1800 United States census

Last updated

1800 United States census

  1790 August 4, 1800 (1800-08-04) 1810  

Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
General information
CountryUnited States
Total population5,308,483 (Increase2.svg 35.1%)
Most populous state Virginia
Least populous state Delaware

The United States census of 1800 was the second census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 4, 1800.


It showed that 5,308,483 people were living in the United States, of whom 893,602 were enslaved. The 1800 census included the new District of Columbia. The census for the following states were lost: Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Virginia.

Census questions

The 1800 census asks the following information in columns, left to right: [1]

1Name of the head
2Number of free white males under age 10
3Number of free white males of age 10 and under 16
4Number of free white males of age 16 and under 26
5Number of free white males of age 26 and under 45
6Number of free white males of age 45 and over.
7Number of free white females under age 10
8Number of free white females of age 10 and under 16
9Number of free white females of age 16 and under 26
10Number of free white females of age 26 and under 45
11Number of free white females of age 45 and over.
12Number of all other free persons
13Number of slaves

This census is one of the several for which some of the original data are no longer available. Original census returns for Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Virginia were lost over the years. [2]

Data availability

No microdata from the 1800 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

State and regional populations

DistrictFree white males under age 10,Free white males age 10–16Free white males age 16–26Free white males age 26–45Free white males over age 45Free white females under age 10Free white females age 10–16Free white females age 16–26Free white females age 26–45Free white females over age 45All other free personsSlavesTotal
New Hampshire 30,69414,88116,37917,58911,71529,87114,19317,15318,38112,1428528183,858
Massachusetts 63,64632,50737,90539,72931,34860,92030,67440,49143,83335,3406,4520422,845
Maine 27,97012,30512,90015,3188,33926,89911,33813,29514,4968,0418180151,719
Connecticut 37,94619,40821,68323,18018,97635,73618,21823,56125,18620,8275,330951251,002
Vermont 29,42012,04613,24216,5448,07628,27211,36612,60615,2877,0495570154,465
Rhode Island 9,9455,3525,8895,7854,8879,5245,0266,4636,9195,6483,30438069,122
New York (excluding Duchess, Ulster, Orange counties)83,16136,95340,04552,45425,49779,15432,82239,08647,71023,1618,57315,602484,065
New York (Duchess, Ulster, Orange counties)16,9367,3209,2309,1406,35816,3196,6499,0308,7015,4901,8015,011101,985
New Jersey 33,90015,85916,30119,95612,62932,62214,82717,01819,53311,6004,40212,422211,149
Pennsylvania (eastern district)52,76724,43829,39333,86420,82451,17623,42729,87930,89219,32911,253557327,979
Pennsylvania (western district)50,45921,62324,86925,46917,76148,44820,36224,09522,95414,0663,3111,149274,566
Delaware 8,2504,4375,1215,0122,2137,6284,2775,5434,9812,3908,2686,15364,273
Maryland (including Washington County in the District of Columbia [a] , but excluding parts of Baltimore County)33,52016,58120,56022,16912,61732,46315,71821,50620,36311,24018,646102,465317,348
Maryland (additional return for Baltimore County)567226318343249517222375318199418474,276
Virginia (eastern district)57,83725,99832,44434,58819,08754,59725,46934,80732,64118,82113,194322,199676,682
Virginia (western district)34,60114,50216,26415,67411,13432,72613,36615,9233,63215,1691,93023,597203,518
Virginia (Alexandria and part of Fairfax County in the District of Columbia [a] )8893204835572216703134794731893831,1725,949
North Carolina 63,11827,07331,56031,20918,68859,07425,87432,98930,66517,5147,043133,296478,103
South Carolina 37,41116,15617,76119,34410,24434,66415,85718,14517,2369,4373,185146,151345,591
Georgia 19,8418,4699,78710,9144,95718,4077,9149,2438,8353,8941,91959,699162,686
Kentucky 37,27414,04515,70517,6999,23834,94913,43315,52414,9347,07574140,343220,959
Northwest Territory 9,3623,6474,6364,8331,9558,6443,3533,8613,3421,395337045,365
Indiana Territory 8543474666452627912804243931151631355,641 [b]
Mississippi Territory 9993564827802909533763524621651823,4898,850
DistrictFree white males under age 10Free white males age 10–16Free white males age 16–26Free white males age 26–45Free white males over age 45Free white females under age 10Free white females age 10–16Free white females age 16–26Free white females age 26–45Free white females over age 45All other free personsSlavesTotal
Uncorrected Total741,367334,849383,423422,795257,526705,024315,354391,848392,167250,296102,685875,6265,172,312
Tennessee [c] 19,2277,1948,2828,3524,12518,4507,0428,5546,9923,49130913,584105,602
Maryland corrected [d] 36,75117,74321,92923,55313,71234,70316,78722,91521,72512,18019,987107,707349,692
Corrected Total763,288359,792392,765432,979262,497725,197323,243401,436400,203254,524104,294893,6055,305,982

