2000 United States census

Last updated

Twenty-second census of the United States

  1990 April 1, 2000 2010  

Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
U.S. Census Bureau seal
2000 U.S. census logo
General information
CountryUnited States
Total population281,421,906 (Increase2.svg 13.2%)
Most populous state California (33,871,648)
Least populous state Wyoming (493,782)

The 2000 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2 percent over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 census. [1] This was the twenty-second federal census and was at the time the largest civilly administered peacetime effort in the United States. [2]


Approximately 16 percent of households received a "long form" of the 2000 census, which contained over 100 questions. Full documentation on the 2000 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

This was the first census in which a state California recorded a population of over 30 million, as well as the first in which two statesCalifornia and Texas recorded populations of more than 20 million.

Data availability

Microdata from the 2000 census is freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Personally identifiable information will be available in 2072. [3]

State rankings

A map showing the population change of each US State by percentage. Population Change by Percentage - 2000 US Census.png
A map showing the population change of each US State by percentage.
RankStatePopulation as of
2000 census [4]
Population as of
1990 census [4]
1Flag of California.svg  California 33,871,64829,760,021Increase2.svg 4,111,627Increase2.svg 13.8%
2Flag of Texas.svg  Texas 20,851,82016,986,510Increase2.svg 3,865,510Increase2.svg 22.8%
3Flag of New York.svg  New York 18,976,45717,990,455Increase2.svg 986,002Increase2.svg 5.5%
4Flag of Florida.svg  Florida 15,982,37812,937,926Increase2.svg 3,044,452Increase2.svg 23.5%
5Flag of Illinois.svg  Illinois 12,419,29311,430,602Increase2.svg 988,691Increase2.svg 8.6%
6Flag of Pennsylvania.svg  Pennsylvania 12,281,05411,881,643Increase2.svg 399,411Increase2.svg 3.4%
7Flag of Ohio.svg  Ohio 11,353,14010,847,115Increase2.svg 506,025Increase2.svg 4.7%
8Flag of Michigan.svg  Michigan 9,938,4449,295,297Increase2.svg 643,147Increase2.svg 6.9%
9Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 8,414,3507,730,188Increase2.svg 684,162Increase2.svg 8.9%
10Flag of the State of Georgia (1956-2001).svg  Georgia 8,186,4536,478,216Increase2.svg 1,708,237Increase2.svg 26.4%
11Flag of North Carolina.svg  North Carolina 8,049,3136,628,637Increase2.svg 1,420,676Increase2.svg 21.4%
12Flag of Virginia.svg  Virginia 7,078,5156,187,358Increase2.svg 891,157Increase2.svg 14.4%
13Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 6,349,0976,016,425Increase2.svg 332,672Increase2.svg 5.5%
14Flag of Indiana.svg  Indiana 6,080,4855,544,159Increase2.svg 536,326Increase2.svg 9.7%
15Flag of Washington.svg  Washington 5,894,1214,866,692Increase2.svg 1,027,429Increase2.svg 21.1%
16Flag of Tennessee.svg  Tennessee 5,689,2834,877,185Increase2.svg 812,098Increase2.svg 16.7%
17Flag of Missouri.svg  Missouri 5,595,2115,117,073Increase2.svg 478,138Increase2.svg 9.3%
18Flag of Wisconsin.svg  Wisconsin 5,363,6754,891,769Increase2.svg 471,906Increase2.svg 9.6%
