.png
Sundar Pichai, the chief executive officer (CEO) of Alphabet Inc. and its subsidiary Google.
MS-Exec-Nadella-Satya-2017-08-31-22 (cropped).jpg
Satya Nadella, current chief executive officer (CEO) and Chairman of Microsoft
RADM Kenneth P. Moritsugu, USPHSCC.jpg
Kenneth P. Moritsugu was the first Asian-American Surgeon General of the US, under President George W. Bush.

Asian Americans have been involved in the entertainment industry since the first half of the 19th century, when Chang and Eng Bunker (the original "Siamese Twins") became naturalized citizens. [94] Throughout the 20th century, acting roles in television, film, and theater were relatively few, and many available roles were for narrow, stereotypical characters. More recently, young Asian American comedians and film-makers have found an outlet on YouTube allowing them to gain a strong and loyal fanbase among their fellow Asian Americans. [95] There have been several Asian American-centric television shows in American media, beginning with Mr. T and Tina in 1976, and as recent as Fresh Off the Boat in 2015. [96]

In the Pacific, American beatboxer of Hawaii Chinese descent Jason Tom co-founded the Human Beatbox Academy to perpetuate the art of beatboxing through outreach performances, speaking engagements and workshops in Honolulu, the westernmost and southernmost major U.S. city of the 50th U.S. state of Hawaii. [97] [98] [99] [100] [101] [102]

Business

When Asian Americans were largely excluded from labor markets in the 19th century, they started their own businesses. They have started convenience and grocery stores, professional offices such as medical and law practices, laundries, restaurants, beauty-related ventures, hi-tech companies, and many other kinds of enterprises, becoming very successful and influential in American society. They have dramatically expanded their involvement across the American economy. Asian Americans have been disproportionately successful in the hi-tech sectors of California's Silicon Valley, as evidenced by the Goldsea 100 Compilation of America's Most Successful Asian Entrepreneurs. [103]

Compared to their population base, Asian Americans today are well represented in the professional sector and tend to earn higher wages. [104] The Goldsea compilation of Notable Asian American Professionals show that many have come to occupy high positions at leading U.S. corporations, including a disproportionately large number as Chief Marketing Officers. [105]

Asian Americans have made major contributions to the American economy. In 2012, there were just under 486,000 Asian American-owned businesses in the U.S., which together employed more than 3.6 million workers, generating $707.6 billion in total receipts and sales, with annual payrolls of $112 billion. In 2015, Asian American and Pacific Islander households had $455.6 billion in spending power (comparable to the annual revenue of Walmart) and made tax contributions of $184.0 billion. [106]

Fashion designer and mogul Vera Wang, who is famous for designing dresses for high-profile celebrities, started a clothing company, named after herself, which now offers a broad range of luxury fashion products. An Wang founded Wang Laboratories in June 1951. Amar Bose founded the Bose Corporation in 1964. Charles Wang founded Computer Associates, later became its CEO and chairman. Two brothers, David Khym and Kenny Khym founded hip hop fashion giant Southpole (clothing) in 1991. Jen-Hsun Huang co-founded the NVIDIA corporation in 1993. Jerry Yang co-founded Yahoo! Inc. in 1994 and became its CEO later. Andrea Jung serves as Chairman and CEO of Avon Products. Vinod Khosla was a founding CEO of Sun Microsystems and is a general partner of the prominent venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. Steve Chen and Jawed Karim were co-creators of YouTube, and were beneficiaries of Google's $1.65 billion acquisition of that company in 2006. In addition to contributing greatly to other fields, Asian Americans have made considerable contributions in science and technology in the United States, in such prominent innovative R&D regions as Silicon Valley and The Triangle.

Government and politics

Asian Americans have a high level of political incorporation in terms of their actual voting population. Since 1907, Asian Americans have been active at the national level and have had multiple officeholders at local, state, and national levels. As more Asian Americans have been elected to public office, they have had a growing impact on foreign relations of the United States, immigration, international trade, and other topics. [107] The first Asian American to be elected to the United States Congress was Dalip Singh Saund in 1957.

The highest ranked Asian American to serve in the United States Congress was Senator and President pro tempore Daniel Inouye, who died in office in 2012. There are several active Asian Americans in the United States Congress. With higher proportions and densities of Asian American populations, Hawaii has most consistently sent Asian Americans to the Senate, and Hawaii and California have most consistently sent Asian Americans to the House of Representatives.

The first Asian American member of the U.S. cabinet was Norman Mineta, who served as Secretary of Commerce and then Secretary of Transportation in the George W. Bush administration. As of 2021, the highest ranked Asian American by order of precedence is Vice President Kamala Harris. Previously, the highest ranked Asian American was Secretary of Transportation Elaine Chao (2017-2021), who had also been in the order of precedence as U.S. Secretary of Labor (2001-2009).

There have been roughly "about a half-dozen viable Asian-American candidates" to ever run for president of the United States. [108] Senator Hiram Fong of Hawaii, the child of Chinese immigrants, was a "favorite son" candidate at the Republican National Conventions of 1964 and 1968. [109] [110] In 1972, Representative Patsy T. Mink of Hawaii, a Japanese American, unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for president. [111] Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal, the son of Indian immigrants, unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for president in 2016. [112] Entrepreneur and nonprofit founder Andrew Yang, the son of Taiwanese immigrants, unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for president in 2020. [108] In January 2021, Kamala Harris, the daughter of an Indian immigrant, became the first Asian American Vice President of the United States. [113]

Journalism

Connie Chung was one of the first Asian American national correspondents for a major TV news network, reporting for CBS in 1971. She later co-anchored the CBS Evening News from 1993 to 1995, becoming the first Asian American national news anchor. [114] At ABC, Ken Kashiwahara began reporting nationally in 1974. In 1989, Emil Guillermo, a Filipino American born reporter from San Francisco, became the first Asian American male to co-host a national news show when he was senior host at National Public Radio's All Things Considered . In 1990, Sheryl WuDunn, a foreign correspondent in the Beijing Bureau of The New York Times , became the first Asian American to win a Pulitzer Prize. Ann Curry joined NBC News as a reporter in 1990, later becoming prominently associated with The Today Show in 1997. Carol Lin is perhaps best known for being the first to break the news of 9-11 on CNN. Dr. Sanjay Gupta is currently CNN's chief health correspondent. Lisa Ling, a former co-host on The View, now provides special reports for CNN and The Oprah Winfrey Show, as well as hosting National Geographic Channel's Explorer. Fareed Zakaria, a naturalized Indian-born immigrant, is a prominent journalist and author specializing in international affairs. He is the editor-at-large of Time magazine, and the host of Fareed Zakaria GPS on CNN. Juju Chang, James Hatori, John Yang, Veronica De La Cruz, Michelle Malkin, Betty Nguyen, and Julie Chen have become familiar faces on television news. John Yang won a Peabody Award. Alex Tizon, a Seattle Times staff writer, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1997.

Military

Since the War of 1812, Asian Americans have served and fought on behalf of the United States. Serving in both segregated and non-segregated units until the desegregation of the US Military in 1948, 31 have been awarded the nation's highest award for combat valor, the Medal of Honor. Twenty-one of these were conferred upon members of the mostly Japanese American 100th Infantry Battalion of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team of World War II, the most highly decorated unit of its size in the history of the United States Armed Forces. [115] [116] The highest ranked Asian American military official was Secretary of Veteran Affairs, four-star general and Army Chief of Staff Eric Shinseki. [117]

Science and technology

Asian Americans have made many notable contributions to Science and Technology.

Sports

Asian Americans have contributed to sports in the United States through much of the 20th Century. Some of the most notable contributions include Olympic sports, but also in professional sports, particularly in the post-World War II years. As the Asian American population grew in the late 20th century, Asian American contributions expanded to more sports. Examples of female Asian American athletes include Michelle Kwan, Chloe Kim, Miki Gorman, Mirai Nagasu and Maia Shibutani. [118] Examples of male Asian American athletes include Jeremy Lin, Tiger Woods, Hines Ward, Richard Park and Nathan Adrian.


Cultural influence

In recognition of the unique culture, traditions, and history of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, the United States government has permanently designated the month of May to be Asian Pacific American Heritage Month. [119] Asian American parenting as seen through relationships between Chinese parents and adolescence, which is described as being more authoritarian and less warm than relations between European parents and adolescence, has become a topic of study and discussion. [120] These influences affect how parents regulate and monitor their children, and has been described as Tiger parenting, and has received interest and curiosity from non Chinese parents. [121]

Health and medicine

Origins of foreign professions in the US
Country of
origin
Proportion of total in U.S.
IMGs [122] IDGs [123] INGs [124]
India19.9% (47,581)25.8%1.3%
Philippines 8.8% (20,861)11.0%50.2%
Pakistan4.8% (11,330)2.9%
South Korea 2.1% (4,982)3.2%1.0%
China2.0% (4,834)3.2%
Hong Kong1.2%
Israel1.0%

Asian immigrants are also changing the American medical landscape through increasing number of Asian medical practitioners in the United States. Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, the US government invited a number of foreign physicians particularly from India and the Philippines to address the shortage of physicians in rural and medically underserved urban areas. The trend in importing foreign medical practitioners, however, became a long-term solution as US schools failed to produce enough health care providers to match the increasing population. Amid decreasing interest in medicine among American college students due to high educational costs and high rates of job dissatisfaction, loss of morale, stress, and lawsuits, Asian American immigrants maintained a supply of healthcare practitioners for millions of Americans. It is documented that Asian American international medical graduates including highly skilled guest workers using the J1 Visa program for medical workers, tend to serve in health professions shortage areas (HPSA) and specialties that are not filled by US medical graduates especially primary care and rural medicine. [125] [126] In 2020, of all the medical personnel in the United States, 17% of doctors were Asian Americans, 9% of physician assistants were Asian American, and more than 9% of nurses were Asian Americans. [127]

Among Asian Americans, nearly one in four are likely to use common alternative medicine. [128] This includes Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda. [128] [129] Due to the prevalence of usage, engaging with Asian American populations, through the practitioners of these common alternative medicines, can lead to an increase of usage of underused medical procedures. [130]

