Phelps County, Missouri

Last updated
Phelps County
Phelps County new courthouse 20150715-8302.jpg
New Phelps County courthouse in Rolla
Map of Missouri highlighting Phelps County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of Missouri
Missouri in United States.svg
Missouri's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 37°53′N91°47′W / 37.88°N 91.79°W / 37.88; -91.79
CountryFlag of the United States.svg United States
StateFlag of Missouri.svg  Missouri
FoundedNovember 13, 1857
Named for John S. Phelps
Seat Rolla
Largest cityRolla
Area
  Total674 sq mi (1,750 km2)
  Land672 sq mi (1,740 km2)
  Water2.5 sq mi (6 km2)  0.4%
Population
 (2010)
  Total45,156
  Estimate 
(2018)
44,732
  Density67/sq mi (26/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district 8th
Website www.phelpscounty.org
Old county courthouse listed on the National Register of Historic Places Old Phelps County Courthouse.JPG
Old county courthouse listed on the National Register of Historic Places

Phelps County is a county located in the central portion of the U.S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,156. [1] The largest city and county seat is Rolla. [2] The county was officially organized on November 13, 1857, and was named after U.S. Representative and Governor of Missouri John Smith Phelps.

Contents

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, it included the mean center of U.S. population in 2000. [3]

Phelps County comprises the Rolla, Missouri Micropolitan Statistical Area. Much of the county is included within the Ozark Highlands American Viticultural Area (AVA). Vineyards and wineries were first established in the county by Italian immigrants in Rolla. Since the 1960s, winemakers have revived and created numerous vineyards in Missouri and won national and international tasting awards.

The first Phelps County Court convened on November 25, 1857 in the John Dillon cabin. The historic courthouse was begun in mid-summer of 1860, used as a Union hospital during the American Civil War and served as the courthouse until February 1994, at which time all county offices were relocated in the new Phelps County Courthouse. The new courthouse was dedicated on May 22, 1994.

History

The first settlers came to this area in 1818 building along the riverbanks, doing a little farming. In 1844 John Webber built the first house within the present city limits of Rolla.

One year later, Lieutenant James Abert started the first railroad reconnaissance survey in Rolla. Abert was later to become the first professor of Civil Engineering at the Missouri School of Mines. The founder of Rolla, Edmund Ward Bishop, was originally a railroad construction contractor in New York. He came to this part of the country in 1853 with the job of building the “Frisco Branch of the Southwest Railroad.”

Because of an urgent demand, Phelps County was created by legislative action on November 13, 1857 from portions of Pulaski, Maries and Crawford counties. A special commission was appointed to select the site for a county seat, with instructions to locate the site on the mail line of the railroad as near the center of the county as possible. Bishop then offered a tract of some 50 acres (200,000 m2) for the official town site, and it was accepted. There was disagreement over the site - the "westerners" wanted Rolla, and the "easterners" wanted Dillon, so the General Assembly did not legally declare Rolla to be the official county seat until 1861. The group favoring Dillon, approximately 600 of them, signed a petition of protest citing the fact that only two of the three commission members had met to consider the possible sites for the county seat. They contested the decision all the way through the Missouri Supreme Court. Before the high court could make a decision, however, the Legislature took action on January 14, 1860, confirming the location of the county seat at Rolla. Smarting under a considerable amount of criticism concerning the matter, all members of the county court resigned during April 1858, but later withdrew their resignations. It was finally settled in favor of Rolla.

Rolla was officially surveyed, laid out and named in 1858. Bishop wanted to call it Phelps Center, since his house was the center of the county. John Webber preferred the name "Hardscrabble" for the obvious reasons. George Coppedge, another original settler, and formerly of North Carolina, favored "Raleigh" after his hometown. The others agreed with Coppedge on the condition that it shouldn't have "that silly spelling, but should be spelled 'Rolla.' The county seat locating commission designated the area now known as Rolla to be the county seat.