19Flag of Maryland.svg  Maryland 5,296,4864,781,468Increase2.svg 515,018Increase2.svg 10.8%
20Flag of Arizona.svg  Arizona 5,130,6323,665,228Increase2.svg 1,465,404Increase2.svg 40.0%
21Flag of Minnesota.svg  Minnesota 4,919,4794,375,099Increase2.svg 544,380Increase2.svg 12.4%
22Flag of Louisiana (1912-2006).svg  Louisiana 4,468,9764,219,973Increase2.svg 249,003Increase2.svg 5.9%
23Flag of Alabama.svg  Alabama 4,447,1004,040,587Increase2.svg 406,513Increase2.svg 10.1%
24Flag of Colorado.svg  Colorado 4,301,2613,294,394Increase2.svg 1,006,867Increase2.svg 30.6%
25Flag of Kentucky.svg  Kentucky 4,041,7693,685,296Increase2.svg 356,473Increase2.svg 9.7%
26Flag of South Carolina.svg  South Carolina 4,012,0123,486,703Increase2.svg 525,309Increase2.svg 15.1%
27Flag of Oklahoma (1988-2006).svg  Oklahoma 3,450,6543,145,585Increase2.svg 305,069Increase2.svg 9.7%
28Flag of Oregon.svg  Oregon 3,421,3992,842,321Increase2.svg 579,078Increase2.svg 20.4%
29Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut 3,405,5653,287,116Increase2.svg 118,449Increase2.svg 3.6%
30Flag of Iowa.svg  Iowa 2,926,3242,776,755Increase2.svg 149,569Increase2.svg 5.4%
31Flag of Mississippi (1996-2001).png  Mississippi 2,844,6582,573,216Increase2.svg 271,442Increase2.svg 10.5%
32Flag of Kansas.svg  Kansas 2,688,4182,477,574Increase2.svg 210,844Increase2.svg 8.5%
33Flag of Arkansas.svg  Arkansas 2,673,4002,350,725Increase2.svg 322,675Increase2.svg 13.7%
34Flag of Utah (1913-1922).png  Utah 2,233,1691,722,850Increase2.svg 510,319Increase2.svg 29.6%
35Flag of Nevada.svg  Nevada 1,998,2571,201,833Increase2.svg 796,424Increase2.svg 66.3%
36Flag of New Mexico.svg  New Mexico 1,819,0461,515,069Increase2.svg 303,977Increase2.svg 20.1%
37Flag of West Virginia.svg  West Virginia 1,808,3441,793,477Increase2.svg 14,867Increase2.svg 0.8%
38Flag of Nebraska.svg  Nebraska 1,711,2631,578,385Increase2.svg 132,878Increase2.svg 8.4%
39Flag of Idaho.svg  Idaho 1,293,9531,006,749Increase2.svg 287,204Increase2.svg 28.5%
40Flag of Maine.svg  Maine 1,274,9231,227,928Increase2.svg 46,995Increase2.svg 3.8%
41Flag of New Hampshire.svg  New Hampshire 1,235,7861,109,252Increase2.svg 126,534Increase2.svg 11.4%
42Flag of Hawaii.svg  Hawaii 1,211,5371,108,229Increase2.svg 103,308Increase2.svg 9.3%
43Flag of Rhode Island.svg  Rhode Island 1,048,3191,003,464Increase2.svg 44,855Increase2.svg 4.5%
44Flag of Montana.svg  Montana 902,195799,065Increase2.svg 103,130Increase2.svg 12.9%
45Flag of Delaware.svg  Delaware 783,600666,168Increase2.svg 117,432Increase2.svg 17.6%
46Flag of South Dakota.svg  South Dakota 754,844696,004Increase2.svg 58,840Increase2.svg 8.5%
47Flag of North Dakota.svg  North Dakota 642,200638,800Increase2.svg 3,400Increase2.svg 0.5%
48Flag of Alaska.svg  Alaska 626,932550,043Increase2.svg 76,889Increase2.svg 14.0%
49Flag of Vermont.svg  Vermont 608,827562,758Increase2.svg 46,069Increase2.svg 8.2%
Flag of Washington, D.C. (1938).svg  District of Columbia 572,059606,900Decrease2.svg -34,841Decrease2.svg -5.7%
50Flag of Wyoming.svg  Wyoming 493,782453,588Increase2.svg 40,194Increase2.svg 8.9%
 Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg  United States 281,421,906248,709,87332,712,03313.2%