Education

Educational attainment, 25 and older
Ethnicity High school
graduation rate,
2004
Bachelor's degree
or higher, 2010
Chinese80.8%51.8%
Filipinos90.8%48.1%
Indian90.2%70.7%
Japanese93.4%47.3%
Koreans90.2%52.9%
Pakistanis87.4%55.1%
Vietnamese70.0%26.3%
Total U.S. population83.9%27.9%
Sources: 2004 [131] [132] [133] and 2010 [134]

Among America's major racial categories, Asian Americans have the highest educational qualifications. This varies, however, for individual ethnic groups. For example, a 2010 study of all Asian American adults found 42% have at least a college degree, but only 16% of Vietnamese Americans and only 5% for Laotians and Cambodians. [135] It has been noted, however, that 2008 US Census statistics put the bachelor's degree attainment rate of Vietnamese Americans at 26%, which is not very different from the rate of 27% for all Americans. [136] Census data from 2010 show 50% of Asian adults have earned at least a bachelor's degree, compared to 28% for all Americans, [137] and 34% for non-Hispanic whites. [138] Indian Americans have some of the highest education rates, with nearly 71% having attained at least a bachelor's degree in 2010. [134] as of December 2012 Asian Americans made up twelve to eighteen percent of the student population at Ivy League schools, larger than their share of the population. [139] [lower-alpha 1] For example, the Harvard College Class of 2023 admitted students were 25% Asian American. [144]

In the years immediately preceding 2012, 61% of Asian American adult immigrants have a bachelor or higher level college education. [62]

In August 2020, the US Justice Department argued that Yale University discriminated against Asian candidates on the basis of their race, a charge the university denied. [145]

Social and political issues

Media portrayal

Lucy Liu at Kung Fu Panda premiere Kung Fu Panda Red Carpet Premiere (5828919262).jpg
Lucy Liu at Kung Fu Panda premiere

Because Asian Americans total about 6.9% of the entire US population, diversity within the group is often overlooked in media treatment. [146] [147]

Bamboo ceiling

This concept appears to elevate Asian Americans by portraying them as an elite group of successful, highly educated, intelligent, and wealthy individuals, but it can also be considered an overly narrow and overly one-dimensional portrayal of Asian Americans, leaving out other human qualities such as vocal leadership, negative emotions, risk taking, ability to learn from mistakes, and desire for creative expression. [148] Furthermore, Asian Americans who do not fit into the model minority mold can face challenges when people's expectations based on the model minority myth do not match with reality. Traits outside of the model minority mold can be seen as negative character flaws for Asian Americans despite those very same traits being positive for the general American majority (e.g., risk taking, confidence, empowered). For this reason, Asian Americans encounter a "bamboo ceiling", the Asian American equivalent of the glass ceiling in the workplace, with only 1.5% of Fortune 500 CEOs being Asians, a percentage smaller than their percentage of the total United States population. [149]

The bamboo ceiling is defined as a combination of individual, cultural, and organisational factors that impede Asian Americans' career progress inside organizations. Since then, a variety of sectors (including nonprofits, universities, the government) have discussed the impact of the ceiling as it relates to Asians and the challenges they face. As described by Anne Fisher, the "bamboo ceiling" refers to the processes and barriers that serve to exclude Asians and American people of Asian descent from executive positions on the basis of subjective factors such as "lack of leadership potential" and "lack of communication skills" that cannot actually be explained by job performance or qualifications. [150] Articles regarding the subject have been published in Crains , Fortune magazine , and The Atlantic . [151]

Illegal immigration

In 2012, there were 1.3 million Asian Americans; and for those awaiting visas, there were lengthy backlogs with over 450 thousand Filipinos, over 325 thousand Indians, over 250 thousand Vietnamese, and over 225 thousand Chinese awaiting visas. [152] As of 2009, Filipinos and Indians accounted for the highest number of alien immigrants for "Asian Americans" with an estimated illegal population of 270,000 and 200,000 respectively. Indian Americans are also the fastest-growing alien immigrant group in the United States, an increase in illegal immigration of 125% since 2000. [153] This is followed by Koreans (200,000) and Chinese (120,000). [154] Nonetheless, Asian Americans have the highest naturalization rates in the United States. In 2015, out of a total of 730,259 applicants, 261,374 became new Americans. [155] According to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, legal permanent residents or green card holders from India, Philippines and China were among the top nationals applying for U.S. naturalization in 2015. [156]

Due to the stereotype of Asian Americans being successful as a group and having the lowest crime rates in the United States, public attention to illegal immigration is mostly focused on those from Mexico and Latin America while leaving out Asians. [157] Asians are the second largest racial/ethnic alien immigrant group in the U.S. behind Hispanics and Latinos. [158] While the majority of Asian immigrants immigrate legally to the United States, [159] up to 15% of Asian immigrants immigrate without legal documents. [160]

Race-based violence

Olivia Munn at the 2013 Harper's Bazaar Women of the Year Awards Olivia Munn 2013.jpg
Olivia Munn at the 2013 Harper's Bazaar Women of the Year Awards

Asian Americans have been the targets of violence based on their race and or ethnicity. This violence includes, but is not limited to, such events as the Rock Springs massacre, [161] Watsonville Riots, [162] Bellingham Riots in 1916 against South Asians, [163] attacks upon Japanese Americans following the attack on Pearl Harbor, [164] and Korean American businesses targeted during the 1992 Los Angeles riots. [165] Attacks on Chinese in the American frontier were common, this included the slaughter of forty to sixty Chinese miners by Paiute Indians in 1866, during the Snake War, and an attack on Chinese miners at the Chinese Massacre Cove by cowboys in 1887 which resulted in 31 deaths. [166] In the late 1980s, assaults and other hate crimes were committed against South Asians in New Jersey by a group of Latinos who were known as the Dotbusters. [167] In the late 1990s, the lone death that occurred during the Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting by a white supremacist was a Filipino postal worker. [168] Even when it did not manifest as violence, contempt against Asian Americans was reflected in aspects of popular culture such as the playground chant "Chinese, Japanese, dirty knees". [169]

After the September 11 attacks, Sikh Americans were targeted, becoming the victims of numerous hate crimes, including murder. [170] Other Asian Americans have also been the victims of race-based violence in Brooklyn, [171] Philadelphia, [172] San Francisco, [173] and Bloomington, Indiana. [174] Furthermore, it has been reported that young Asian Americans are more likely to be the targets of violence than their peers. [171] [175] In 2017, racist graffiti and other property damage was done to a community center in Stockton's Little Manila. [176] Racism and discrimination still persist against Asian Americans, occurring not only against recent immigrants but also against well-educated and highly trained professionals. [177]

Recent waves of immigration of Asian Americans to largely African American neighborhoods have led to cases of severe racial tension. [178] Acts of large-scale violence against Asian American students by their black classmates have been reported in multiple cities. [179] In October 2008, 30 black students chased and attacked 5 Asian students at South Philadelphia High School, [180] and a similar attack on Asian students occurred at the same school one year later, prompting a protest by Asian students in response. [181]

Asian-owned businesses have been a frequent target of tensions between black and Asian Americans. During the 1992 Los Angeles riots, more than 2000 Korean-owned businesses were looted or burned by groups of African Americans. [182] From 1990 to 1991, a high-profile, racially motivated boycott of an Asian-owned shop in Brooklyn was organized by a local black nationalist activist, eventually resulting in the owner being forced to sell his business. [183] Another racially motivated boycott against an Asian-owned business occurred in Dallas in 2012, after an Asian American clerk fatally shot an African American who had robbed his store. [184] During the Ferguson unrest in 2014, Asian-owned businesses were looted, [185] and Asian-owned stores were looted during the 2015 Baltimore protests while African-American owned stores were bypassed. [186] Violence against Asian Americans continue to occur based on their race, [187] with one source asserting that Asian Americans are the fastest-growing targets of hate crimes and violence. [188]

During the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, concern has grown due to an increase in anti-Asian sentiment in the United States. [189] [190] In March 2020, President Donald Trump called the disease "China Virus", and "Kung-Flu", based on its origin; in response organizations such as Asian Americans Advancing Justice and Western States Center, stated that doing so will increase anti-Asian sentiment and violence. [191] Vox wrote that the Trump Administration's use of the terms "China Virus", "kung-Flu", and "Wuhan virus" would lead to an increase in xenophobia. [192] The disease naming controversy occurred at a time when the Chinese Foreign Ministry was claiming that the disease originated in the United States. [193] Violent acts, relating to the disease, against Asian Americans have been documented mostly in New York, California, and elsewhere. [190] [194] As of December 31, 2020, there were 259 reports of anti-Asian incidents in New York reported to Stop AAPI Hate. [195] As of March 2021, there have been more than 3800 anti-Asian racist incidents. [196] A notable incident was the 2021 Atlanta spa shootings, a fatal attack in which six of the eight casualties were of Asian descent.

Racial stereotypes

Until the late 20th century, the term "Asian American" was mostly adopted by activists, while the average person who was of Asian ancestry identified with his or her specific ethnicity. [197] The murder of Vincent Chin in 1982 was a pivotal civil rights case, and it marked the emergence of Asian Americans as a distinct group in United States. [197] [198]

Stereotypes of Asians have largely been collectively internalized by society and most of the repercussions of these stereotypes are negative for Asian Americans and Asian immigrants in daily interactions, current events, and governmental legislation. In many instances, media portrayals of East Asians often reflect a dominant Americentric perception rather than realistic and authentic depictions of true cultures, customs and behaviors. [199] Asians have experienced discrimination and have been victims of hate crimes related to their ethnic stereotypes. [200]

A study has indicated that most non-Asian Americans generally do not differentiate between Asian Americans who are of different ethnicities. [201] Stereotypes of Chinese Americans and Asian Americans are nearly identical. [202] A 2002 survey of Americans' attitudes toward Asian Americans and Chinese Americans indicated that 24% of the respondents disapprove of intermarriage with an Asian American, second only to African Americans; 23% would be uncomfortable supporting an Asian American presidential candidate, compared to 15% for an African American, 14% for a woman and 11% for a Jew; 17% would be upset if a substantial number of Asian Americans moved into their neighborhood; 25% had somewhat or very negative attitude toward Chinese Americans in general. [203] The study did find several positive perceptions of Chinese Americans: strong family values (91%); honesty as business people (77%); high value on education (67%). [202]