The town of Rolla did not exist as of November 13, 1857, when the county was created. Only the J. Stever office and John Webber's home were located in the area. Early court business included the location and opening of roads from the county seat to various places within the state, including St. Louis, Springfield, Jefferson City, Lake Spring, and Salem. It is in this last road order, dated in July 1858, that the use of the name Rolla first appears in the court records. The name was used earlier, in May 1858, in a deed of railroad land to the county.

On April 26, 1859, the county court ordered the 50 acres (200,000 m2) donated by Mr. Bishop for the site of the county seat to be surveyed. The survey was conducted by A.E. Buchanan, a young railroad surveyor. Buchanan delivered his plat to the county court on May 31, 1859.

Civil War

The railroad ran its first train on December 22, 1860, making Rolla the terminus of the road. Until the continuation of the Frisco, all goods were loaded on wagons and transported to Springfield and south and west on what is now U.S. Highway 66 (Interstate 44). During the American Civil War, Rolla was an important military post with as many as 20,000 Union troops here. The original Phelps County Court House was transformed into a hospital during the war.

In April 1861, Fort Sumter was fired upon and a decision was made to support the South. On May 10, the Circuit Court session saw a heated debate of secession, which caused a breakup of the proceedings. As the story goes, Circuit Court Judge James McBride soon departed to assume command as a Confederate general under Sterling Price. Outside the courthouse, a group of men drew down the United States flag and raised a Confederate flag, which had been hastily pieced together by the women of Rolla. The tension was thick when the group then moved to the newspaper office of Charles Walder, a Union supporter and editor of the Rolla Express. Walder was forced to close his shop and cease printing. Southern sympathizers patrolled the town day and night, often ordering Union sympathizers to leave town.

On June 14 of that year, General Franz Sigel arrived by train with his 3rd Missouri Infantry and took over the town. From that day until the close of the war, Rolla was in Union hands.

The 13th Illinois Infantry Regiment, under Colonel John B. Wyman, was brought in to guard Rolla and the Pacific Railroad's terminal. It was this regiment that did the basic planning and building of Fort Wyman, although other regiments undertook the task of finishing it. President Abraham Lincoln’s personal order was that Rolla should be held at all costs. Being situated at the terminus of the railroad, military wagon trains went out from Rolla to all Union armies stationed southwest in Arkansas, Hartville, and Springfield and northwest to the Linn Creek area, now known as Lake of the Ozarks.

After General Price's defeat at Pea Ridge in March 1862, several troops that were organized by Governor Jackson returned home. Confederate sympathizers, unwilling to profess their loyalty and support to the Union after the battle, were treated harshly. One example is the shooting of former Presiding Justice Lewis F. Wright and four of his sons in 1864, after being taken from their homes for "questioning."

Rolla was an important site during the Civil War because the southwest branch of the Pacific Railroad ended here. Thousands of Union troops and their supplies came to Rolla by train from St. Louis and then were transferred to wagon trails to go to the battles of Wilson Creek in Springfield and Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove in Arkansas, plus a number of other smaller skirmishes. The railroad had arrived in Rolla in 1860 but the outbreak of the war halted the westward expansion of the line.

The town of about 600 civilians had a large population of Union troops at that time. Since the Union forces seized control of the town early in the war, they had a big impact upon the town and its operation.

The town was a busy place for the visitor. In 1860 sugar sold for 10 cents a pound, tobacco for 30 cents a pound. Whiskey went for 25 cents a gallon. City lots sold for $25 per lot. The Courthouse was used as a hay storage barn and later as a hospital for wounded soldiers. After the commanding general of the Union Forces, General Nathaniel Lyon, was killed at the Wilson's Creek battle near Springfield, his body was brought to Rolla to be transported back East for burial. Old town Rolla was located along Main Street near the Courthouse. The business district moved to Pine Street in the late 19th century.