City rankings

Top 100

RankCityStatePopulation [5] Region
1New YorkNY8,008,278 Northeast
2Los AngelesCA3,694,820 West
3ChicagoIL2,896,016 Midwest
4HoustonTX1,953,631 South
5PhiladelphiaPA1,517,550 Northeast
6PhoenixAZ1,321,045 West
7San DiegoCA1,223,400 West
8DallasTX1,188,580 South
9San AntonioTX1,144,646 South
10DetroitMI951,270 Midwest
11San JoseCA894,943 West
12IndianapolisIN791,926 Midwest
13San FranciscoCA776,733 West
14JacksonvilleFL735,617 South
15ColumbusOH711,470 Midwest
16AustinTX656,562 South
17BaltimoreMD651,154 South
18MemphisTN650,100 South
19MilwaukeeWI596,974 Midwest
20BostonMA589,141 Northeast
21WashingtonDC572,059 South
22Nashville-DavidsonTN569,891 South
23El PasoTX563,662 South
24SeattleWA563,374 West
25DenverCO554,636 West
26CharlotteNC540,828 South
27Fort WorthTX534,694 South
28PortlandOR529,121 West
29Oklahoma CityOK506,132 South
30TucsonAZ486,699 West
31New OrleansLA484,674 South
32Las VegasNV478,434 West
33ClevelandOH478,403 Midwest
34Long BeachCA461,522 West
35AlbuquerqueNM448,607 West
36Kansas CityMO441,545 Midwest
37FresnoCA427,652 West
38Virginia BeachVA425,257 South
39San JuanPR421,958
40AtlantaGA416,474 South
41SacramentoCA407,018 West
42OaklandCA399,484 West
43MesaAZ396,375 West
44TulsaOK393,049 South
45OmahaNE390,007 Midwest
46MinneapolisMN382,618 Midwest
47HonoluluHI371,657 West
48MiamiFL362,470 South
49Colorado SpringsCO360,890 West
50St. LouisMO348,189 Midwest
51WichitaKS344,284 Midwest
52Santa AnaCA337,977 West
53PittsburghPA334,563 Northeast
54ArlingtonTX332,969 South
55CincinnatiOH331,285 Midwest
56AnaheimCA328,014 West
57ToledoOH313,619 Midwest
58TampaFL303,447 South
59BuffaloNY292,648 Northeast
60St. PaulMN287,151 Midwest
61Corpus ChristiTX277,454 South
62AuroraCO276,393 West
63RaleighNC276,093 South
64NewarkNJ273,546 Northeast
65Lexington-FayetteKY260,512 South
66AnchorageAK260,283 West
67LouisvilleKY256,231 South
68RiversideCA255,166 West
69St. PetersburgFL248,232 South
70BakersfieldCA247,057 West
71StocktonCA243,771 West
72BirminghamAL242,820 South
73Jersey CityNJ240,055 Northeast
74NorfolkVA234,403 South
75Baton RougeLA227,818 South
76HialeahFL226,419 South
77LincolnNE225,581 Midwest
78GreensboroNC223,891 South
79PlanoTX222,030 South
80RochesterNY219,773 Northeast
81GlendaleAZ218,812 West
82AkronOH217,074 Midwest
83GarlandTX215,768 South
84MadisonWI208,054 Midwest
85Fort WayneIN205,727 Midwest
87FremontCA203,413 West
88ScottsdaleAZ202,705 West
89MontgomeryAL201,568 South
90ShreveportLA200,145 South
91Augusta-Richmond CountyGA199,775 South
92LubbockTX199,564 South
93ChesapeakeVA199,184 South
94MobileAL198,915 South
95Des MoinesIA198,682 Midwest
96Grand RapidsMI197,800 Midwest
97RichmondVA197,790 South
98YonkersNY196,086 Northeast
99SpokaneWA195,629 West
100GlendaleCA194,973 West

Population profile

The U.S. resident population includes the total number of people in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The Bureau also enumerated the residents of the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico; its population was 3,808,610, an 8.1% increase over the number from a decade earlier.

In an introduction to a more detailed population profile (see references below), the Census Bureau highlighted the following facts about U.S. population dynamics:

Changes in population

Regionally, the South and West experienced the bulk of the nation's population increase: 14,790,890 and 10,411,850, respectively. This meant that the mean center of U.S. population moved to Phelps County, Missouri. The Northeastern United States grew by 2,785,149; the Midwest by 4,724,144.



(maps not to scale)


2000 census reapportionment.svg

The results of the census are used to determine how many congressional districts each state is apportioned. Congress defines the formula, in accordance with Title 2 of the U.S. Code, to reapportion among the states the 435 seats in the United States House of Representatives. The apportionment population consists of the resident population of the fifty states, plus the overseas military and federal civilian employees and their dependents living with them who could be allocated to a state. Each member of the House represents a population of about 647,000. The populations of the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico are excluded from the apportionment population because they do not have voting seats in the U. S. House of Representatives.