There is a widespread perception that Asian Americans are not "American" but are instead "perpetual foreigners". [203] [204] [205] Asian Americans often report being asked the question, "Where are you really from?" by other Americans, regardless of how long they or their ancestors have lived in United States and been a part of its society. [206] Many Asian Americans are themselves not immigrants but rather born in the United States. Many East Asian Americans are asked if they are Chinese or Japanese, an assumption based on major groups of past immigrants. [204] [207]

Discrimination against Asians and Asian Americans increased with the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, according to a study done at Washington State University (WSU) and published in Stigma and Health. [208] The NYPD reported a 1,900% increase in hate crimes motivated by anti-Asian sentiment in 2020, largely because President Donald Trump repeatedly referred to COVID-19 as “the China virus” and "Kung Flu". President Joe Biden signed an executive order denouncing anti-Asian discrimination shortly after taking office. [209] [210]

Model minority

Asian Americans are sometimes characterized as a model minority in the United States because many of their cultures encourage a strong work ethic, a respect for elders, a high degree of professional and academic success, a high valuation of family, education and religion. [211] Statistics such as high household income and low incarceration rate, [212] low rates of many diseases, and higher than average life expectancy are also discussed as positive aspects of Asian Americans. [213]

The implicit advice is that the other minorities should stop protesting and emulate the Asian American work ethic and devotion to higher education. Some critics say the depiction replaces biological racism with cultural racism, and should be dropped. [214] According to The Washington Post , "the idea that Asian Americans are distinct among minority groups and immune to the challenges faced by other people of color is a particularly sensitive issue for the community, which has recently fought to reclaim its place in social justice conversations with movements like #ModelMinorityMutiny." [215]

The model minority concept can also affect Asians' public education. [216] By comparison with other minorities, Asians often achieve higher test scores and grades compared to other Americans. [217] Stereotyping Asian American as over-achievers can lead to harm if school officials or peers expect all to perform higher than average. [218] The very high educational attainments of Asian Americans has often been noted; in 1980, for example, 74% of Chinese Americans, 62% of Japanese Americans, and 55% of Korean Americans aged 20–21 were in college, compared to only a third of the whites. The disparity at postgraduate levels is even greater, and the differential is especially notable in fields making heavy use of mathematics. By 2000, a plurality of undergraduates at such elite public California schools as UC Berkeley and UCLA, which are obligated by law to not consider race as a factor in admission, were Asian American. The pattern is rooted in the pre-World War II era. Native-born Chinese and Japanese Americans reached educational parity with majority whites in the early decades of the 20th century. [219] One group of writers who discuss the "model minority" stereotype, have taken to attaching the term "myth" after "model minority," thus encouraging discourse regarding how the concept and stereotype is harmful to Asian American communities and ethnic groups. [220]

The model minority concept can be emotionally damaging to some Asian Americans, particularly since they are expected to live up to those peers who fit the stereotype. [221] Studies have shown that some Asian Americans suffer from higher rates of stress, depression, mental illnesses, and suicides in comparison to other races, [222] indicating that the pressures to achieve and live up to the model minority image may take a mental and psychological toll on some Asian Americans. [223]

The "model minority" stereotype fails to distinguish between different ethnic groups with different histories. [224] When divided up by ethnicity, it can be seen that the economic and academic successes supposedly enjoyed by Asian Americans are concentrated into a few ethnic groups. [225] Cambodians, Hmong, and Laotians (and to a lesser extent, Vietnamese) all have relatively low achievement rates, possibly due to their refugee status, and the fact that they are non-voluntary immigrants. [226]

Social and economic disparities among Asian Americans

Chloe Bennet Chloe Bennet by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg
Chloe Bennet

In 2015, Asian American earnings were found to exceed all other racial groups when all Asian ethnic groups are grouped as a whole. [227] Yet, a 2014 report from the Census Bureau reported that 12% of Asian Americans were living below the poverty line, while 10.1% of non-Hispanic White Americans live below the poverty line. [228] [229] A 2017 study of wealth inequality within Asian Americans found a greater gap between wealthy and non-wealthy Asian Americans compared to non-Hispanic white Americans. [230] Once country of birth and other demographic factors are taken into account, a portion of the sub-groups that make up Asian Americans are much more likely than non-Hispanic White Americans to live in poverty. [231] [232] [233] [234]

There are major disparities that exist among Asian Americans when specific ethnic groups are examined. For example, in 2012, Asian Americans had the highest educational attainment level of any racial demographic in the country. [62] Yet, there are many sub groups of Asian Americans who suffer in terms of education with some sub groups showing a high rate of dropping out of school or lacking a college education. [233] [234] [235] This occurs in terms of household income as well – in 2008 Asian Americans had the highest median household income overall of any racial demographic, [236] [237] while there were Asian sub-groups who had average median incomes lower than both the U.S. average and non-Hispanic Whites. [233] In 2014, data released by the United States Census Bureau revealed that 5 Asian American ethnic groups are in the top 10 lowest earning ethnicities in terms of per capita income in all of the United States. [238]

The Asian American groups that have low educational attainment and high rates of poverty both in average individual and median income are Bhutanese Americans, [239] [240] Bangladeshi Americans, [229] [239] [241] Cambodian Americans, [232] [234] Burmese Americans, [233] Nepali Americans, [242] Hmong Americans, [229] [234] [239] and Laotian Americans. [234] This affects Vietnamese Americans as well, albeit to a lesser degree, as early 21st century immigration from Vietnam are almost entirely not from refugee backgrounds. [243] These individual ethnicities experience social issues within their communities, some specific to their individual communities themselves. Issues such as suicide, crime, and mental illness. [244] Other issues experienced include deportation, and poor physical health. [245] Within the Bhutanese American community, it has been documented that there are issues of suicide greater than the world's average. [246] Cambodian Americans, some of whom immigrated as refugees, are subject to deportation. [247] Crime and gang violence are common social issues among Southeast Asian Americans of refugee backgrounds such as Cambodian, Laotian, Hmong, and Vietnamese Americans. [248]

See also

Footnotes

  1. It has been alleged that Asian Americans have been discriminated against during the admission process to certain universities. [140] These include, Harvard University, [141] University of California, [142] and University of Texas. [143]

Related Research Articles

Immigration to the United States Overview of immigration to the United States

Immigration to the United States is the international movement of non-U.S. nationals in order to reside permanently in the country. Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the U.S. history. All Americans, with the exception of Native Americans, can trace their ancestry to immigrants from other nations around the world.

Overseas Chinese Ethnic Chinese residing outside of China

Overseas Chinese are people of Chinese birth or ethnicity who reside outside the territories of the People's Republic of China (PRC), its special administrative regions (SARs) of Hong Kong and Macau, as well as the Republic of China.

Chinese Americans Americans of Chinese ancestry

Chinese Americans are Americans of Chinese ancestry. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and they also constitute a subgroup of East Asian Americans, who also constitute a subgroup of Asian Americans. Many Chinese Americans along with their descendants are immigrants from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, Taiwan, as well as other regions which are inhabited by large populations of the Chinese diaspora, especially Southeast Asia and some other countries such as Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and France.

Demographics of the United States Overview of the topic

The United States had an official resident population of 331,449,281 on April 1, 2020, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This figure includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia but excludes the population of five unincorporated U.S. territories as well as several minor island possessions. The United States is the third most populous country in the world. The Census Bureau showed a population increase of 0.8% for the twelve-month period ending in July 2012. Though high by industrialized country standards, this is below the world average annual rate of 1.1%. The total fertility rate in the United States estimated for 2020 is 1.638 children per woman, which is below the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1.

Korean Americans are Americans of Korean ancestry. The Korean American community constitutes about 0.6% of the United States population, or about 1.8 million people, and is the fifth-largest Asian American subgroup, after the Chinese American, Filipino American, Indian American, and Vietnamese American communities. The U.S. is home to the largest Korean diaspora community in the world.

Taiwanese Americans are Americans who carry full or partial ancestry from Taiwan. This includes American-born citizens who descend from migrants from Taiwan.

Vietnamese Americans are Americans of Vietnamese ancestry. They make up about half of all overseas Vietnamese and are the fourth-largest Asian American ethnic group after Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, and Indian Americans. There are 2.2 million people of Vietnamese descent residing in the U.S.

Filipino Americans Americans of Filipino descent

Filipino Americans are Americans of Filipino ancestry. Filipinos in North America were first documented in the 16th century and other small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration did not begin until after the end of the Spanish–American War at the end of the 19th century, when the Philippines was ceded from Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris.

A model minority is a minority demographic whose members are perceived as achieving a higher degree of socioeconomic success than the population average, thus serving as a reference group to outgroups. This success is typically measured relatively by educational attainment; representation in managerial and professional occupations; and household income, along with other socioeconomic indicators such as low criminality and high family/marital stability. The concept of model minority is primarily associated with the culture of the United States, though many European countries have concepts of classism that stereotype ethnic groups in a similar manner.

Burmese Americans are Americans of full or partial Burmese ancestry. The term encompasses people of all ethnic backgrounds with ancestry in present-day Myanmar, regardless of specific ethnicity. They are a subgroup of Asian Americans. The majority of Burmese Americans are of Burmese Chinese descent, particularly Teochew, Hokkien, and Yunnanese, rather than Bamar, the dominant ethnic group in Myanmar; they may alternatively identify as simply Chinese Americans. However, other types of Burmese ethnic groups immigrating to the U.S. have been on the rise in recent years.

Bangladeshi Americans are Americans of Bangladeshi descent. The majority of Bangladeshi Americans are Bengalis and form the largest group of Bengali Americans. Bangladeshi immigrants have arrived in the United States in large numbers since the early 1970s to become among the fastest growing ethnic communities since that decade. New York City, home to two-thirds of the Bangladeshi American population; Paterson, New Jersey; Atlantic City, New Jersey; Buffalo, New York; as well as Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Los Angeles, Boston, Atlanta, San Francisco, Detroit, Chicago, Florida, Dallas, Houston, Charlotte, Austin, Hamtramck, Michigan, and Reno, Nevada are home to notable Bangladeshi communities.

The United States of America has a racially and ethnically diverse population. At the federal level, race and ethnicity have been categorized separately. The most recent United States Census officially recognized five racial categories as well as people of two or more races. The Census Bureau also classified respondents as "Hispanic or Latino" or "Not Hispanic or Latino", identifying Hispanic and Latino as an ethnicity, which comprises the largest minority group in the nation. The Census also asked an "Ancestry Question," which covers the broader notion of ethnicity, in the 2000 Census long form and the 2010 American Community Survey; the question worded differently on “origins” will return in the 2020 Census.

