European Americans

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European Americans
Total population
(72.4% of US population as of the 2010 Census)
Regions with significant populations
Contiguous United States and Alaska
smaller populations in Hawaii and the territories
Predominantly English
German   Polish   Russian   Spanish   Italian   French   Portuguese  others
Predominantly Christianity (of which majority Protestant with Roman Catholicism the largest single denomination); Minority religions: Judaism, Islam
Related ethnic groups
Non-Hispanic Whites, White Southerners, European diaspora, Europeans, European Canadians, European Australians, European New Zealanders, British (English, Scottish, Welsh, Ulster-Scots), German, Irish, Italian, Greek, Polish, Croatian, Albanian
European ancestry in the US by county (self-reported) European Ancestry in the US by county.jpg
European ancestry in the US by county (self-reported)

European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry. [1] [2] This term includes people who are descended from the first European settlers in America as well as people who are descended from more recent European arrivals. European Americans are the largest panethnic group (or, variously considered an ethnic group in its own right) in the United States, both historically and at present.

Americans Citizens, or natives, of the United States of America

Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens, expatriates, and permanent residents may also claim American nationality. The United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Panethnicity is a political neologism used to group various ethnic groups together based on their related cultural origins; geographic, linguistic, religious, or 'racial' similarities are often used alone or in combination to draw panethnic boundaries. The term panethnic was used extensively during mid-twentieth century anti-colonial/national liberation movements. In the United States, Yen Espiritu popularized the term and coined the nominal term panethnicity in reference to Asian Americans, a racial category composed of disparate ethnic groups having in common only their origin in Asia.


The Spaniards are thought to be the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the contiguous United States, with Martín de Argüelles (b. 1566) in St. Augustine, then a part of Spanish Florida. [3] [4] Virginia Dare, born August 18, 1587, was the first English child to be born in the Americas. She was born in Roanoke Colony, located in present-day North Carolina, which was the first attempt, made by Queen Elizabeth I, to establish a permanent English settlement in North America.

Spanish Americans are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly from Spain.

Contiguous United States 48 states of the United States apart from Alaska and Hawaii

The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states on the continent of North America. The terms exclude the non-contiguous states of Alaska and Hawaii, and all other off-shore insular areas. These differ from the related term continental United States which includes Alaska but excludes Hawaii and insular territories.

Martín de Argüelles, Jr. was the first white child known to have been born in what is now the United States. His birthplace of St. Augustine, Florida is the oldest continuously occupied, European-founded city in the United States.

In the 2016 American Community Survey, German Americans (13.9%), Irish Americans (10.0%), English Americans (7.4%), Italian Americans (5.2%), and Polish Americans (3%) were the five largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming over a third of the total population. [5] However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered by some to be under-counted, as the people in that demographic tend to identify themselves simply as Americans (20,151,829 or 7.2%). [6] [7] [8] [9] In the 2000 census over 56 million or 19.9% of the United States population ignored the ancestry question completely and classified as "unspecified" and "not reported". [10]

American Community Survey demographic survey in the United States

The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing survey by the U.S. Census Bureau. It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the decennial census, such as ancestry, educational attainment, income, language proficiency, migration, disability, employment, and housing characteristics. These data are used by many public-sector, private-sector, and not-for-profit stakeholders to allocate funding, track shifting demographics, plan for emergencies, and learn about local communities. Sent to approximately 295,000 addresses monthly, it is the largest household survey that the Census Bureau administers.

German Americans ethnic group

German Americans are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry. With an estimated size of approximately 44 million in 2016, German Americans are the largest of the self-reported ancestry groups by the US Census Bureau in its American Community Survey.. German-Americans account for about one third of the total ethnic German population in the world.

Irish Americans are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland. About 33 million Americans — 10.1% of the total population — self-identified as being of Irish ancestry in the 2017 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. This compares with a population of 6.6 million on the island of Ireland. In contrast to Ireland, surveys since the 1970s have shown consistent majorities or pluralities of Americans who self-identify as being of Irish ancestry as also self-identifying as being Protestant, and thus are actually Scotch-Irish, the American descendants of the Ulster Protestants who emigrated from Ireland to the United States beginning in the 18th century.