Since the first census in 1790, the decennial count has been the basis for the United States representative form of government. Article I, Section II specifies that "The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative." In 1790, each member of the House represented about 34,000 residents. Since then, the House more than quadrupled in size, and in 1911 the number of representatives was fixed at 435. Today, each member represents about 20 times as many constituents.

Adjustment controversy

In the years leading up to the 2000 census, there was substantial controversy over whether the Bureau should adjust census figures based on a follow-up survey, called the post-enumeration survey, of a sample of blocks. (In 1999, the Supreme Court ruled 5–4 that the Constitution prohibits the use of such figures for apportionment purposes, but it may be permissible for other purposes where feasible.) The controversy was partly technical, but also partly political, since based on data from the 1990 census both parties believed that adjustment would likely have the effect, after redistricting, of slightly increasing Democratic representation in legislative bodies, but would also give Utah an additional, probably Republican, representative to Congress. [8] [9]

Following the census, discrepancies between the adjusted census figures and demographic estimates of population change could not be resolved in time to meet legal deadlines for the provision of redistricting data, and the Census Bureau therefore recommended that the unadjusted results be used for this purpose. [10] This recommendation was followed by the Secretary of Commerce (the official in charge of making the determination).

Utah controversy

After the census was tabulated, Utah challenged the results in two different ways. Utah was extremely close to gaining a fourth congressional seat, falling 857 people short, which in turn was allocated to North Carolina. The margin was later shortened to 80 people, after the federal government discovered that it overcounted the population of North Carolina by 2,673 residents. [11] The Census Bureau counted members of the military and other federal civilian employees serving abroad as residents of their home state but did not count other people living outside the United States. Utah claimed that people traveling abroad as religious missionaries should be counted as residents and that the failure to do so imposed a burden on Mormon religious practice. Almost half of all Mormon missionaries, more than 11,000 people, were from Utah; only 102 came from North Carolina. If this policy were changed, then Utah would have received an additional seat instead of North Carolina. On November 26, 2002, the Supreme Court affirmed the lower court ruling that rejected Utah's efforts to have Mormon missionaries counted. [12]

The state of Utah then filed another lawsuit alleging that the statistical methods used in computing the state populations were improper and cost Utah the seat. The Bureau uses a method called imputation to assign a number of residents to addresses where residents cannot be reached after multiple efforts. While nationwide the imputation method added 0.4% to the population, the rate in Utah was 0.2%. The state challenged that the use of imputation violates the Census Act of 1957 and that it also fails the Constitution's requirement in Article I, Section 2 that an "actual enumeration" be used for apportionment. [13] This case, Utah v. Evans , made it to the Supreme Court, but Utah was again defeated. [14]

Gay and lesbian controversy

Census 2000 Long Form Questionnaire showing the Person 2 section including questions 2 and 3 which allow data to be compiled regarding same-sex partners Census2000Person2.png
Census 2000 Long Form Questionnaire showing the Person 2 section including questions 2 and 3 which allow data to be compiled regarding same-sex partners

The census forms did not include any questions regarding sexual orientation, making it impossible to compile data comparing heterosexual and homosexual populations. However, two questions were asked that allowed same-sex partnerships to be counted. The questionnaires asked the sex of each person in a household and they asked what the relationship was between each of the members of the household. Respondents could check "Husband/wife" or "unmarried partner" or a number of other relationships. [15] [16] Responses were tabulated and the Census Bureau reported that there were more than 658,000 same-sex couples heading households in the United States. However, only about 25% of gay men and 40% of lesbians are in shared-household partnerships at any one time, according to non-census surveys. [17] For every same-sex couple tallied in the census, there could be three to six more homosexual un-partnered individuals who would not be counted as gay. The census reported that same-sex male couples numbered 336,001 and female same-sex couples numbered 329,522. [18] Extrapolating from those figures and the surveyed partnering habits of homosexuals, as many as 4.3 million homosexual adults could have been living in the U.S. in 2000. The exact number cannot be known because the census did not count them specifically. Bisexual and transgender populations were not counted, either, because there were no questions regarding this information. Also unavailable is the number of additional same-sex couples living under the same roof as the first, though this applies to additional heterosexual couples as well. The lack of accurate numbers makes it difficult for lawmakers who are considering legislation on hate crimes or social services for gay families with children. [19] It also makes for less accuracy when predicting the fertility of a population. [20]