Asian Canadians Ethnic group

Asian Canadians are Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia or Asian people. Canadians with Asian ancestry comprise the largest and fastest growing group in Canada, after European Canadians, with roughly 17.7% of the Canadian population. Most Asian Canadians are concentrated in the urban areas of Southern Ontario, Southwestern British Columbia, Central Alberta, and other large Canadian cities.

Demographics of Asian Americans Demographics of Asian Americans

The demographics of Asian Americans describe a heterogeneous group of people in the United States who trace their ancestry to one or more Asian countries.

Asian people are the people of Asia. The term may also refer to their descendants.

Indian Americans Americans of Indian birth or descent

Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans with ancestry from India. The United States Census Bureau uses the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with Native Americans. With a population of almost four million, Indian Americans make up 1.2% of the U.S. population and are the largest group of South Asian Americans and the second largest group of Asian Americans after Chinese Americans.

Americans Citizens and nationals of the United States

Americans are the citizens and nationals of the United States of America. Although citizens and nationals make up the majority of Americans, many dual citizens, expatriates and permanent residents could also legally claim American nationality. The United States is home to people of many ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with bona fide citizenship and an oath of permanent allegiance.

The demographics of Georgia are inclusive of the ninth most populous state in the United States, with over 9.68 million people, just over 3% of America's population.

Non-Hispanic Whites are European Americans, Middle Eastern Americans, and North African Americans as defined by the United States Census Bureau. Americans of European ancestry represent ethnic groups and more than half of the white population are Irish, English, Italian and French Americans.

Asian Americans in Houston Ethnic group in Houston

Houston has large populations of immigrants from Asia. In addition, the city has the largest Vietnamese American population in Texas and third-largest in the United States as of 2004.