Number of European Americans: 1800–2010
YearPopulation% of the United StatesRef(s)
1800 4,306,44681.1% [11]
1850 19,553,06884.3% [11]
1900 66,809,19687.9% [11]
1950 134,942,02889.5% [11]
2010 223,553,26572.4% [12]


In 1995, as part of a review of the Office of Management and Budget's Statistical Policy Directive No. 15 (Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting), a survey was conducted of census recipients to determine their preferred terminology for the racial/ethnic groups defined in the Directive. For the White group, European American came third, preferred by 2.35% of panel interviewees. [13]

Office of Management and Budget United States government agency

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent function is to produce the President's Budget, but OMB also measures the quality of agency programs, policies, and procedures to see if they comply with the president's policies and coordinates inter-agency policy initiatives.

The term is sometimes used interchangeably with Caucasian American, White American, and Anglo American in many places around the United States. [14] However, the terms Caucasian and White are purely racial terms, not geographic, and include some populations whose origin is outside of Europe; and Anglo-American also has another definition, meaning, European Americans with English ancestry.

Anglo-America region in the Americas in which English is a main language

Anglo-America most often designates to a region in the Americas in which English is a main language and British culture and the British Empire have had significant historical, ethnic, linguistic and cultural impact. Anglo-America is distinct from Latin America, a region of the Americas where Romance languages are prevalent.


The term is used by some to emphasize the European cultural and geographical ancestral origins of Americans, in the same way as is done for African Americans and Asian Americans. A European American awareness is still notable because 90% of the respondents classified as white in the U.S. Census knew[ clarification needed ] their European ancestry. [15] Historically, the concept of an American originated in the United States as a person of European ancestry, thus excluding non-European groups. [16]

African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term typically refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States.

Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. This includes people who indicate their race(s) on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Other Asian". Asian Americans with other ancestry comprise 5.6% of the U.S. population, while people who are Asian alone, and those combined with at least one other race, make up 6.9%.

As a linguistic concern, the term is sometimes meant to discourage a dichotomous view of the racial landscape between the white category and everyone else. [17] Margo Adair suggests that the recognition of specific European American ancestries allows certain Americans to become aware that they come from a variety of different cultures. [18]


Historical immigration / est. origins
before 1790
ancestry: 1790 [19]
Ulster Scotch-Irish*135,000320,000
Germany [lower-alpha 1] 103,000280,000
Ireland 8,000200,000
Netherlands 6,000100,000
France 3,00080,000
Sweden and Other [lower-alpha 2] 50020,000
*Totals, British 417,5002,500,000+
Flag of the United States (1777-1795).svg United States [lower-alpha 3] 950,0003,929,214
Source: [20] (excludes African population.)

Since 1607, some 57 million immigrants have come to the United States from other lands. Approximately 10 million passed through on their way to some other place or returned to their original homelands, leaving a net gain of some 47 million people. [21]

Colonial settlers

Between 1607 and 1776 most European settlements were British or Dutch. Colonial stock of English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish, Cornish or Welsh descent, may be found throughout the country but is especially dominant in New England and the South. Some people of colonial stock, especially in the Mid-Atlantic states, are also of Swedish, Hugenot or German descent. The vast majority of these are Protestants. The Pennsylvania Dutch (German American) population gave the state of Pennsylvania a high German cultural character. French descent, which can also be found throughout the country, is most concentrated in Louisiana, while Spanish descent is dominant in the Southwest and Florida. These are primarily Roman Catholic and were assimilated with the Louisiana Purchase and the aftermath of the Mexican–American War and Adams–Onís Treaty, respectively.


The first large wave of European migration after the Revolutionary War came from Northern and Central-Western Europe between about 1820 and 1890. Most of these immigrants were from Ireland, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, and Britain, and with large numbers of Irish and German Catholics immigrating, Roman Catholicism became an important minority religion. Polish Americans usually used to come as German or Austrian citizens, since Poland lost its independence in the period between 1772 and 1795. Descendants of the first wave are dominant in the Midwest and West, although German descent is extremely common in Pennsylvania, and Irish descent is also common in urban centers in the Northeast. The Irish and Germans held onto their ethnic identity throughout the 19th and early half of the 20th centuries, as well as other European ethnic groups. Most people of Polish origin live in the Northeast and the Midwest (see also White ethnic).

