Population density

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Population density (people per km ) by country, 2006 Countries by population density.svg
Population density (people per km ) by country, 2006
Living population density by country Living population density.png
Living population density by country
Population density (people per km ) map of the world in 1994. In relation to the equator it is seen that the vast majority of the human population lives in the Northern Hemisphere, as 67% of the Earth's land area is there. World population density 1994 - with equator.png
Population density (people per km ) map of the world in 1994. In relation to the equator it is seen that the vast majority of the human population lives in the Northern Hemisphere, as 67% of the Earth's land area is there.
Population density (people per km ) map of the world in 2005 World human population density map.png
Population density (people per km ) map of the world in 2005
World environments map, compare with the maps above Vegetation.png
World environments map, compare with the maps above

Population density (in agriculture: standing stock or plant density) is a measurement of population per unit area, or exceptionally unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term. [1] In simple terms, population density refers to the number of people living in an area per square kilometre.

Contents

Biological population densities

Population density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate. [1]

Low densities may cause an extinction vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it. Examples of the causes of reduced fertility in low population densities are: [2]

Monaco in Southern Europe, currently holds the record for being the most densely populated nation in the world. Monaco by night.JPG
Monaco in Southern Europe, currently holds the record for being the most densely populated nation in the world.
Mongolia is the least densely populated country in the world. TariatLandscape.jpg
Mongolia is the least densely populated country in the world.
This population cartogram of the European Union (2007-2012) uses areas and colors to represent population. EU Pop2008 1024.PNG
This population cartogram of the European Union (2007–2012) uses areas and colors to represent population.

Human densities

Population density is the number of people per unit of area, usually quoted per square kilometre or square mile, and which may include or exclude for example areas of water or glaciers. Commonly this may be calculated for a county, city, country, another territory or the entire world.

The world's population is around 7,800,000,000 [3] and Earth's total area (including land and water) is 510,000,000 km2 (197,000,000 sq. mi.). [4] Therefore, from this very crude type of calculation, the worldwide human population density is approximately 7,800,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 15.3 per km2 (40 per sq. mi.). However, if only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 (58,000,000 sq. mi.) is taken into account, then human population density is 50 per km2 (129 per sq. mi.). This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. Furthermore, if Antarctica is also excluded, then population density rises to over 55 people per km2 (over 142 per sq. mi.). [1]

However, over half[ citation needed ] of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, and population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Therefore, additional criteria are needed to make simple population density values meaningful and useful.

Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, microstates and urban dependencies. [5] [6] In fact, 95% of the world's population is concentrated on just 10% of the world's land. [7] These territories have a relatively small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing also on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation.

Deserts have very limited potential for growing crops as there is not enough rain to support them. Thus their population density is generally low. However some cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace. [8]

Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. [9] Very densely populated cities are mostly in Asia (particularly Southeast Asia); Africa's Lagos, Kinshasa and Cairo; South America's Bogotá, Lima and São Paulo; and Mexico City and Saint Petersburg also fall into this category. [10]

City population and especially area are, however, heavily dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are almost invariably higher for the centre only than when suburban settlements and intervening rural areas are included, as in the agglomeration or metropolitan area (the latter sometimes including neighboring cities).

In comparison, based on a world population of 7.8 billion, the world's inhabitants, if conceptualized as a loose crowd occupying just under 1 m2 (10 sq. ft) per person (cf. Jacobs Method), would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area.[ citation needed ]

Countries and dependent territories

With population under 10,000,000
RankCountry or
dependent territory
AreaPopulationDensity
km2sq. mi.per km2per sq.
mi.
1Flag of Macau.svg  Macau (China)30.512650,83421,33955,268
2Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco 2.020.7837,55018,58948,145
3Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 719.92785,612,3007,79620,192
4Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong (China)1,106.34277,409,8006,69817,348
5Flag of Gibraltar.svg  Gibraltar (UK) [11] 6.82.633,1404,87412,624
6Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 7572921,451,2001,9174,965
7Flag of the Vatican City.svg   Vatican City 0.440.178001,8184,709
8Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 315122475,7011,5103,911
9Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 298115378,1141,2693,287
10Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda (UK)522063,7791,2273,178
With population above 10,000,000
RankCountryAreaPopulationDensity
km2sq. mi.per km2per sq.
mi.
6Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 143,99855,598170,329,7681,1833,064
10Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 36,19313,97423,539,5886501,683
13Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 100,21038,69151,824,1425171,339
14Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda 26,33810,16912,955,7684921,274
16Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi 27,81610,74012,574,5714521,171
17Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 27,06510,45011,743,0174341,124
18Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 41,52616,03317,572,8314231,096
19Flag of India.svg  India 3,287,2401,269,2101,374,547,1404181,083
22Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 30,52811,78711,554,449378979
23Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 300,000115,831109,961,895367951

Other methods of measurement

Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area.

See also

Lists of entities by population density

Related Research Articles

Geography of Denmark Geographical features of Denmark

Denmark is a Nordic country located in Northern Europe. It consists of the Jutland peninsula and several islands in the Baltic sea, referred to as the Danish Archipelago. Denmark is located southwest of Sweden and due south of Norway and is bordered by the German state Schleswig-Holstein to the south, on Denmark's only land border, 68 kilometres long.

Rural area Geographic area that is located outside towns and cities

In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the United States Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing "...all population, housing, and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural."