References

  1. "Asian and Pacific Islander Population in the United States census.gov". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 21, 2021. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  2. "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. July 19, 2012. Archived from the original on July 16, 2013. Retrieved February 15, 2013. Christian 42%, Buddhist 14%, Hindu 10%, Muslim 4%, Sikh 1%, Jain *% Unaffiliated 26%, Don't know/Refused 1%
  3. Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 3, 2014. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
  4. 1 2 U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census of Population, Public Law 94-171 Redistricting Data File.Race at the Wayback Machine (archived November 3, 2001). (archived from the original on November 3, 2001).
  5. 1 2 Cortellessa, Eric (October 23, 2016). "Israeli, Palestinian Americans could share new 'Middle Eastern' census category". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
    Nussbaum Cohen, Debra (June 18, 2015). "New U.S. Census Category to Include 'Israeli' Option". Haaretz. Archived from the original on July 10, 2017. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  6. 1 2 3 U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 1 Technical Documentation Archived July 22, 2017, at the Wayback Machine , 2001, at Appendix B-14. "A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Other Asian."
  7. "ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. December 2019. Archived from the original on July 13, 2020. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
  8. "Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month: May 2021". United States Census Bureau. April 19, 2021. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  9. Caitlin Brophy. "Asian American Population in the United States Continues to Grow Origin: 2020".
  10. "U.S. Census Show Asians Are Fastest Growing Racial Group". NPR.org. Archived from the original on December 24, 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  11. 1 2 K. Connie Kang (September 7, 2002). "Yuji Ichioka, 66; Led Way in Studying Lives of Asian Americans". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 14, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2013. Yet Ichioka created the first inter-ethnic pan-Asian American political group. And he coined the term "Asian American" to frame a new self-defining political lexicon. Before that, people of Asian ancestry were generally called Oriental or Asiatic.
  12. Mio, Jeffrey Scott, ed. (1999). Key Words in Multicultural Interventions: A Dictionary. ABC-Clio ebook. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 20. ISBN   9780313295478. Archived from the original on January 3, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2014. The use of the term Asian American began in the late 1960s alongside the civil rights movement (Uba, 1994) and replaced disparaging labels of Oriental, Asiatic, and Mongoloid.
  13. Lee, Jennifer; Ramakrishnan, Karthick (October 14, 2019). "Who counts as Asian" (PDF). Russellsage.org. p. 4. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  14. "Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League" Asiatic Exclusion League. San Francisco: April 1910. Pg. 7. "To amend section twenty-one hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that section twenty-one hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States be, and the same is hereby, amended by adding thereto the following: And Mongolians, Malays, and other Asiatics, except Armenians, Assyrians, and Jews, shall not be naturalized in the United States."
  15. How the U.S. Courts Established the White Race Archived August 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  16. "U.S. History in Context – Document". ic.galegroup.com. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
  17. Daryl (2012). Rethinking the Asian American Movement. New York: Routledge. pp. 9–13, 18, 26, 29, 32–35, 42–48, 80, 108, 116–117, 139. ISBN   978-0-415-80081-5
  18. Yen Espiritu (January 19, 2011). Asian American Panethnicity: Bridging Institutions and Identities. Temple University Press. p. 34. ISBN   978-1-4399-0556-2. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
  19. Chandy, Sunu P. What is a Valid South Asian Struggle? Archived December 5, 2006, at the Wayback Machine Report on the Annual SASA Conference. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
  20. Chin, Gabriel J. (April 18, 2008). "The Civil Rights Revolution Comes to Immigration Law: A New Look at the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965". SSRN   1121504 .Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. Robert M. Jiobu (1988). Ethnicity and Assimilation: Blacks, Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans, Japanese, Mexicans, Vietnamese, and Whites. SUNY Press. p. 13. ISBN   978-0-88706-647-4. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
    Chang, Benjamin (February 2017). "Asian Americans and Education". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. 1. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.102. ISBN   9780190264093. Archived from the original on March 28, 2018. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  22. 1 2 Sailer, Steve (July 11, 2002). "Feature: Who exactly is Asian American?". UPI. Los Angeles. Archived from the original on September 5, 2018. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  23. "Asian American". Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  24. "Asian". AskOxford.com. Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2007.[ full citation needed ]
  25. Epicanthal folds Archived May 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine : MedicinePlus Medical Encyclopedia states that "The presence of an epicanthal fold is normal in people of Asiatic descent" assuming it the norm for all Asians
    Kawamura, Kathleen (2004). "Chapter 28. Asian American Body Images". In Thomas F. Cash; Thomas Pruzinsky (eds.). Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. Guilford Press. pp. 243–249. ISBN   978-1-59385-015-9. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  26. "American Community Survey; Puerto Rico Community Survey; 2007 Subject Definitions" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau: 31.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)[ dead link ]
    "American Community Survey; Puerto Rico Community Survey; 2007 Subject Definitions" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 11, 2011.[ permanent dead link ]
    "American Community Survey and Puerto Rico Community Survey: 2017 Code List" (PDF). Code Lists, Definitions, and Accuracy. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
    "American Community Survey and Puerto Rico Community Survey: 2017 Subject Definitions" (PDF). Code Lists, Definitions, and Accuracy. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2017. pp. 114–116. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 5, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019. Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes people who indicate their race as "Asian Indian," "Chinese," "Filipino," "Korean," "Japanese," "Vietnamese," and "Other Asian" or provide other detailed Asian responses.
  27. Cornell Asian American Studies Archived May 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ; contains mentions to South Asians
    UC Berkeley – General Catalog – Asian American Studies Courses Archived December 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ; South and Southeast Asian courses are present
    "Asian American Studies". 2009–2011 Undergraduate Catalog. University of Illinois at Chicago. 2009. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
    "Welcome to Asian American Studies". Asian American Studies. California State University, Fullerton. 2003. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
    "Program". Asian American Studies. Stanford University. Archived from the original on January 10, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
    "About Us". Asian American Studies. Ohio State University. 2007. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
    "Welcome". Asian and Asian American Studies Certificate Program. University of Massachusetts Amherst. 2011. Archived from the original on December 23, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
    "Overview". Cornell University Asian American Studies Program. Cornell University. 2007. Archived from the original on June 15, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
  28. "State & County QuickFacts: Race". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on November 30, 2009. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
  29. "COMPARATIVE ENROLLMENT BY RACE/ETHNIC ORIGIN" (PDF). Diversity and Inclusion Office. Ferris State University. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2014. original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East.
    "Not Quite White: Race Classification and the Arab American Experience". Arab American Institute. Arab Americans by the Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University. April 4, 1997. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
    Ian Haney Lopez (1996). "How the U.S. Courts Established the White Race". Model Minority. New York University Press. Archived from the original on August 11, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
    "Race". United States Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2010. Archived from the original on July 16, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014. White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan, or Caucasian.
    Kleinyesterday, Uri (June 18, 2015). "New U.S. census category to include 'Israeli' option - Jewish World Features - Haaretz - Israel News". Haaretz.com. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
    "Public Comments Received on Federal Register notice 79 FR 71377 : Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2015 National Content Test : U.S. Census Bureau; Department of Commerce : December 2, 2014 – February 2, 2015" (PDF). Census.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 26, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  30. 1980 Census: Instructions to Respondents Archived November 30, 2006, at the Wayback Machine , republished by Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota at http://www.ipums.org Archived July 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Accessed November 19, 2006.
  31. Lee, Gordon. Hyphen magazine. "The Forgotten Revolution". Archived from the original on July 7, 2003. Retrieved June 1, 2016.. 2003. January 28, 2007 (archived from the original Archived October 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine on March 17, 2008).
  32. Wu, Frank H. Wu (2003). Yellow: race in America beyond black and white. New York: Basic Books. p. 310. ISBN   9780465006403 . Retrieved April 15, 2011.
  33. 1990 Census: Instructions to Respondents Archived March 15, 2012, at WebCite , republished by Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota at http://www.ipums.org Archived July 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Accessed November 19, 2006.
    Reeves, Terrance Claudett, Bennett. United States Census Bureau. Asian and Pacific Islander Population: March 2002 Archived January 10, 2021, at the Wayback Machine . 2003. September 30, 2006.
  34. "Census Data / API Identities | Research & Statistics | Resources Publications Research Statistics | Asian Pacific Institute on Gender-Based Violence". www.api-gbv.org. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
  35. Wood, Daniel B. "Common Ground on who's an American." Archived February 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Christian Science Monitor. January 19, 2006. Retrieved February 16, 2007.
  36. Mary Frauenfelder. "Asian-Owned Businesses Nearing Two Million". census.gov. Archived from the original on July 19, 2018. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
  37. "Searching For Asian America. Community Chats - PBS". pbs.org. Archived from the original on November 4, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
  38. S. D. Ikeda. "What's an "Asian American" Now, Anyway?". Archived from the original on June 10, 2011.
  39. Yang, Jeff (October 27, 2012). "Easy Tiger (Nation)". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 16, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  40. Park, Jerry Z. (August 1, 2008). "Second-Generation Asian American Pan-Ethnic Identity: Pluralized Meanings of a Racial Label". Sociological Perspectives. 51 (3): 541–561. doi:10.1525/sop.2008.51.3.541. S2CID   146327919. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  41. Sailer, Steve (July 11, 2002). "Feature: Who exactly is Asian American?". UPI. Los Angeles. Archived from the original on September 5, 2018. Retrieved September 20, 2020. It is a political term used by Asian-American activists and enhanced by governmental treatment. In terms of culture, physical characteristics, and pre-migrant historical experiences, I have argued, South and East Asians do not have commonalities and as a result, they do not maintain close ties in terms friendship, intermarriage or sharing neighborhoods
  42. Sailer, Steve (July 11, 2002). "Feature: Who exactly is Asian American?". UPI. Los Angeles. Archived from the original on September 5, 2018. Retrieved July 8, 2021. Dinesh D'Souza ... told United Press International, "Middle Eastern culture has some similarities (religion, cuisine, taste in music and movies) with Asian Indian culture, but very few with Oriental (Far Eastern) culture."
  43. Lee, S.S., Mountain, J. & Koenig, B.A. (2001). The Meanings of Race in the New Genomics: Implications for Health Disparities Research. Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics 1, (1). Pages 43, 44, & 45. Wayback Machine link.
  44. Sailer, Steve (July 11, 2002). "Feature: Who exactly is Asian American?". UPI. Los Angeles. Archived from the original on September 5, 2018. Retrieved July 8, 2021. The most common justification advanced for federal government's clustering together South Asians and East Asians is that Buddhism originated in India.
  45. 1 2 Han, Chong-Suk Winter (2015). Geisha of a Different Kind: Race and Sexuality in Gaysian America. New York: New York University Press. p. 4.
  46. Kambhampaty, Anna Purna (March 12, 2020). "At Census Time, Asian Americans Again Confront the Question of Who 'Counts' as Asian. Here's How the Answer Got So Complicated". Time . Retrieved July 9, 2021. But American culture tends not to think of all regions in Asia as equally Asian. A quick Google search of “Asian food nearby” is likely to call up Chinese or Japanese restaurants, but not Indian or Filipino. Years after someone posted a thread on College Confidential, a popular college admissions forum, titled “Do Indians count as Asians?” the SAT in 2016 tweaked its race categories, explaining to test-takers that “Asian” did include “Indian subcontinent and Philippines origin."
  47. Barringer, Felicity (March 2, 1990). "Asian Population in U.S. Grew by 70% in the 80's". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
    Lowe, Lisa (2004). "Heterogeneity, Hybridity, Multiplicity: Marking Asian American Differences". In Ono, Kent A. (ed.). A Companion to Asian American Studies. Blackwell Companions in Cultural Studies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 272. ISBN   978-1-4051-1595-7. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved January 10, 2013. Alt URL Archived September 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  48. Skop, Emily; Li, Wei (2005). "Asians In America's Suburbs: Patterns And Consequences of Settlement". The Geographical Review. 95 (2): 168. doi:10.1111/j.1931-0846.2005.tb00361.x. S2CID   162228375.