Second wave 1890–1920

The second wave of European Americans arrived from the mid-1890s to the 1920s, mainly from Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Ireland. [15] This wave included Irish, Italians, Greeks, Hungarians, Portuguese, Romanians, Ukrainians, Russians, Poles and other Slavs. With large numbers of immigrants from Spain, Mexico, Spanish Caribbean, and South and Central America, White Hispanics have increased to 8% of the US population, and Texas, California, New York, and Florida are important centers for them.

Shifts in European migration

Before 1881, the vast majority of immigrants, almost 86% of the total, arrived from northwest Europe, principally Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, and Scandinavia. The years between 1881 and 1893 the pattern shifted, in the sources of U.S. "New immigration". Between 1894 and 1914, immigrants from southern, central, and eastern Europe accounted for 69% of the total. [22] [23] [24] Prior to 1960, the overwhelming majority came from Europe or of European descent from Canada. The shift in European immigration has been in decline since the mid-20th century, with 75.0% of the total foreign-born population born in Europe compared to 12.1% recorded in the 2010 census. [25]

Immigration since 1820

European immigration to the U.S. 1820-1970
ArrivalsTotal (150 yrs)35,679,763
Source: [26] [27] [28] [29] [30]
Country of origin 1820-1978
CountryArrivals% of totalCountryArrivals% of total
Germany 16,978,00014.3% Norway 856,0001.8%
Italy 5,294,00010.9% France 751,0001.5%
Great Britain 4,898,00010.01% Greece 655,0001.3%
Ireland 4,723,0009.7% Portugal 446,0000.9%
Austria-Hungary 1,24,315,0008.9% Denmark 364,0000.7%
Russia 1,23,374,0006.9% Netherlands 359,0000.7%
Sweden 1,272,0002.6% Finland 33,0000.1%
Total (158 yrs)34,318,000
Source: [31] [32] [33] Note: Many returned to their country of origin
European-born population

The figures below show that of the total population of specified birthplace in the United States. A total of 11.1% were born-overseas of the total population.

Population / Proportion
born in Europe in 1850−2016
YearPopulation% of foreign-born
Source: [34] [35] [36] [37]
in 2010
in 2010
in 2016
in 2016
Totals, European-born4,817,43712.0%4,785,26710.9%
Northern Europe 923,5642.3%950,8722.2%
United Kingdom 669,7941.7%696,8961.6%
Ireland 124,4570.3%125,8400.3%
Other Northern Europe129,3130.3%128,1360.3%
Western Europe 961,7912.4%939,3832.1%
Germany 604,6161.5%563,9851.3%
France 147,9590.4%175,2500.4%
Other Western Europe209,2160.5%200,1480.4%
Southern Europe 779,2942.0%760,3521.7%
Italy 364,9720.9%335,7630.8%
Portugal 189,3330.5%176,6380.4%
Other Southern Europe224,9890.6%247,9510.5%
Eastern Europe 2,143,0555.4%2,122,9514.9%
Poland 475,5031.2%424,9281.0%
Russia 383,1661.0%397,2360.9%
Other Eastern Europe1,284,2863.2%1,300,7873.0%
Other Europe (no country specified)9,7330.0%11,7090.0%
Source: 2010 and 2016 [38]


The New York City Metropolitan Area is home to the largest European population in the United States. Top of Rock Cropped.jpg
The New York City Metropolitan Area is home to the largest European population in the United States.

The numbers below give numbers of European Americans as measured by the U.S. Census in 1980, 1990, and 2000. The numbers are measured according to declarations in census responses. This leads to uncertainty over the real meaning of the figures: For instance, as can be seen, according to these figures, the European American population dropped 40 million in ten years, but in fact, this is a reflection of changing census responses. In particular, it reflects the increased popularity of the "American" option following its inclusion as an example in the 2000 census forms.

Breakdowns of the European American population into sub-components is a difficult and rather arbitrary exercise. Farley (1991) argues that "because of ethnic intermarriage, the numerous generations that separate respondents from their forebears and the apparent unimportance to many whites of European origin, responses appear quite inconsistent". [40]

In particular, a large majority of European Americans have ancestry from a number of different countries and the response to a single "ancestry" gives little indication of the backgrounds of Americans today. When only prompted for a single response, the examples given on the census forms and a pride in identifying the more distinctive parts of one's heritage are important factors; these will likely adversely affect the numbers reporting ancestries from the British Isles. Multiple response ancestry data often greatly increase the numbers reporting for the main ancestry groups, although Farley goes as far to conclude that "no simple question will distinguish those who identify strongly with a specific European group from those who report symbolic or imagined ethnicity." He highlights responses in the Current Population Survey (1973) where for the main "old" ancestry groups (e.g., German, Irish, English, and French), over 40% change their reported ancestry over the six-month period between survey waves (page 422).