Another issue that concerned gay rights advocates involved the automatic changing of data during the tabulation process. This automatic software data compiling method, called allocation, was designed to counteract mistakes and discrepancies in returned questionnaires. Forms that were filled out by two same-sex persons who checked the "Husband/wife" relationship box were treated as a discrepancy. The Census Bureau explained that same-sex "Husband/wife" data samples were changed to "unmarried partner" by computer processing methods in 99% of the cases. In the remaining 1%, computer systems used one of two possibilities: a) one of the two listed sexes was changed, making the partnership appear heterosexual, or b) if the two partners were more than 15 years apart in age, they might have been reassigned into a familial parent/child relationship. [21] The process of automatic reassignment of same-sex marriage data was initiated so that the Census Bureau would not contravene the Defense of Marriage Act passed in 1996. The Act states:

In determining the meaning of any Act of Congress, or of any ruling, regulation or interpretation of the various administrative bureaus and agencies of the United States, the word 'marriage' means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word 'spouse' refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or wife. [21]

With allocation moving married same-sex couples to the unmarried partner category, social scientists lost information that could have been extracted relating to the social stability of a same-gender couple who identify themselves as married. [20]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Demographics of the United States</span>

The United States had an official estimated resident population of 333,287,557 on July 1, 2022, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This figure includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia but excludes the population of five unincorporated U.S. territories as well as several minor island possessions. The United States is the third most populous country in the world. The Census Bureau showed a population increase of 0.4% for the twelve-month period ending in July 2022, below the world average annual rate of 0.9%. The total fertility rate in the United States estimated for 2022 is 1.665 children per woman, which is below the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1.

Race and ethnicity in the United States census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are the self-identified categories of race or races and ethnicity chosen by residents, with which they most closely identify. Residents can indicate their origins alongside their race, and are asked specifically whether they are of Hispanic or Latino origin in a separate question.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United States census</span> Decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution

The United States census is a census that is legally mandated by the Constitution of the United States. It takes place every ten years. The first census after the American Revolution was taken in 1790 under Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. There have been 23 federal censuses since that time. The census includes Territories of the United States. The United States Census Bureau is responsible for conducting the census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">American Community Survey</span> Demographic survey in the United States

The American Community Survey (ACS) is an annual demographics survey program conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the decennial census, including ancestry, citizenship, educational attainment, income, language proficiency, migration, disability, employment, and housing characteristics. These data are used by many public-sector, private-sector, and not-for-profit stakeholders to allocate funding, track shifting demographics, plan for emergencies, and learn about local communities. Sent to approximately 295,000 addresses monthly, it is the largest household survey that the Census Bureau administers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2010 United States census</span> 23rd United States national census

The 2010 United States Census was the 23rd United States census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010. The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 United States Census. This was the 1st census in which all states recorded a population of over 500,000 people as well as the 1st in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1800 United States census</span> Second United States census conducted in the year 1800

The 1800 United States census was the second census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 4, 1800. It showed that 5,308,483 people were living in the United States, of whom 893,602 were enslaved. The 1800 census included the new District of Columbia. The census for the following states were lost: Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Virginia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1860 United States census</span> The eighth U.S. national census saw an increase of 35.4% since the 1850 census.