  49. Fehr, Dennis Earl; Fehr, Mary Cain (2009). Teach boldly!: letters to teachers about contemporary issues in education. Peter Lang. p. 164. ISBN   978-1-4331-0491-6. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
    Raymond Arthur Smith (2009). "Issue Brief #160: Asian American Protest Politics: "The Politics of Identity"" (PDF). Majority Rule and Minority Rights Issue Briefs. Columbia University. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  50. Lott, Juanita Tamayo (January 9, 2004). Asian-American Children Are Members of a Diverse and Urban Population (Report). Population Reference Bureau. Archived from the original on April 7, 2018. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
    Hune, Shirley (April 16, 2002). "Demographics and Diversity of Asian American College Students". New Directions for Student Services. 2002 (97): 11–20. doi:10.1002/ss.35.
    Franklin Ng (1998). The History and Immigration of Asian Americans. Taylor & Francis. p. 211. ISBN   978-0-8153-2690-8. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
    Xue Lan Rong; Judith Preissle (September 26, 2008). Educating Immigrant Students in the 21st Century: What Educators Need to Know. SAGE Publications. p. 133. ISBN   978-1-4522-9405-6. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  51. Wile, Rob (June 26, 2016). "Latinos are no longer the fastest-growing racial group in America". Fusion. Doral, Florida. Archived from the original on April 7, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  52. 1 2 3 "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2012". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. March 21, 2012. Archived from the original on January 6, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  53. 1 2 Timothy Pratt (October 18, 2012). "More Asian Immigrants Are Finding Ballots in Their Native Tongue". The New York Times. Las Vegas. Archived from the original on December 25, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  54. Jonathan H. X. Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau (2011). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. pp. 333–334. ISBN   978-0-313-35066-5. Archived from the original on April 25, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2017. Since the Philippines was colonized by Spain, Filipino Americans in general can speak and understand Spanish too.
  55. Leslie Berestein Rojas (November 6, 2012). "Five new Asian languages make their debut at the polls". KPCC. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  56. Shaun Tandon (January 17, 2013). "Half of Asian Americans rely on ethnic media: poll". Agence France-Presse . Retrieved January 25, 2013.
  57. "Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000: Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). census.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 18, 2008. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
  58. EAC Issues Glossaries of Election Terms in Five Asian Languages Translations to Make Voting More Accessible to a Majority of Asian American Citizens. Election Assistance Commission. June 20, 2008. (archived from the original on July 31, 2008)
  59. "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths" (overview) (Archive). Pew Research. July 19, 2020. Retrieved on May 3, 2020.
  60. Leffel, Gregory P. Faith Seeking Action: Mission, Social Movements, and the Church in Motion Archived May 29, 2020, at the Wayback Machine . Scarecrow Press, 2007. ISBN   1461658578. p. 39
  61. Sawyer, Mary R. The Church on the Margins: Living Christian Community Archived May 31, 2020, at the Wayback Machine . A&C Black, 2003. ISBN   1563383667. p. 156
  62. 1 2 3 4 Taylor, Paul; D'Vera Cohn; Wendy Wang; Jeffrey S. Passel; Rakesh Kochhar; Richard Fry; Kim Parker; Cary Funk; Gretchen M. Livingston; Eileen Patten; Seth Motel; Ana Gonzalez-Barrera (July 12, 2012). "The Rise of Asian Americans" (PDF). Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends. Pew Research Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
  63. Gonzalez, Joaquin (2009). Filipino American Faith in Action: Immigration, Religion, and Civic Engagement. NYU Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN   9780814732977. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
    Juan Jr., E. San (2009). "Emergency Signals from the Shipwreck". Toward Filipino Self-Determination. SUNY series in global modernity. SUNY Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN   9781438427379. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
  64. Martha W. McCartney; Lorena S. Walsh; Ywone Edwards-Ingram; Andrew J. Butts; Beresford Callum (2003). "A Study of the Africans and African Americans on Jamestown Island and at Green Spring, 1619–1803" (PDF). Historic Jamestowne. National Park Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
    Francis C. Assisi (May 16, 2007). "Indian Slaves in Colonial America". India Currents. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
  65. Okihiro, Gary Y. (2005). The Columbia Guide To Asian American History. Columbia University Press. p. 178. ISBN   9780231115117. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  66. "Filipinos in Louisiana". Archived from the original on March 21, 2012. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  67. Wachtel, Alan (2009). Southeast Asian Americans. Marshall Cavendish. p. 80. ISBN   978-0-7614-4312-4. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
  68. John E. Van Sant (2000). Pacific Pioneers: Japanese Journeys to America and Hawaii, 1850-80. University of Illinois Press. p. 22. ISBN   978-0-252-02560-0. Archived from the original on January 3, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
    Sang Chi; Emily Moberg Robinson (January 2012). Voices of the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience. ABC-CLIO. p. 377. ISBN   978-1-59884-354-5. Archived from the original on January 3, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
    Joseph Nathan Kane (1964). Famous first facts: a record of first happenings, discoveries and inventions in the United States. H. W. Wilson. p. 161. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  69. Wai-Jane Cha. "Chinese Merchant-Adventurers and Sugar Masters in Hawaii: 1802–1852" (PDF). University of Hawaii at Manoa. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 18, 2009. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  70. Xiaojian Zhao; Edward J.W. Park Ph.D. (November 26, 2013). Asian Americans: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History [3 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 357–358. ISBN   978-1-59884-240-1. Archived from the original on January 3, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  71. Ronald Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (2nd ed. 1998) pp 133–78
  72. The Office of Multicultural Student Services (1999). "Filipino Migrant Workers in California". University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on December 4, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
    Castillo, Adelaida (1976). "Filipino Migrants in San Diego 1900–1946". The Journal of San Diego History. San Diego Historical Society. 22 (3). Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
  73. "Center for Okinawan Studies". Archived from the original on January 1, 2020. Retrieved January 11, 2020.
  74. L. Scott Miller (1995). An American Imperative: Accelerating Minority Educational Advancement. Yale University Press. p. 19. ISBN   978-0-300-07279-2. Archived from the original on January 3, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  75. Richard T. Schaefer (March 20, 2008). Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. SAGE Publications. p. 872. ISBN   978-1-4522-6586-5. Archived from the original on January 3, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  76. Stephanie Hinnershitz-Hutchinson (May 2013). "The Legal Entanglements of Empire, Race, and Filipino Migration to the United States". Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
    Baldoz, Rick (2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Migration and Empire in Filipino America, 1898–1946. NYU Press. p. 204. ISBN   9780814709214. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
  77. "Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America (Politics and Society in Twentieth-Century America) eBook: Mae M. Ngai: Books". www.amazon.com. Archived from the original on March 11, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
  78. Elliott Robert Barkan (January 17, 2013). Immigrants in American History: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration [4 volumes]: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration. ABC-CLIO. p. 301. ISBN   978-1-59884-220-3. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  79. Soodalter, Ron (2016). "By Soil Or By Blood". American History. 50 (6): 56–63.
    Not including children of diplomats.
  80. Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (1998) pp 370–78
  81. Rothman, Lily; Ronk, Liz (February 2, 2017). "Congress Tightened Immigration Laws 100 Years Ago. Here's Who They Turned Away". Time. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2019. Excluded from entry in 1917 were not only convicted criminals, chronic alcoholics and people with contagious diseases, but also people with epilepsy, anarchists, most people who couldn't read and almost everyone from Asia, as well as laborers who were "induced, assisted, encouraged, or solicited to migrate to this country by offers or promises of employment, whether such offers or promises are true or false" and "persons likely to become a public charge."
    Boissoneault, Lorraine (February 6, 2017). "Literacy Tests and Asian Exclusion Were the Hallmarks of the 1917 Immigration Act". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on March 19, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019. The act also levied an $8 tax on every adult immigrant (about $160 today) and barred all immigrants from the "Asiatic zone."
    Little, Becky (September 7, 2017). "The Birth of 'Illegal' Immigration". History. Archived from the original on March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019. A decade later, the Asiatic Barred Zone Act banned most immigration from Asia, as well as immigration by prostitutes, polygamists, anarchists, and people with contagious diseases.
    1917  Congressional Record, Vol. 63, Page  876 (5 February 1917)
    Uma A. Segal (August 14, 2002). A Framework for Immigration: Asians in the United States. Columbia University Press. p. 134. ISBN   978-0-231-50633-5. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2019. Less than ten years later, Congress passed the Immigration Act of February 5, 1917 (commonly known as the Barred Zone Act), which enumerated the classes of people who were ineligible to enter the United States. Among them were those who were natives of a zone defined by latitude and longitude the geographic area identified became known as the Asiatic Barred Zone, and the act clearly became the Asiatic Barred Zone Act. Under the Asiatic Barred Zone Act, the only Asians allowed entry into the United States were Japanese and Filipinos.
    Sixty-Fourth Congress (February 5, 1917). "CHAP. 29. - An Act To regulate the immigration of aliens to, and the residence of aliens in, the United States" (PDF). Library of Congress. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019. unless otherwise provided for by existing treaties, persons who are natives of islands not possessed by the United States adjacent to the Content of Asia, situate south of the twentieth parallel latitude north, west of the one hundred and sixtieth meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, and north of the tenth parallel of latitude south, or who are natives of any country, province, or dependency situate on the Continent of Asia west of the one hundred and tenth meridian of longitude east from Greenwich and east of the fiftieth meridian of longitude east from Greenwhich and south of the fiftieth parallel of latitude north, except that portion of said territory situate between the fiftieth and the sixty-fourth meridians of longitude east from Greenwhich and the twenty-fourth and thirty-eighth parallels of latitude north, and no alien now in any way excluded from, or prevented from entering, the United States shall be admitted to the United States. Alt URL Archived May 8, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
  82. Franks, Joel (2015). "Anti-Asian Exclusion In The United States During The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries: The History Leading To The Immigration Act Of 1924". Journal of American Ethnic History. 34 (3): 121–122. doi:10.5406/jamerethnhist.34.3.0121.
    Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (1998) pp 197–211
  83. Elaine Howard Ecklund; Jerry Z. Park. "Asian American Community Participation and Religion: Civic "Model Minorities?"". Project MUSE. Baylor University. Archived from the original on March 14, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
  84. 1 2 3 4 5 Jie Zong & Jeanne Batalova, Asian Immigrants in the United States Archived April 30, 2017, at the Wayback Machine , Migration Policy Institute (January 6, 2016).
  85. Semple, Kirk (January 8, 2013). "Asian-Americans Gain Influence in Philanthropy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013. From 2000-2010, according to the Census Bureau, the number of people who identified themselves as partly or wholly Asian grew by nearly 46%, more than four times the growth rate of the overall population, making Asian-Americans the fastest-growing racial group in the nation.
  86. Semple, Ken (June 18, 2012). "In a Shift, Biggest Wave of Migrants Is Now Asian". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
    "New Asian 'American Dream': Asians Surpass Hispanics in Immigration". ABC News. United States News. June 19, 2012. Archived from the original on April 23, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
    Jonathan H. X. Lee (January 16, 2015). History of Asian Americans: Exploring Diverse Roots: Exploring Diverse Roots. ABC-CLIO. p. 53. ISBN   978-0-313-38459-2. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  87. Rivitz, Jessica (September 28, 2015). "Asians on pace to overtake Hispanics among U.S. immigrants, study shows". CNN. Atlanta. Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  88. Erika Lee, Chinese immigrants now largest group of new arrivals to the U.S. Archived April 19, 2017, at the Wayback Machine , USA Today (July 7, 2015).
  89. 1 2 Maeda, Daryl Joji. "The Asian American Movement". Oxford Research Dictionaries. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  90. Rhea, Joseph Tilden (May 1, 2001). Race Pride and the American Identity. Harvard University Press. p. 43. ISBN   9780674005761. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  91. Daniels, Roger (1993). "The Asian-American Experience: The View from the 1990s". Multiculturalism and the Canon of American Culture. 23: 131–45.
  92. Don T. Nakanishi, "A quota on excellence?: The Asian American admissions debate." Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning 21.6 (1989): 39-47.
  93. "Making a meritocracy" Economist (Oct 5, 2019) Vol. 433 Issue 9163, p24-25. online Archived December 7, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
  94. We Are Siamese Twins-Fai的分裂生活 Archived December 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  95. Lee, Elizabeth (February 28, 2013). "YouTube Spawns Asian-American Celebrities". VAO News. Archived from the original on February 18, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
  96. Chow, Kat (February 5, 2015). "A Brief, Weird History Of Squashed Asian-American TV Shows". NPR. Archived from the original on February 8, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
    Cruz, Lenika (February 4, 2015). "Why There's So Much Riding on Fresh Off the Boat". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