An example is that in 1980 23.75 million Americans claimed English ancestry and 25.85 claimed English ancestry together with one or more other. This represents 49.6 million people. The table below shows that in 1990 when only single and primary responses were allowed this fell to 32 million and in 2000 to 24 million. [41]

The largest self-reported ancestries in 2000, reporting over 5 million members, were in order: German, Irish, English, American, Italian, French, and Polish. They have different distributions within the United States; in general, the northern half of the United States from Pennsylvania westward is dominated by German ancestry, and the southern-half by English and American. Irish may be found throughout the entire country.

Italian ancestry is most common in the Northeast, Polish in the Great Lakes Region and the Northeast, and French in New England and Louisiana. U.S. Census Bureau statisticians estimate that approximately 62 percent of European Americans today are either wholly or partly of English, Welsh, Irish, or Scottish ancestry. Approximately 86% of European Americans today are of northwestern and central European ancestry, and 14% are of southeastern European and White Hispanic and Latino American descent.

Ancestral origins

Ancestral origin 1980 / % [42] 1990 / % [43] 2000 / % [44] 2016 (est.) / % [45] Pop. change
United States population226,545,805100.0248,709,873100.0281,421,906100.0318,558,162100.0Increase2.svg28.08%
Total ancestries reported188,302,43883.1248,709,873100.0287,304,886102.1
Acadian/Cajun 668,2710.385,4140.0115,3120.04Decrease2.svg82.74%
Albanian 38,6580.0247,7100.0113,6610.0191,4630.06Increase2.svg301.31%
Alsatian 42,3900.0216,4650.015,6010.011,1070.00Decrease2.svg32.54%
American 12,395,9995.020,625,0937.322,097,0126.94Increase2.svg78.26%
Austrian 948,5580.42864,7830.3735,1280.3702,7720.22Decrease2.svg18.73%
Basque 43,1400.047,9560.057,7930.0
Bavarian 4,3480.0
Belarusian 7,3810.004,2770.0
Belgian 360,2770.16380,498 [lower-alpha 4] 0.2360,6420.1359,1210.11Decrease2.svg5.62%
British 1,119,1540.41,085,7200.41,370,2220.43Increase2.svg22.43%
Bulgarian 42,5040.0229,5950.055,4890.098,4100.03Increase2.svg232.52%
Carpatho Rusyn 7,6020.07,9210.00Increase2.svg4.20%
Celtic 29,6520.065,6380.050,0580.02Increase2.svg68.82%
Cornish 3,9910.0
Croatian 252,9700.11544,2700.2374,2410.1410,0030.13Decrease2.svg24.67%
Cypriot 6,0530.004,8970.07,6630.07,3320.00Increase2.svg49.72%
Czech 1,892,4560.841,296,411 [lower-alpha 5] 0.51,262,5270.41,435,3590.45Increase2.svg10.72%
Czechoslovakian 315,2850.1441,4030.2300,4240.09Decrease2.svg4.71%
Danish 1,518,2730.671,634,6690.71,430,8970.51,297,7380.41Decrease2.svg20.61%
Dutch 6,304,4992.786,227,0892.54,542,4941.64,210,7871.32Decrease2.svg32.38%
Eastern European [lower-alpha 6] 62,4040.03132,3320.1546,2800.17
English 49,598,03521.8932,651,78813.124,515,1388.724,426,6237.67Decrease2.svg25.19%
Estonian 25,9940.0126,7620.025,0340.027,8640.01Increase2.svg4.12%
European [lower-alpha 6] 175,4610.08466,7180.21,968,6960.73,922,8811.23
Finnish 615,8720.27658,8700.3623,5730.2645,0530.20Decrease2.svg2.10%