^  a: At the time of the 1800 census, the territory donated to form the District of Columbia was still being administered by the states of Maryland and Virginia. The state of Maryland included the population of the District under its control within its own return. The population of the District of Columbia within Maryland was 8,144 persons, including 5,672 whites, 400 free blacks, and 2,472 enslaved persons. [3]

^  b: Persons 766 added to the particular items of this return.

^  c: This return has been received since the communication of the above Aggregate to Congress.

^  d: This return has also been since received, and is stated by the Marshal to be more correct than the first. [4]

City populations

RankCityStatePopulation [5] [6] Region (2016) [7]
01 New York New York 60,515 Northeast
02 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 41,220 Northeast
03 Baltimore Maryland 26,514 South
04 Boston Massachusetts 24,937 Northeast
05 Charleston South Carolina 18,824 South
06 Northern Liberties Pennsylvania 10,718 Northeast
07 Southwark Pennsylvania 9,621 Northeast
08 Salem Massachusetts 9,457 Northeast
09 Providence Rhode Island 7,614 Northeast
10 Norfolk Virginia 6,926 South
11 Newport Rhode Island 6,739 Northeast
12 Newburyport Massachusetts 5,946 Northeast
13 Richmond Virginia 5,737 South
14 Nantucket Massachusetts 5,617 Northeast
15 Portsmouth New Hampshire 5,339 Northeast
16 Gloucester Massachusetts 5,313 Northeast
17 Albany New York 5,289 Northeast
17 Schenectady New York 5,289 Northeast
19 Marblehead Massachusetts 5,211 Northeast
20 New London Connecticut 5,150 Northeast
21 Norwalk Connecticut 5,146 Northeast
21 Savannah Georgia 5,146 South
23 Alexandria District of Columbia 4,971 South
24 Middleborough Massachusetts 4,458 Northeast
25 New Bedford Massachusetts 4,361 Northeast
26 Groton Connecticut 4,302 Northeast
27 Lancaster Pennsylvania 4,292 Northeast
28 New Haven Connecticut 4,049 Northeast
29 Beverly Massachusetts 3,881 Northeast
30 Taunton Massachusetts 3,860 Northeast
31 Gilmanton New Hampshire 3,752 Northeast
32 Portland Massachusetts [8] 3,704 Northeast
33 Hudson New York 3,664 Northeast
34 Plymouth Massachusetts 3,524 Northeast
35 Hartford Connecticut 3,523 Northeast
36 Petersburg Virginia 3,521 South
37 Norwich Connecticut 3,476 Northeast
38 South Kingstown Rhode Island 3,438 Northeast
39 Evesham New Jersey 3,381 Northeast
40 Washington District of Columbia 3,210 South
41 Danbury Connecticut 3,180 Northeast
42 Colchester Connecticut 3,163 Northeast
43 Smithfield Rhode Island 3,120 Northeast
44 Greenwich Connecticut 3,047 Northeast
45 Georgetown District of Columbia 2,993 South
46 Andover Massachusetts 2,941 Northeast
47 Lynn Massachusetts 2,837 Northeast
48 Farmington Connecticut 2,809 Northeast
49 North Kingstown Rhode Island 2,794 Northeast
50 Haverhill Massachusetts 2,730 Northeast
51 Bristol Connecticut 2,722 Northeast
52 Berlin Connecticut 2,702 Northeast
53 Londonderry New Hampshire 2,650 Northeast
54 Rochester New Hampshire 2,646 Northeast
55 York Pennsylvania 2,503 Northeast

Related Research Articles

County (United States) Subdivision used by most states in the United States of America

In the United States a county is an administrative or political subdivision of a state that consists of a geographic region with specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs, respectively.