Following the Union defeat at Wilson's Creek on August 10, 1861, the Union Army fell back to Rolla and began building an earthen fort on the top of a hill alongside the present Highway 63 about a mile from the Courthouse. The rectangular fort had a dry moat around the perimeter with 32-pound field pieces located on each corner of the fort to cover any attack on Rolla from the south. It was named Fort Wyman after Colonel John B. Wyman. Fort Dette was a more detailed fort that was constructed in 1863 on what is now the campus of Missouri University of Science and Technology. It was constructed in a cross shape with positions for both 24-pound cannons and ports for individual rifle fire.

University

The Morrill Land-Grant College Act was approved by the U.S. Congress, and in 1863 the Missouri Legislature accepted this opportunity to set up a new type of higher education within the state. The act specified that the "leading object shall be without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and mechanics arts...in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits of professions of life."

The Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy was founded in 1870 because the area was rich in minerals and because the geographic location was good. Phelps County bid $130,545, including lands and bonds, and was awarded the prize. Today it is named Missouri University of Science and Technology or Missouri S&T and it is known as one of the finest engineering schools in the world. Not confined to mining and metallurgy, it confers bachelor's degrees in 23 fields of engineering and science, as well as graduate degrees in 28 fields of engineering and science.

Other towns

Other towns within the county included Newburg, incorporated in 1888, and St. James, incorporated in 1869. Arlington and Jerome were both incorporated in 1867, but neither is incorporated at this time. Doolittle, the last of Phelps County's towns to be formed, was incorporated on July 2, 1944. Other Phelps County communities include Edgar Springs which was incorporated during the 1970s.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 674 square miles (1,750 km2), of which 672 square miles (1,740 km2) is land and 2.5 square miles (6.5 km2) (0.4%) is water. [4]

Adjacent counties

Major highways

Other geographical features

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1860 5,714
1870 10,50683.9%
1880 12,56819.6%
1890 12,6360.5%
1900 14,19412.3%
1910 15,79611.3%
1920 14,941−5.4%
1930 15,3082.5%
1940 17,43713.9%
1950 21,50423.3%
1960 25,39618.1%
1970 29,48116.1%
1980 33,63314.1%
1990 35,2484.8%
2000 39,82513.0%
2010 45,15613.4%
2018 (est.)44,732 [6] −0.9%
U.S. Decennial Census [7]
1790-1960 [8] 1900-1990 [9]
1990-2000 [10] 2010-2015 [1]

As of the census [11] of 2000, there were 39,825 people, 15,683 households, and 10,240 families residing in the county. The population density was 59 people per square mile (23/km2). There were 17,501 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile (10/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 93.24% White, 1.50% Black or African American, 0.59% Native American, 2.35% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, and 1.79% from two or more races. Approximately 1.22% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 15,683 households, out of which 30.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.70% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.70% were non-families. 28.60% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.92.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 23.70% under the age of 18, 14.50% from 18 to 24, 26.10% from 25 to 44, 21.80% from 45 to 64, and 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 103.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $37,243, and the median income for a family was $49,343. Males had a median income of $29,428 versus $19,893 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,275. About 11.30% of families and 16.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.00% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over.

Religion

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report (2000), Phelps County is a part of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the majority religion. The most predominant denominations among residents in Phelps County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists (38.24%), Roman Catholics (11.43%), and Christian Churches & Churches of Christ (10.75%).

Politics

Local

Up until recently, both the Republican and Democratic parties equally controlled politics at the local level in Phelps County. Currently the Republican party holds the majority of the elected positions in the county.

Phelps County, Missouri
Elected countywide officials
Assessor Bill StoltzRepublican
Circuit Clerk Sue BrownRepublican
County Clerk Pam GrowRepublican
Collector Faith Ann BarnesRepublican
Commissioner
(Presiding)
Randy VerkampDemocratic
Commissioner
(District 1)
Larry J. StratmanRepublican
Commissioner
(District 2)
Gary HicksRepublican
Coroner Andy DavisRepublican
Prosecuting Attorney Brendon FoxRepublican
Public AdministratorKathleen S. OliverRepublican
Recorder Robin KordesRepublican
Sheriff Richard LisenbeDemocratic
Surveyor Louis GilbertRepublican
Treasurer Carol GreenRepublican

State

Phelps County is divided into four legislative districts in the Missouri House of Representatives, all of which are held by Republicans.