Flemish 14,1570.0
French (except Basque)12,892,2465.6910,320,9354.18,309,9083.08,151,4992.56Decrease2.svg21.02%
French Canadian 780,4880.342,167,1270.92,349,6840.82,084,9030.65Decrease2.svg3.79%
German 49,224,14621.7357,947,171 [lower-alpha 7] 23.342,885,16215.245,879,36014.40Decrease2.svg20.83%
German Russian 10,1530.010,5350.023,7720.01Increase2.svg134.14%
Greek 959,8560.421,110,3730.41,153,3070.41,282,6550.40Increase2.svg15.52%
Gypsy (Rom)6,3220.005,6930.0
Hungarian 1,776,9020.781,582,3020.61,398,7240.51,423,1440.45Decrease2.svg10.06%
Icelandic 32,5860.0140,5290.042,7160.050,5720.02Increase2.svg24.78%
Irish 40,165,70217.7338,735,539 [lower-alpha 8] 15.630,528,49210.833,093,55010.39Decrease2.svg14.57%
Italian 12,183,6925.3814,664,550 [lower-alpha 9] 5.915,723,5555.617,174,7415.39Increase2.svg17.12%
Latvian 92,1410.04100,3310.087,5640.086,1280.03Decrease2.svg14.16%
Lithuanian 742,7760.33811,8650.3659,9920.2648,5140.20Decrease2.svg20.12%
Luxemburger 49,9940.0249,0610.045,1390.040,7600.01Decrease2.svg16.92%
Macedonian 20,3650.038,0510.057,2210.02Increase2.svg180.98%
Maltese 31,6450.0139,6000.040,1590.039,9850.01Increase2.svg0.97%
Manx 9,2200.006,3170.06,9550.0
Moravian 3,7810.0
Northern Irish 16,4180.014,0090.03,6930.0
Norwegian 3,453,8391.523,869,3951.64,477,7251.64,454,9641.40Increase2.svg15.13%
Pennsylvania German 305,8410.1255,8070.1301,4830.09Decrease2.svg1.42%
Polish 8,228,0373.639,366,1063.88,977,4443.29,344,1262.93Decrease2.svg0.23%
Portuguese 1,024,3510.451,153,3510.51,177,1120.41,367,4760.43Increase2.svg18.57%
Prussian 25,4690.0
Romanian 315,2580.14365,5440.1367,3100.1459,8410.14Increase2.svg25.80%
Russian 2,781,4321.232,952,9871.22,652,2140.92,795,4430.88Decrease2.svg5.34%
Saxon 4,5190.0
Scandinavian 475,0070.21678,8800.3425,0990.2629,8190.20Decrease2.svg7.23%
Scotch-Irish 5,617,7732.34,319,2321.53,056,8480.96Decrease2.svg45.59%
Scottish 10,048,8164.445,393,5812.24,890,5811.75,457,7981.71Increase2.svg1.19%
Serbian 100,9410.04116,7950.0140,3370.0189,4250.06Increase2.svg62.19%
Sicilian 50,3890.0
Slavic 172,6960.0876,9310.0127,1370.0125,5710.04Increase2.svg63.23%
Slovak 776,8060.341,882,8970.8797,7640.3714,5570.22Decrease2.svg62.05%
Slovene 126,4630.06124,4370.1176,6910.1172,5110.05Increase2.svg38.63%
Soviet Union 7,7290.02,4590.00Decrease2.svg68.18%
Spaniard 94,5280.04360,9350.1299,948 [46] 0.1768,252 [47] 0.24Increase2.svg112.85%
Swedish 4,345,3921.924,680,8631.93,998,3101.43,908,7621.23Decrease2.svg16.49%
Swiss 981,5430.431,045,4950.4911,5020.3937,3760.29Decrease2.svg10.34%
Ukrainian 730,0560.32740,7230.3892,9220.3986,5970.31Increase2.svg33.19%
Welsh 1,664,5980.732,033,8930.81,753,7940.61,805,5770.57Decrease2.svg11.23%
West German 3,8850.0
Yugoslavian 360,1740.16257,9940.1328,5470.1276,3600.09Increase2.svg7.12%


American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag. All have European influence primarily from the British. Motherhood and apple pie.jpg
American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag. All have European influence primarily from the British.