Race and ethnicity in the United States census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are the self-identified categories of race or races and ethnicity chosen by residents, with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether they are of Hispanic or Latino origin.

Northeastern United States One of the four census regions of the United States of America

The Northeastern United States is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States. The Northeast is one of the four regions defined by the United States Census Bureau for the collection and analysis of statistics.

United States census Decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution

The United States census is a census that is legally mandated by the US Constitution, and takes place every 10 years. The first census after the American Revolution was taken in 1790, under Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson; there have been 23 federal censuses since that time.

Slave states and free states Division of United States states in which slavery was either legal or illegal

In the United States before 1865, a slave state was a state in which slavery and the slave trade were legal, while a free state was one in which they were not. Between 1812 and 1850, it was considered by the slave states to be politically imperative that the number of free states not exceed the number of slave states, so new states were admitted in slave–free pairs. There were, nonetheless, some slaves in most free states up to the 1840 census, and the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 specifically stated that a slave did not become free by entering a free state.

Eastern United States Geographic region of the United States

The eastern United States, commonly referred to as the American East, Eastern America, or simply the East, is the region of the United States lying to the east of the Mississippi River. In some cases the term may refer to a smaller area.

South Atlantic states

The South Atlantic United States form one of the nine Census Bureau Divisions within the United States that are recognized by the United States Census Bureau. This region, U.S. Census Bureau Region 3, Division 5, corresponds to the South with the addition of Florida.

Tri-state area is an informal term in the eastern contiguous United States for any of several populated areas associated with a particular town or metropolis, that with adjacent suburbs, lies across three states. Some of these involve a state boundary tripoint. Other tri-state areas have a more diffuse population that shares a connected economy and geography—especially with respect to geology, botany, or climate. The term "tri-state area" is often present in radio and television commercials.

1850 United States census Seventh U.S. national census seeing 35.9% increase since 1840

The United States census of 1850 was the seventh census of the United States. Conducted by the Census Office, it determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876—an increase of 35.9 percent over the 17,069,453 persons enumerated during the 1840 census. The total population included 3,204,313 slaves.

1790 United States census First United States census

The United States census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214.

1810 United States census

The United States census of 1810 was the third census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 6, 1810. It showed that 7,239,881 people were living in the United States, of whom 1,191,362 were slaves.

1820 United States census

The United States census of 1820 was the fourth census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 7, 1820. The 1820 census included six new states: Louisiana, Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama and Maine. There has been a district wide loss of 1820 census records for Arkansas Territory, Missouri Territory and New Jersey.

1830 United States census

The United States census of 1830, the fifth census undertaken in the United States, was conducted on June 1, 1830. The only loss of census records for 1830 involved some countywide losses in Massachusetts, Maryland, and Mississippi.

The following is a set–index article, providing a list of lists, for the cities, towns and villages within the jurisdictional United States. It is divided, alphabetically, according to the state, territory, or district name in which they are located.

The District of Columbia is a federal district with an ethnically diverse population. In 2018, the District had a population of 702,455 people, with a resident density of 11,515 people per square mile.

Slavery in the District of Columbia

The slave trade in the District of Columbia was legal from its creation until 1850, when the trade in enslaved people in the District was outlawed as part of the Compromise of 1850. That restrictions on slavery in the District were probably coming led to the retrocession of the Virginia part of the District back to Virginia in 1847. Thus the slave-trading businesses in Alexandria, such as Franklin & Armfield, could remain safely in Virginia, where slavery was more secure.


  1. "1800 Census Questions". Archived from the original on April 27, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  2. Dollarhide, William (2001). The Census Book: A Genealogists Guide to Federal Census Facts, Schedules and Indexes. North Salt Lake, Utah: HeritageQuest. p. 8.
  3. "District of Columbia – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1800 to 1990" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. September 13, 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 4, 2011. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  4. "Enumeration of Persons in the several districts of The United States" (PDF). 1800. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
  5. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  6. "Population of Connecticut Towns 1756-1820". Connecticut Secretary of the State. State of Connecticut. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  7. "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  8. In present day Maine.