Missouri House of Representatives — District 62 — Phelps County (2016) [12]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Tom Hurst1,873100.00%
Missouri House of Representatives — District 62 — Phelps County (2014)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Tom Hurst1,093100.00%+41.33
Missouri House of Representatives — District 62 — Phelps County (2012)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Tom Hurst1,20558.67%
Democratic Greg Stratman84942.33%
Missouri House of Representatives — District 120 — Phelps County (2016) [12]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Jason Chipman5,254100.00%+28.77
Missouri House of Representatives — District 120 — Phelps County (2014)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Jason Chipman2,55371.23%+1.65
Democratic Zechariah Hockersmith1,03128.77%-1.65
Missouri House of Representatives — District 120 — Phelps County — Special Election (2013)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Shawn Sisco1,71369.58%-30.42
Democratic Zechariah Hockersmith74930.42%+30.42
Missouri House of Representatives — District 120 — Phelps County (2012)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Jason T. Smith4,860100.00%
Missouri House of Representatives — District 121 — Phelps County (2016) [12]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Keith Frederick7,690100.00%
Missouri House of Representatives — District 121 — Phelps County (2014)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Keith Frederick4,075100.00%
Missouri House of Representatives — District 121 — Phelps County (2012)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Keith Frederick7,546100.00%
Missouri House of Representatives — District 142 — Phelps County (2016) [12]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Robert Ross71675.77%-24.23
Democratic Bobby Johnston, Jr.22924.23%+24.23
Missouri House of Representatives — District 142 — Phelps County (2014)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Robert Ross460100.00%
Missouri House of Representatives — District 142 — Phelps County (2012)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Robert Ross792100.00%

All of Phelps County is a part of Missouri's 16th District in the Missouri Senate and is currently represented by Dan Brown (R-Rolla).

Missouri Senate — District 16 — Phelps County (2014)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Dan Brown9,043100.00%
Past Gubernatorial Elections Results
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 62.51%11,63333.14% 6,1684.35% 809
2012 51.23%9,28245.65% 8,2713.12% 565
2008 43.33% 8,48553.28%10,2263.39% 481
2004 59.09%10,97039.54% 7,3411.37% 254
2000 51.59%8,28045.77% 7,3452.64% 424
1996 34.97% 5,34262.55%9,5552.49% 380
1992 40.41% 6,68759.59%9,8600.00% 0
1988 67.69%9,61031.26% 4,4381.05% 149
1984 63.88%8,89736.12% 5,0310.00% 0
1980 56.98%7,70142.58% 5,7550.44% 60
1976 50.67%6,30749.25% 6,1310.08% 10

Federal

U.S. Senate — Missouri — Phelps County (2016) [12]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Roy Blunt11,06359.70%+11.94
Democratic Jason Kander6,57635.48%-9.79
Libertarian Jonathan Dine5332.88%-4.09
Green Johnathan Dine1931.04%+1.04
Constitution Fred Ryman1670.90%+0.90
U.S. Senate — Missouri — Phelps County (2012)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Todd Akin8,57947.76%
Democratic Claire McCaskill8,13345.27%
Libertarian Jonathan Dine1,2526.97%

Phelps County is included in Missouri's 8th Congressional District and is currently represented by Jason T. Smith (R-Salem) in the U.S. House of Representatives. Smith won a special election on Tuesday, June 4, 2013, to finish out the remaining term of U.S. Representative Jo Ann Emerson (R-Cape Girardeau). Emerson announced her resignation a month after being reelected with over 70 percent of the vote in the district. She resigned to become CEO of the National Rural Electric Cooperative.