Urban area Human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment

An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets; in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. The creation of early predecessors of urban areas during the urban revolution led to the creation of human civilization with modern urban planning, which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources led to a human impact on the environment. "Agglomeration effects" are in the list of the main consequences of increased rates of firm creation since. This is due to conditions created by a greater level of industrial activity in a given region. However, a favorable environment for human capital development would also be generated simultaneously.

Ohaton Hamlet in Alberta, Canada

Ohaton is a hamlet in central Alberta, Canada within Camrose County. Previously an incorporated municipality, Ohaton dissolved from village status on January 1, 1946.

Diamond City, Alberta

Diamond City is a hamlet in southern Alberta, Canada within the Lethbridge County. It is located on Highway 25, approximately 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) north of Lethbridge. The community was so named on account of deposits of coal near the original town site, a resource also called "black diamond".

Rural Municipality of Wreford No. 280 Rural municipality in Saskatchewan, Canada

The Rural Municipality of Wreford No. 280 is a rural municipality (RM) in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan within Census Division No. 11 and SARM Division No. 5. Located in the south-central portion of the province, it is north of the City of Regina.

Langdon, Alberta Hamlet in Alberta, Canada

Langdon is a hamlet in southern Alberta, Canada under the jurisdiction of Rocky View County. It previously held village status between August 31, 1907 and January 1, 1946.

Erskine, Alberta

Erskine is a hamlet in Alberta, Canada, within County of Stettler No. 6. Previously an incorporated municipality, Erskine dissolved from village status on May 10, 1946, to become part of the Municipal District of Waverly No. 367.

Aylsham, Saskatchewan Village in Saskatchewan, Canada

Aylsham is a village in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan within the Rural Municipality of Nipawin No. 487 and Census Division No. 14. The village is approximately 65 km (40 mi) northeast of the City of Melfort.

Lundbreck Hamlet in Alberta, Canada

Lundbreck is a hamlet in southern Alberta, Canada within the Municipal District of Pincher Creek No. 9. It is located on the south side of Highway 3, approximately 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) east of the southern terminus of Highway 22, 16 km (9.9 mi) east of the Municipality of Crowsnest Pass, 4 km (2.5 mi) west of the Village of Cowley and 16 km (9.9 mi) west of the Town of Pincher Creek. It has an elevation of 1,200 m (3,900 ft).

Swalwell, Alberta Hamlet in Alberta, Canada

Swalwell is a hamlet in southern Alberta, Canada within Kneehill County. Previously an incorporated municipality, Swalwell dissolved from village status on January 1, 1946 to become part of the Municipal District of Norquay No. 279.

Bradwell, Saskatchewan Village in Saskatchewan, Canada

Bradwell is a village in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan within the Rural Municipality of Blucher No. 343 and Census Division No. 11. The village is located about 36 km southeast of the City of Saskatoon on Highway 763. In 1936, during excavations of gravel for a highway, the partial skeleton of a neolithic human male were discovered and named "Bradwell Man". A stone scraper and some eagle talons were found nearby.

Sceptre, Saskatchewan Village in Saskatchewan, Canada

Sceptre is a village in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan within the Rural Municipality of Clinworth No. 230 and Census Division No. 8.

Pincher Station

Pincher Station, once known as Pincher City, is a hamlet in southern Alberta, Canada within the Municipal District of Pincher Creek No. 9. It is located on Highway 3, approximately 83 kilometres (52 mi) southwest of Lethbridge. Previously an incorporated community, Pincher City dissolved from village status on May 3, 1932.

Rural Municipality of Lake Johnston No. 102 Rural municipality in Saskatchewan, Canada

The Rural Municipality of Lake Johnston No. 102 is a rural municipality (RM) in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan within Census Division No. 3 and SARM Division No. 2. Located in the southwest portion of the province, it is north of the Town of Assiniboia and south of the City of Moose Jaw.

Rural Municipality of Star City No. 428 Rural municipality in Saskatchewan, Canada

The Rural Municipality of Star City No. 428 is a rural municipality (RM) in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan within Census Division No. 14 and SARM Division No. 4.

The Earth has a human population of 7.882 billion, with an overall population density of 50 people per km2, excluding Antarctica. Nearly two-thirds of the world's population lives in Asia, with more than 2.7 billion in the countries of China and India combined. The world's literacy rate has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, from 66.7% in 1979 to 86.3% today. Lower literacy levels are mostly attributable to poverty. Lower literacy rates are mostly found in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The world's largest ethnic group is Han Chinese, with Mandarin being the world's most spoken language in terms of native speakers.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Matt Rosenberg Population Density. Geography.about.com. March 2, 2011. Retrieved on December 10, 2011.
  2. Minimum viable population size. Archived October 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Eoearth.org (March 6, 2010). Retrieved on December 10, 2011.
  3. U.S. & World Population Clocks. Census.gov. Retrieved on December 10, 2011.
  4. World. CIA World Handbook
  5. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved March 12, 2009.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. The Monaco government uses a smaller surface area figure resulting in a population density of 18,078 per km2
  7. "Urbanization: 95% Of The World's Population Lives On 10% Of The Land". ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  8. Portnov, B. A.; Hare, A. Paul (1999). Desert regions : population, migration, and environment. Springer. ISBN   3540657800. OCLC   41320143.
  9. Human Population. Global Issues. Retrieved on December 10, 2011.
  10. The largest cities in the world by land area, population and density Archived May 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . Citymayors.com. Retrieved on December 10, 2011.
  11. Territory claimed by Spain.
  12. Analysis of living population density per countries, based on NASA SEDAC world gridded data.