    Gamboa, Glenn (January 30, 2015). "Eddie Huang a fresh voice in 'Fresh Off the Boat'". Newsday. Long Island, New York. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
    Lee, Adrian (February 5, 2015). "Will Fresh Off The Boat wind up being a noble failure?". MacLeans. Canada. Archived from the original on February 8, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
    Oriel, Christina (December 20, 2014). "Asian American sitcom to air on ABC in 2015". Asian Journal. Los Angeles. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
    Beale, Lewis (February 3, 2015). "The Overdue Asian TV Movement". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on February 11, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
    Yang, Jeff (May 2, 2014). "Why the 'Fresh Off the Boat' TV Series Could Change the Game". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
    Joann Faung Jean Lee (August 1, 2000). Asian American Actors: Oral Histories from Stage, Screen, and Television. McFarland. p. 98. ISBN   978-0-7864-0730-9. Archived from the original on April 27, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
    Branch, Chris (February 5, 2015). "'Fresh Off The Boat' Brings Asian-Americans To The Table On Network TV". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  97. "Hawai'i's Human Beatbox". University of Hawaiʻi Foundation Office of Alumni Relations. October 19, 2018. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  98. "Kapiʻolani CC alum stays on beat spreading message of perseverance". University of Hawaiʻi News. December 13, 2018. Archived from the original on December 15, 2019. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  99. Yamashiro, Lexus (July 15, 2017). "KCC Alumnus Inspires Community Through Beatboxing, Motivational Speaking". Kapiʻo News. Archived from the original on January 29, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  100. Ching, Kapiʻolani (December 13, 2018). "Hawaiʻi's Human Beatbox". University of Hawaiʻi at Kapiʻolani Alumni. Archived from the original on January 30, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  101. Lim, Woojin (January 21, 2021). "Jason Tom: Hawaii's Human Beatbox". The International Wave: A Collection of In-Depth Conversations With Artists of Asian Descent. Archived from the original on January 23, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  102. Hulme, Julia (January 25, 2016). "Jason Tom: The Human BeatBox". Millennial Magazine. Archived from the original on October 3, 2016. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  103. "100 Most Successful Asian American Entrepreneurs". Archived from the original on November 24, 2010. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  104. "Broad racial disparities persist". Archived from the original on March 5, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
  105. "Notable Asian American Professionals". Archived from the original on October 20, 2010. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  106. "How Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders Contribute to the U.S. Economy" (PDF). Partnership for a New American Economy Research Fund. October 2017. pp. 4, 12, 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 15, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  107. Zhao, Xiaojian; Ph.D., Edward J.W. Park (November 26, 2013). "Conclusion". Asian Americans: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History [3 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History. ABC-CLIO. p. 1. ISBN   978-1-59884-240-1. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
    Collet, Christian; Lien, Pei-Te (July 28, 2009). The Transnational Politics of Asian Americans. Temple University Press. p. 11. ISBN   978-1-59213-862-3. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
  108. 1 2 Matt Stevens (February 11, 2020). "Andrew Yang Drops Out: 'It Is Clear Tonight From the Numbers That We Are Not Going to Win'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 24, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  109. Kai-Hwa Wang, Francis (June 25, 2015). "Indian Americans React to Bobby Jindal Presidential Announcement". NBC News. Archived from the original on August 28, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  110. "Hiram L. Fong, 97, Senator From Hawaii in 60's and 70's". The New York Times. The Associated Press. August 19, 2004. Archived from the original on July 18, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
    Zhao, Xiaojian; Park, Edward J.W. (November 26, 2013). Asian Americans: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History. ABC-CLIO. p. 435. ISBN   978-1-59884-240-1. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  111. Wallace Turner (May 10, 1972). "Mrs. Mink, Vying With McGovern, Offers Oregon a Choice". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  112. Jonathan Martin (November 18, 2015). "Bobby Jindal Quits Republican Presidential Race". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  113. Purna Kamphampaty, Anna; Lang, Cady (November 7, 2020). "The Historic Barriers Kamala Harris Overcame to Reach the Vice-Presidency". Time. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  114. "CONNIE CHUNG". World Changers. Portland State University. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
  115. McNaughton, James C.; Edwards, Kristen E.; Price, Jay M. (November 1, 2002). ""Incontestable Proof Will Be Exacted": Historians, Asian Americans, and the Medal of Honor". The Public Historian. 24 (4): 11–33. doi:10.1525/tph.2002.24.4.11. ISSN   0272-3433.
  116. 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry Archived September 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine , globalsecurity.org Archived June 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine .
  117. Harper, Jon; Tritten, Travis J. (May 30, 2014). "VA Secretary Eric Shinseki resigns". Stars and Stripes . Archived from the original on June 16, 2018. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
  118. Wenjen, Mia. "Asian Pacific American female Athletes Changing the Game". Mama Smiles. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  119. "About Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on August 15, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
    George Bush: "Statement on Signing Legislation Establishing Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month", October 23, 1992. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=21645 Archived October 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  120. Russell, Stepehn (2010). "Introduction: Asian American Parenting and Parent-Adolescent Relationships". Asian American Parenting and Parent-Adolescent Relationships . New York, NY: Springer. pp.  1–15. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-5728-3_1. ISBN   978-1-4419-5727-6.
    Karen Kurasaki; Sumie Okazaki; Stanley Sue (December 6, 2012). Asian American Mental Health: Assessment Theories and Methods. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 260. ISBN   978-1-4615-0735-2. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  121. Amy Chua (December 6, 2011). Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. A&C Black. ISBN   978-1-4088-2509-9. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
    Wang, Scarlett (Spring 2013). "The "Tiger Mom": Stereotypes of Chinese Parenting in the United States". Opus. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
    Chang, Bettina (June 18, 2014). "The Problem With A Culture of Excellence". Pacific Standard. The Social Justice Foundation. Archived from the original on February 16, 2019. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  122. "International Medical Graduates by Country". American Medical Association. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008.
  123. Sweis, L; Guay, A (2007). "Foreign-trained dentists licensed in the United States: Exploring their origins". J Am Dent Assoc. 138 (2): 219–224. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2007.0140. PMID   17272378.
  124. "Foreign Educated Nurses". ANA: American Nurses Association. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
  125. Koehn, NN; Fryer, GE. "Jr, Phillips RL, Miller JB, Green LA. (2007) The increase in international medical graduates in family practice residency programs". Journal of Family Medicine. 34 (6): 468–9.
  126. Mick, SS; Lee, SY (1999). "Are there need-based geographical differences between international medical graduates and U.S. medical graduates in rural U.S. counties?". J Rural Health. 15 (1): 26–43. doi:10.1111/j.1748-0361.1999.tb00596.x. PMID   10437329.
  127. Gerstmann, Evan (April 4, 2020). "Irony: Hate Crimes Surge Against Asian Americans While They Are On The Front Lines Fighting COVID-19". Forbes. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  128. 1 2 Regan A. R. Gurung (April 21, 2014). Multicultural Approaches to Health and Wellness in America [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 156. ISBN   978-1-4408-0350-5. Archived from the original on May 31, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  129. Caroline Young; Cyndie Koopsen (2005). Spirituality, Health, and Healing. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 87. ISBN   978-0-7637-4024-5. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
    Montenegro, Xenia P. (January 2015). The Health and Healthcare of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders Age 50+ (PDF) (Report). AARP. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 28, 2019. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  130. Wang, Jun; Burke, Adam; Ysoh, Janice Y.; Le, Gem M.; Stewart, Susan; Gildengorin, Ginny; Wong, Ching; Chow, Elaine; Woo, Kent (2014). "Engaging Traditional Medicine Providers in Colorectal Cancer Screening Education in a Chinese American Community: A Pilot Study". Preventing Chronic Disease. 11: E217. doi:10.5888/pcd11.140341. PMC   4264464 . PMID   25496557. Archived from the original on February 28, 2019. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  131. Pakistan American Educational Attainment Archived February 10, 2020, at archive.today United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
  132. "The American Community-Asians: 2004" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. February 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2007.Cite journal requires |journal= (help) (Figure 11, p.15)
  133. Pakistani Migration to the United States: An economic perspective Archived January 22, 2013, at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  134. 1 2 Stella U. Ogunwole; Malcolm P. Drewery Jr; Merarys Rios-Vargas (May 2012). "The Population With a Bachelor's Degree or Higher by Race and Hispanic Origin: 2006–2010" (PDF). American Community Survey Briefs. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  135. C.N. Le (2010). "School of Education at Johns Hopkins University-A Closer Look at Asian Americans and Education". New Horizons for Learning. Johns Hopkins University. Archived from the original on June 30, 2015. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  136. U.S. Census Bureau (March 3, 2008). "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2008". Facts for Features. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 23, 2010. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
  137. "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2012". Profile America Facts for Features. United States Census Bureau. March 21, 2012. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  138. Richard Perez-Pena (February 23, 2012). "U.S. Bachelor Degree Rate Passes Milestone". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  139. Chen, Carolyn (December 19, 2012). "Asians: Too Smart for Their Own Good?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 28, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
  140. Jaschik, Scott (August 7, 2017). "The Numbers and the Arguments on Asian Admissions". Inside Higher Ed. Washington, DC. Archived from the original on June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  141. Fuchs, Chris (October 30, 2019). "ASIAN AMERICA After Harvard affirmative action decision, Asian American students rethink college applications". NBC News. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
    Suk Gersen, Jeannie (October 7, 2019). "The Many Sins of College Admissions". New Yorker: 7 October 2019. Archived from the original on May 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
    Arcidiacono, Peter; Kisnler, Josh; Ransom, Tyler (April 21, 2020). Asian American Discrimination in Harvard Admissions* (PDF) (Report). Duke University. p. Peter Arcidiacono. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 2, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  142. Jaschik, Scott (November 19, 2018). "New Front in Fight Over Affirmative Action". Inside Higher Ed. Washington, DC. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  143. Gluckman, Nell (May 16, 2019). "U. of Texas Is Sued Over Affirmative Action in Admissions. Yes, Again". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington, DC. Archived from the original on June 7, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  144. FAS Communications (March 28, 2019). "Harvard College admits 1,950 to Class of '23". The Harvard Gazette. Harvard University. Archived from the original on April 19, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  145. David Shortell and Taylor Romine. "Justice Department accuses Yale of discriminating against Asian American and White applicants". CNN. Archived from the original on August 14, 2020. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  146. Fehr, Dennis Earl; Fehr, Mary Cain (2009). Teach boldly!: letters to teachers about contemporary issues in education. Peter Lang. p. 164. ISBN   978-1-4331-0491-6. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
    Raymond Arthur Smith (2009). "Issue Brief #160: Asian American Protest Politics: "The Politics of Identity"" (PDF). Majority Rule and Minority Rights Issue Briefs. Columbia University. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
    Min, Pyong G. Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends andIssues. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2006. Google Books.Web. July 28, 2013.
  147. Lee, Robert G. Orientals: Asian Americans in PopularCulture. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1999. Google Books. Web. 28 July 2013.
  148. Cheng, Joy; Charles Hsieh; Scott Lu; Sarah Talog. "Asian Americans and the Media: Perpetuating the Model Minority". Psychology 457.002. University of Michigan. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  149. Sylvia Ann Hewlett (July 28, 2011). "Asians in America: What's Holding Back the "Model Minority?"". Forbes. Archived from the original on June 17, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  150. Anne Fisher (August 8, 2005). "Piercing the 'Bamboo Ceiling'". CNN . Archived from the original on April 22, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
  151. Anne Fisher (November 18, 2011). "Training executives to think globally". Crain's New York Business. Archived from the original on April 12, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
    Anne Fisher (October 7, 2011). "Is there a 'bamboo ceiling' at U.S. companies?". Fortune Magazine. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
    Hans Villarica (May 15, 2012). "Study of the Day: There's a 'Bamboo Ceiling' for Would-Be Asian Leaders". The Atlantic . Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
  152. "Annual Report of Immigration Visa Applicants in the Family-sponsored and Employment-based preferences Registered at the National Visa Center as of November 1, 2012" (PDF). Bureau of Consular Affairs. United States Secretary of State. November 1, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 17, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