U.S. House of Representatives — Missouri's 8th Congressional District — Phelps County (2016) [12]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Jason T. Smith13,28872.59%+2.29
Democratic Dave Cowell4,45324.33%-0.27
Libertarian Jonathan Shell5643.08%+1.26
U.S. House of Representatives — Missouri's 8th Congressional District — Phelps County (2014)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Jason T. Smith7,38770.30%-3.69
Democratic Barbara Stocker2,58524.60%+0.08
Libertarian Rick Vandeven1911.82%+0.79
Constitution Doug Enyart1331.27%+0.81
Independent Terry Hampton2122.02%+2.02
U.S. House of Representatives — Missouri's 8th Congressional District — Phelps County (Special Election 2013)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Jason T. Smith3,08473.99%+0.40
Democratic Steve Hodges1,02224.52%+1.59
Libertarian Bill Slantz431.03%-2.45
Constitution Doug Enyart190.46%+0.46
U.S. House of Representatives — Missouri's 8th Congressional District — Phelps County (2012)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Republican Jo Ann Emerson13,14273.59%
Democratic Jack Rushin4,09522.93%
Libertarian Rick Vandeven6223.48%

Political culture

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results [13]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 67.9%12,70925.5% 4,7666.6% 1,238
2012 65.1%11,89531.7% 5,7983.2% 593
2008 60.0%11,70637.9% 7,3942.2% 424
2004 63.5%11,87435.7% 6,6660.9% 160
2000 58.5%9,44438.8% 6,2622.7% 440
1996 45.7%6,99041.9% 6,40512.4% 1,902
1992 36.1% 6,04040.9%6,85223.0% 3,847
1988 58.4%8,32941.2% 5,8670.4% 57
1984 64.0%9,01236.0% 5,074
1980 54.3%7,36640.3% 5,4705.4% 730
1976 49.2% 6,15350.0%6,2610.8% 98
1972 68.1%7,59832.0% 3,567
1968 47.3%5,57735.7% 4,21116.9% 1,995
1964 39.4% 3,75560.6%5,776
1960 55.3%5,66344.7% 4,576
1956 50.1%4,77349.9%4,761
1952 49.1% 4,69450.7%4,8460.2% 14
1948 36.9% 3,05362.9%5,2020.3% 22
1944 42.7% 3,18057.1%4,2560.2% 13
1940 40.9% 3,31958.9%4,7800.2% 15
1936 36.4% 2,69063.1%4,6580.5% 33
1932 26.7% 1,79472.3%4,8581.0% 68
1928 50.5%2,96749.3% 2,8960.2% 11
1924 37.9% 2,08553.1%2,9189.0% 497
1920 52.3%2,69247.0% 2,4220.7% 38
1916 43.4% 1,48755.1%1,8871.4% 49
1912 27.8% 78255.6%1,56516.7% 469
1908 45.0% 1,52053.4%1,8041.6% 54
1904 47.5% 1,37147.9%1,3844.6% 134
1900 40.6% 1,15356.5%1,6032.9% 81
1896 36.2% 1,03863.3%1,8160.5% 14
1892 37.0% 88353.9%1,2879.1% 216
1888 31.3% 68554.1%1,18314.6% 318

At the presidential level, Phelps County is a fairly Republican-leaning county. George W. Bush easily carried Phelps County in 2000 and 2004. Bill Clinton was the last Democratic presidential nominee to carry Phelps County in 1992, and like many of the rural counties throughout Missouri, Phelps County favored John McCain over Barack Obama in 2008.