The 1860 United States census was the eighth census conducted in the United States starting June 1, 1860, and lasting five months. It determined the population of the United States to be 31,443,322 in 33 states and 10 organized territories. This was an increase of 35.4 percent over the 23,069,876 persons enumerated during the 1850 census. The total population included 3,953,762 slaves.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1880 United States census</span> 10th U.S. national census

The 1880 United States census conducted by the Census Office during June 1880 was the tenth United States census. It was the first time that women were permitted to be enumerators. The Superintendent of the Census was Francis Amasa Walker. This was the first census in which a city—New York City—recorded a population of over one million.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1870 United States census</span> Ninth U.S. national census; first to provide detailed demographic info on African Americans

The 1870 United States census was the ninth United States census. It was conducted by the Census Office from June 1, 1870, to August 23, 1871. The 1870 census was the first census to provide detailed information on the African American population, only five years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. The total population was 38,925,598 with a resident population of 38,558,371 individuals, a 22.6% increase from 1860.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1900 United States census</span> 12th U.S. National Census

The 1900 United States census, conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1900, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21.01% from the 62,979,766 persons enumerated during the 1890 census. It was the last census to be conducted before the founding of the permanent United States Census Bureau.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1910 United States census</span> National census

The 1910 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 census. The 1910 census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1920 United States census</span> National census

The 1920 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau during one month from January 5, 1920, determined the resident population of the United States to be 106,021,537, an increase of 15.0 percent over the 92,228,496 persons enumerated during the 1910 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1940 United States census</span> National census

The 1940 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.6 percent over the 1930 population of 122,775,046 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1960 United States census</span> 18th United States national census

The 1960 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 179,323,175, an increase of 19 percent over the 151,325,798 persons enumerated during the 1950 census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over 200,000. This census's data determined the electoral votes for the 1964 and 1968 presidential elections. This was also the last census in which New York was the most populous state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1970 United States census</span> 19th United States national census

The 1970 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 203,392,031, an increase of 13.4 percent over the 179,323,175 persons enumerated during the 1960 census.

Domestic partnerships were established in the state of Maine by statute in April 2004, taking effect on July 30, 2004. This placed Maine in the category of U.S. states that offered limited recognition of same-sex relationships, but not all of the legal protections of marriage, as Maine does not recognize common law marriages.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">LGBT demographics of the United States</span> Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population

The demographics of sexual orientation and gender identity in the United States have been studied in the social sciences in recent decades. A 2022 Gallup poll concluded that 7.1% of adult Americans identified as LGBT. A different survey in 2016, from the Williams Institute, estimated that 0.6% of U.S. adults identify as transgender. As of 2022, estimates for the total percentage of U.S. adults that are transgender or nonbinary range from 0.5% to 1.6%. Additionally, a Pew Research survey from 2022 found that approximately 5% of young adults in the U.S. say their gender is different from their sex assigned at birth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Demographics of San Francisco</span>

The 2020 United States Census reported that San Francisco had a population of 815,201—an increase from the 2010 Census count of 805,235. With a population density of 18,633 per square mile (7,194/km2), San Francisco is the second-most densely populated major American city, behind only New York.


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  12. Greenhouse, Linda. "Justices Deal Utah a Setback In Its Bid to Gain a House Seat" Archived July 27, 2018, at the Wayback Machine , The New York Times , November 27, 2001. Accessed July 16, 2008.
  13. Greenhouse, Linda. "Supreme Court Roundup; Justices to Hear Utah's Challenge to Procedure in 2000 Census" Archived July 27, 2018, at the Wayback Machine , The New York Times , January 23, 2002. Accessed July 16, 2008.
  14. Greenhouse, Linda. "The Supreme Court: Right to Privacy; Supreme Court Finds Law On Educational Privacy Isn't Meant for Individuals" Archived July 27, 2018, at the Wayback Machine , The New York Times , June 21, 2002. Accessed July 16, 2008.
  15. "Census 2000 Long Form Questionnaire" (PDF). Archived from the original on October 15, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  16. "Census 2000 Short Form Questionnaire" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  17. "Gay and Lesbian Demographics". Urban.org. Archived from the original on April 28, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  18. "US Census unmarried couple data listed by state". Gaydemographics.org. Archived from the original on August 18, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  19. Ly, Phuong (March 12, 2000). "The Washington Post, March 12, 2000. Be Counted In Census, Groups Urge Gay Live-Ins". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  20. 1 2 "Unbinding the Ties: Edit Effects of Marital Status on Same Gender Couples". Census.gov. January 7, 2009. Archived from the original on September 17, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  21. 1 2 "Technical Note on Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Data From the 1990 and 2000 Censuses". Census.gov. January 7, 2009. Archived from the original on April 11, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011.


Further reading

United States Census Bureau

Other 2000 census websites