    Demby, Gene (January 31, 2013). "For Asian-Americans, Immigration Backlogs Are A Major Hurdle". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on February 5, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  153. IANS. "Indians fastest-growing illegal immigrants in U.S." siliconindia.com. Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
    Illegal Indians in US Archived August 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  154. Hoeffer, Michael; Rytina, Nancy; Campbell, Christopher. "Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2009" (PDF). Department of Homeland Security. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 7, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2010.
  155. "US Citizenship Important to Asian Immigrants". VOA. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  156. "Infographics 2015". Department of Homeland Security. January 31, 2017. Archived from the original on March 4, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  157. Weingarten, Liza; Raymond Arthur Smith (2009). "Asian American Immigration Status" (PDF). Majority Rule and Minority Rights Issue Briefs. Columbia University. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2012. Deemed successful as a complete group, the national immigration debate often leaves out Asians focusing instead on South America primarily. Furthermore, a failed attempt to naturalize can actually result in deportation. Because fluency in English is one of the criteria for naturalization, certain ethnicities within the panethnic Asian American immigrant identity are more strongly affected than others. But Asians are noticeably absent from the immigration debate, according to public radio reports.
    Ngai, Mae M. (April 27, 2014). Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America - Updated Edition. Princeton University Press. p. 2. ISBN   978-1-4008-5023-5. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
    Yen, Hope (December 6, 2012). "Hispanic immigration to US has peaked, Asian immigration is rising". The Christian Science Monitor. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  158. Passel, Jeffrey (March 21, 2005). "Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 29, 2018. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
    Erwin De Leon (2011). "Asian Immigration and the Myth of the "Model Minority"". WNYC. Archived from the original on June 8, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  159. "New Asian Immigrants To US Now Surpass Hispanics". CBSDC. June 19, 2012. Archived from the original on June 22, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2012. While immigrants from Asia often obtain visas and arrive legally, many also sneak across the U.S. border or become undocumented residents after overstaying their visas.
  160. Guarino, Mark (June 19, 2012). "How Asians displaced Hispanics as biggest group of new US immigrants". The Christian Science Monitor . Archived from the original on June 21, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2012. For example, 45 percent of Hispanic immigrants are undocumented compared with about 13 percent of Asian immigrants, according to the survey.
  161. Tanner, Russel; Margie Fletcher Shanks (2008). Rock Springs. Arcadia Publishing. p. 31 28. ISBN   9780738556420. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
  162. "Racial Riots". Office of Multicultural Student Services. University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
    "Racial hate once flared on Central Coast". The Weekend Pinnacle Online. October 27, 2006. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
    Kevin L. Nadal (March 23, 2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 144. ISBN   978-1-118-01977-1. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  163. Scott Ingram (July 2006). South Asian Americans. World Almanac Library. p. 23. ISBN   978-0-8368-7318-4. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
    Seema Sohi (2014). Echoes of Mutiny: Race, Surveillance, and Indian Anticolonialism in North America. Oxford University Press. p. 25. ISBN   978-0-19-937625-4. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  164. Tenbroek, Jacobus; Edward Norton Barnhart; Floyd W. Matson (1975). Prejudice, war, and the Constitution. University of California Press. p. 352. ISBN   9780520012622. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
  165. Chung Kim, Kwang (1999). Koreans in the hood: conflict with African Americans. JHU Press. p. 146. ISBN   9780801861048. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
  166. Bruce Cumings (November 17, 2009). Dominion from Sea to Sea: Pacific Ascendancy and American Power. Yale University Press. p. 222. ISBN   978-0-300-15497-9. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
    Gregory Michno (2007). The Deadliest Indian War in the West: The Snake Conflict, 1864–1868. Caxton Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN   978-0-87004-487-8. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  167. Sang Chi; Emily Moberg Robinson (February 13, 2012). Voices of the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 297. ISBN   978-1-59884-355-2. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
    Franklin Odo (2002). The Columbia Documentary History of the Asian American Experience. Columbia University Press. p. 411. ISBN   978-0-231-11030-3. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  168. Thomas Streissguth (2009). Hate Crimes. Infobase Publishing. p. 32. ISBN   978-1-4381-1904-5. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
    "Racist Gets Life Term for L.A. Rampage / Filipino postal worker killed in hate attack". San Francisco Chronicle. Los Angeles Times. March 27, 2001. Archived from the original on April 12, 2018. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
    Wong, Grace (August 9, 2014). "Ileto family remembers Joseph Ileto, slain 15 years ago". Los Angeles Daily Bulletin. Archived from the original on April 12, 2018. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
    Sanchez, Rene (August 13, 1999). "L.A. Shooting Suspect Faces State, U.S. Charges". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  169. Lee, Gregory B. (2003). Chinas unlimited: making the imaginaries of China and Chineseness. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 45. ISBN   0-8248-2680-9. OCLC   51722034. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved December 5, 2020.
  170. Valarie Kuar Brar (September 30, 2002). "Turbans and Terror: Racism After Sep. 11". The Sikh Times. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
    Klug, Foster (September 17, 2001). "Sikh killed, others are targeted; Arizona man held". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Lisa A. Suzuki; J. Manuel Casas; Charlene M. Alexander (2009). Handbook of Multicultural Counseling. SAGE. p. 472. ISBN   9781412964326. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
    Min, Pyong Gap (2006). Asian Americans: contemporary trends and issues. Pine Forge Press. p. 216. ISBN   9781412905565. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
  171. 1 2 "Asian youth persistently harassed by U.S. peers". USA Today. November 13, 2005. Archived from the original on October 2, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
  172. Hoye, Sarah (October 22, 2010). "Racial violence spurred Asian students to take a stand". CNN. Archived from the original on January 29, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
    Johnson, Danielle (December 7, 2009). "Attacked Asian Students Afraid To Go to School". WCAU . Archived from the original on April 3, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
  173. C.W. Nevius (April 29, 2010). "Asian American attacks focus at City Hall". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on July 6, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
  174. Danielle Wiener-Bronner (November 1, 2010). "Asian Students Attacked At Indiana University". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on November 5, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
  175. Lu, Hubert; Peter Schurmann (July 1, 2007). "Asian Parents and Students Face Challenge of Diversity". Douwei Times. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
    Thomas M. Menino (August 2005). "Report of the 2004 Boston Youth Survey" (PDF). Harvard Youth Violence Prevention Center. Harvard School of Public Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
  176. Garces, Audrey (October 12, 2017). "Little Manila Center Vandalized During Filipino American History Month". The California Report. San Francisco: KQED. Archived from the original on April 12, 2018. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
    Layug, Margaret Claire (October 12, 2017). "US-based Filipino foundation sees vandalism on property as hate crime". GMA News. Philippines. Archived from the original on April 12, 2018. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
    Guillermo, Emil (October 13, 2017). "Not-so-little act of hate at Stockton's Little Manila". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Makati City. Archived from the original on April 12, 2018. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  177. Lee, Evelyn (2000). Working with Asian Americans: A Guide for Clinicians. New York: Guilford Press. p. 22. ISBN   9781572305700. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  178. Baltimore Sun: "Black, Korean tension is focus U.S. civil rights panel to meet in Baltimore" By Erin Texeira Archived September 27, 2015, at the Wayback Machine July 23, 1998
  179. USA Today: "Bullying against Asian students roils Philadelphia high school" Archived September 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine January 22, 2010
    CNN: "Racial violence spurred Asian students to take a stand" By Sarah Hoye Archived July 8, 2015, at the Wayback Machine October 22, 2010
    Sowell, Thomas (May 9, 2010). "Race and Resentment". Real Clear Politics. Archived from the original on February 14, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
  180. Teague, Matthew. "Heroes: South Philly High's Protesters." Philadelphia (magazine). August 2010. 4 Archived August 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved on May 4, 2016,
  181. Teague, Matthew. "Heroes: South Philly High's Protesters." Philadelphia (magazine). August 2010. 8 Archived May 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  182. Kim, Kwang Chung (1999). Koreans in the Hood: Conflict With African Americans. Baltimore, Maryland: JHU Press. p. 250. ISBN   9780801861048. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
    Abelmann, Nancy; Lie, John (1995). Blue Dreams: Korean Americans and the Los Angeles Riots. Harvard University Press. p. 288. ISBN   9780674077058. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
    Kim, Rose M. (2012). "3. "Violence and Trauma as Constitutive Elements in Korean American Racial Identity Formation: The 1992 L.A. Riots/Insurrection/Saigu."". Ethnic & Racial Studies. 35 (11): 1999–2018. doi:10.1080/01419870.2011.602090. S2CID   144670407.
  183. Goodman, Walter. "Review/Television; The Boycotting of a Korean Grocery in Brooklyn" Archived August 9, 2016, at the Wayback Machine . The New York Times. July 12, 1990
  184. "Racial Tension Rising in Dallas Against Korean Community". The Chosun Ilbo . January 31, 2012. Archived from the original on February 10, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
    "Racial tensions flare in protest of South Dallas gas station". The Dallas Morning News . February 5, 2012. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
  185. Mak, Tim (August 20, 2014). "Ferguson's Other Race Problem: Riots Damaged Asian-Owned Stores". The Daily Beast. The Daily Beast Company LLC. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  186. Aizenmen, Nurith (April 30, 2015). "Baltimore Unrest Reveals Tensions Between African-Americans And Asians". NPR. Archived from the original on June 21, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
  187. Thomas Sowell (May 9, 2010). "Race and Resentment". Real Clear Politics. Archived from the original on February 14, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
  188. C.N. Le (March 21, 2011). "Anti-Asian Racism & Violence". asian-nation.org. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
  189. Sumagaysay, Levi (May 24, 2020). "Asian Americans bear brunt of blame for COVID-19". DanvilleSanRamon.com. Pleasanton, California: Embarcadero Media. Bay City News Service. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
    Yam, Kimmy (May 13, 2020). "NBC News hosts town hall on rise of anti-Asian sentiment amid coronavirus pandemic". NBC News. Archived from the original on May 25, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  190. 1 2 Chen, H. Alexander; Trinh, Jessica (May 16, 2020). "Anti-Asian sentiment in the United States – COVID-19 and history". American Journal of Surgery. 220 (3): 556–557. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2020.05.020 . PMC   7229717 . PMID   32425201.
  191. Reichmann, Deb; Tang, Terry (March 18, 2020). "Donald Trump dubs COVID-19 'Chinese virus' despite hate crime risks for Asian Americans". KGO. San Francisco. Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 20, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  192. Scott, Dylan (March 18, 2020). "Trump's new fixation on using a racist name for the coronavirus is dangerous". Vox. Archived from the original on March 18, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  193. Molter, Vanessa; Webster, Graham (March 31, 2020). "Coronavirus Conspiracy Claims: What's Behind a Chinese Diplomat's COVID-19 Misdirection". Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies. Stanford University. Archived from the original on January 10, 2021. Retrieved May 24, 2002.
    Sardarizdeh, Shayan; Robinson, Olga (April 26, 2020). "Coronavirus: US and China trade conspiracy theories". BBC News. United Kingdom. Archived from the original on May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  194. Rao, Maya (March 28, 2020). "Asian-Americans in Minnesota face insults, hostility during virus outbreak". Star Tribune. Minnesota. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
    Phillips, Kristine (May 21, 2020). "'We just want to be safe': Hate crimes, harassment of Asian Americans rise amid coronavirus pandemic". USA Today. Archived from the original on May 22, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
    "Reports of Anti-Asian Assaults, Harassment and Hate Crimes Rise as Coronavirus Spreads". adl.org. New York: Anti-Defamation League. May 19, 2020. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  195. "Race Discrimination Not Black and White as Asians Face Surging Attacks During Pandemic". NBC Boston. Archived from the original on February 12, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  196. Yam, Kimmy (March 16, 2021). "There were 3,800 anti-Asian racist incidents, mostly against women, in past year". NBC News. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  197. 1 2 Yip, Alethea. "Remembering Vincent Chin". Asian Week. Archived from the original on March 18, 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2007.
  198. ACAPAA. "Pilicy Recommendation Document" (PDF). State of Michigan. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2007.
  199. Kashiwabara, Amy, Vanishing Son: The Appearance, Disappearance, and Assimilation of the Asian-American Man in American Mainstream Media, UC Berkeley Media Resources Center, archived from the original on September 22, 2018, retrieved December 28, 2012
  200. "Pearl Harbor and Asian-Americans". The New York Times. October 26, 1991. Archived from the original on May 11, 2013. Retrieved December 31, 2012.