Overall the culture of the United States deeply reflects the European-influenced culture that predates the United States of America as an independent state. Much of American culture shows influences from European nations, particularly the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes. [2] Scholar David Hackett Fischer asserts in Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America that the folkways of four groups of people who moved from distinct regions of the United Kingdom to the United States persisted and provide a substantial cultural basis for much of the modern United States. [50] Fischer explains "the origins and stability of a social system which for two centuries has remained stubbornly democratic in its politics, capitalist in its economy, libertarian in its laws and individualist in its society and pluralistic in its culture." [51]

Much of the European-American cultural lineage can be traced back to Western and Northern Europe, which is institutionalized in the government, traditions, and civic education in the United States. [52] Since most later European Americans have assimilated into American culture, most European Americans now generally express their individual ethnic ties sporadically and symbolically and do not consider their specific ethnic origins to be essential to their identity; however, European American ethnic expression has been revived since the 1960s. [15] Some European Americans such as Italians, Greeks, Poles, Germans, Ukrainians, Irish, and others have maintained high levels of ethnic identity. In the 1960s, Mexican Americans, Jewish Americans, and African Americans started exploring their cultural traditions as the ideal of cultural pluralism took hold. [15] European Americans followed suit by exploring their individual cultural origins and having less shame of expressing their unique cultural heritage. [15]


The American legal system also has its roots in French philosophy with the separation of powers and the federal system [53] along with English law in common law. [54] For example, elements of the Magna Carta in it contain provisions on criminal law that were incorporated into the Bill of Rights of the U.S. Constitution. It as well as other documents had elements influencing and incorporated into the United States Constitution. [55]




Another area of cultural influence are American Patriotic songs:

Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom.

Automotive industry

Henry Ford in 1934. Ford Henry.jpg
Henry Ford in 1934.

Notable people

Presidents heritage

Most of the heritage that all 44US Presidents come from (or in some combination thereof): is British (English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish or Welsh) ancestry. Others include John F. Kennedy of Irish descent, Martin Van Buren of Dutch descent and three presidents whose fathers were of German descent: Dwight D. Eisenhower (whose original family name was Eisenhauer), Herbert Hoover (Huber), and Donald Trump. Later US Presidents' ancestry can often be traced to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe. [69]


Admixture in Non-Hispanic Whites

Some White Americans have varying amounts of American Indian and Sub-Saharan African ancestry. In a recent study, Gonçalves et al. 2007 reported Sub-Saharan and Amerindian mtDna lineages at a frequency of 3.1% (respectively 0.9% and 2.2%) in American Caucasians (Please note that in the USA, "Caucasian" includes people from North Africa and Western Asia as well as Europeans). [70] Recent research on Y-chromosomes and mtDNA detected no African admixture in European-Americans. The sample included 628 European-American Y-chromosomes and mtDNA from 922 European-Americans [71]

DNA analysis on White Americans by geneticist Mark D. Shriver showed an average of 0.7% Sub-Saharan African admixture and 3.2% Native American admixture. [72] The same author, in another study, claimed that about 30% of all White Americans, approximately 66 million people, have a median of 2.3% of Black African admixture. [73] Later, Shriver retracted his statement, saying that actually around 5% of White Americans exhibit some detectable level of African ancestry. [74]

From the 23andMe database, about 5 to at least 13 percent of self-identified White American Southerners have greater than 1 percent African ancestry. [75] Southern states with the highest African American populations, tended to have the highest percentages of hidden African ancestry. [76] White Americans (European Americans) on average are: "98.6 percent European, 0.19 percent African and 0.18 percent Native American." Inferred British/Irish ancestry is found in European Americans from all states at mean proportions of above 20%, and represents a majority of ancestry, above 50% mean proportion, in states such as Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Scandinavian ancestry in European Americans is highly localized; most states show only trace mean proportions of Scandinavian ancestry, while it comprises a significant proportion, upwards of 10%, of ancestry in European Americans from Minnesota and the Dakotas. [75] [76]

See also


  1. Germany in this time period consisted of a large number of separate countries, the largest of which was Prussia.
  2. The Other category probably contains mostly English ancestry settlers; but the loss of several states' census records in makes closer estimates difficult. The summaries of the 1790 and 1800 census from all states surveyed.
  3. Total represents total immigration over the approximately 130-year span of colonial existence of the U.S. colonies as found in the 1790 census. At the time of the American Revolution the foreign born population was estimated to be from 300,000 to 400,000.
  4. Excludes Flemish. [43]
  5. Excludes Moravian. [43]
  6. 1 2 This category represents a general type response, which may encompass several ancestry groups. [43]
  7. Excludes Bavarian, Prussian, Saxon, and West German. [43]
  8. Excludes Northern Irish and Celtic. [43]
  9. Excludes Sicilian. [43]

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