Like most rural areas throughout central Missouri, voters in Phelps County generally adhere to socially and culturally conservative principles which tend to influence their Republican leanings. In 2004, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to define marriage as the union between a man and a woman—it overwhelmingly passed Phelps County with 77.94 percent of the vote. The initiative passed the state with 71 percent of support from voters as Missouri became the first state to ban same-sex marriage. In 2006, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to fund and legalize embryonic stem cell research in the state—it failed in Phelps County with 52.25 percent voting against the measure. The initiative narrowly passed the state with 51 percent of support from voters as Missouri became one of the first states in the nation to approve embryonic stem cell research. Despite Phelps County's longstanding tradition of supporting socially conservative platforms, voters in the county have a penchant for advancing populist causes like increasing the minimum wage. In 2006, Missourians voted on a proposition (Proposition B) to increase the minimum wage in the state to $6.50 an hour—it passed Phelps County with 69.42 percent of the vote. The proposition strongly passed every single county in Missouri with 78.99 percent voting in favor as the minimum wage was increased to $6.50 an hour in the state. During the same election, voters in five other states also strongly approved increases in the minimum wage.

Missouri presidential preference primary (2008)

In the 2008 presidential primary, voters in Phelps County from both political parties supported candidates who finished in second place in the state at large and nationally.

Phelps County, Missouri
2008 Republican primary in Missouri
John McCain 1,459 (29.68%)
Mike Huckabee 1,728 (35.15%)
Mitt Romney 1,340 (27.26%)
Ron Paul 321 (6.53%)
Phelps County, Missouri
2008 Democratic primary in Missouri
Hillary Clinton 2,392 (53.93%)
Barack Obama 1,878 (42.34%)
John Edwards (withdrawn)122 (2.75%)

Education

Of adults 25 years of age and older in Phelps County, 79.0% possess a high school diploma or higher while 21.1% hold a bachelor's degree or higher as their highest educational attainment.

Public schools

Private schools

Alternative & vocational schools

Colleges & universities

Public libraries

Communities

See also

Coordinates: 37°53′N91°47′W / 37.88°N 91.79°W / 37.88; -91.79

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Camden County is a county located in the U.S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 44,002. Its county seat is Camdenton. The county was organized on January 29, 1841 as Kinderhook County and renamed Camden County in 1843 after Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden, Lord Chancellor of the United Kingdom and leader of the British Whig Party.

Andrew County, Missouri U.S. county in Missouri

Andrew County is a county located in the northwestern part of the U.S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the county had a population of 17,291. Its county seat is Savannah. The county was organized January 29, 1841, and named for Andrew Jackson Davis, a lawyer and prominent citizen of St. Louis.

Adair County, Missouri U.S. county in Missouri

Adair County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 25,607. Its county seat is Kirksville. The county was first settled by immigrants from Kentucky and organized on January 29, 1841.

Neosho, Missouri City in Missouri, United States

Neosho is the most populous city in Newton County, Missouri, United States, which it serves as the county seat. With a population of 11,835 as of the 2010 census, the city is a part of the Joplin, Missouri Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region with an estimated 176,849 (2011) residents. Neosho lies on the western edge of the Ozarks.

Newburg, Missouri City in Missouri, United States

Newburg is a city in Phelps County, Missouri, United States. The population was 470 at the 2010 census.

Rolla, Missouri City in Missouri, United States

Rolla is a city in and the county seat of Phelps County, Missouri, United States. The population in the 2010 United States Census was 19,559. Rolla is located approximately midway between St. Louis and Springfield along I-44. The Rolla, Mo Micropolitan Statistical area consists of Phelps County, Missouri.

References

  1. 1 2 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
  2. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  3. "Mean Center of Population for the United States: 1790 to 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  4. "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  5. "Expedition Slaughter Sink: Journeying to the bottom of Missouri's deepest sinkhole".
  6. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved November 13, 2019.
  7. "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  8. "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  9. "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  10. "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  11. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "County Results - State of Missouri - 2016 General Election - November 8, 2016 - Official Results". Missouri Secretary of State. December 12, 2016. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  13. Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
  14. Breeding, Marshall. "James Memorial Library". Libraries.org. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  15. Breeding, Marshall. "Newburg Public Library". Libraries.org. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  16. Breeding, Marshall. "Rolla Public Library". Libraries.org. Retrieved May 8, 2017.

Further reading