Population density

Last updated

Population density (people per km ) by country, 2006 Countries by population density.svg
Population density (people per km ) by country, 2006
Population density (people per km ) map of the world in 1994. In relation to the equator it is seen that the vast majority of the human population lives in the Northern Hemisphere, as 67% of the Earth's land area is there. World population density 1994 - with equator.png
Population density (people per km ) map of the world in 1994. In relation to the equator it is seen that the vast majority of the human population lives in the Northern Hemisphere, as 67% of the Earth's land area is there.
Population density (people per km ) map of the world in 1994 Population density with key.png
Population density (people per km ) map of the world in 1994
Deserts around the world. Compare with maps above. See also this image for location of densely populated areas (cities) in various vegetation zones. Aavikko.png
Deserts around the world. Compare with maps above. See also this image for location of densely populated areas (cities) in various vegetation zones.

Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area, or exceptionally unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term. [1] In simple terms, population density refers to the number of people living in an area per square kilometre.

Contents

Biological population densities

Population density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate. [1]

Low densities may cause an extinction vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it. Examples of the causes of reduced fertility in low population densities are: [2]

Monaco in Southern Europe, currently holds the record for being the most densely populated nation in the world. Monaco by night.JPG
Monaco in Southern Europe, currently holds the record for being the most densely populated nation in the world.
Mongolia is the least densely populated country in the world. TariatLandscape.jpg
Mongolia is the least densely populated country in the world.
This population cartogram of the European Union (2007-2012) uses areas and colors to represent population. EU Pop2008 1024.PNG
This population cartogram of the European Union (2007–2012) uses areas and colors to represent population.

Human densities

For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area, usually quoted per square kilometre or square mile, and which may include or exclude for example areas of water or glaciers. Commonly this may be calculated for a county, city, country, another territory or the entire world.

The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 [3] and Earth's total area (including land and water) is 510,000,000 km2 (197,000,000 sq. mi.). [4] Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2 (38 per sq. mi.). If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 (58,000,000 sq. mi.) is taken into account, then human population density is 50 per km2 (129 per sq. mi.). This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is also excluded, then population density rises to over 55 people per km2 (over 142 per sq. mi.). [1] However, over half[ citation needed ] of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, and population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, additional criteria are needed to make simple population density values useful.

Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, microstates and urban dependencies. [5] [6] These territories have a relatively small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing also on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation.

Deserts have very limited potential for growing crops as there is not enough rain to support them. Thus their population density is generally low. However some cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace. [7]

Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. [8] Very densely populated cities are mostly in Asia (particularly Southeast Asia); Africa’s Lagos, Kinshasa andCairo; South America's Bogotá, Lima and São Paulo; and Mexico City and Saint Petersburg also fall into this category. [9]

City population and especially area are, however, heavily dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are almost invariably higher for the centre only than when suburban settlements and intervening rural areas are included, as in the agglomeration or metropolitan area (the latter sometimes including neighboring cities).

In comparison, based on a world population of 7 billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up almost 1 m2 (10 sq. ft) per person (cf. Jacobs Method), would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area.[ citation needed ]

Countries and dependent territories

With population under 10,000,000
RankCountry or
dependent territory
AreaPopulationDensity
km2sq. mi.per km2per sq.
mi.
1Flag of Macau.svg  Macau (China)30.512650,83421,33955,268
2Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco 2.020.7837,55018,58948,145
3Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 719.92785,612,3007,79620,192
4Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong (China)1,106.34277,409,8006,69817,348
5Flag of Gibraltar.svg  Gibraltar (UK) [10] 6.82.633,1404,87412,624
6Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 7572921,451,2001,9174,965
7Flag of the Vatican City.svg   Vatican City 0.440.178001,8184,709
8Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 315122475,7011,5103,911
9Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 298115378,1141,2693,287
10Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda (UK)522063,7791,2273,178
With population above 10,000,000
RankCountryAreaPopulationDensity
km2sq. mi.per km2per sq.
mi.
12Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 143,99855,598165,001,9461,1462,968
19Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 36,19313,97423,572,0496511,686
25Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 100,21038,69151,635,2565151,334
27Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda 26,33810,16912,001,1364561,181
31Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 41,52616,03317,271,8194161,077
33Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 27,06510,45011,112,9454111,064
34Flag of India.svg  India 3,287,2401,269,2101,335,543,9574061,052
36Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi 27,81610,74010,681,186384995
38Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 30,52811,78711,414,214374969
39Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 300,000115,831106,302,840354917

Other methods of measurement

Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area.

See also

Lists of entities by population density

Related Research Articles

Geography of Denmark

Denmark is a Nordic country located in Northern Europe. It consists of the Jutland peninsula and several islands in the Baltic sea, referred to as the Danish Archipelago. Denmark is located southwest of Sweden and due south of Norway and is bordered by the German state Schleswig-Holstein to the south, on Denmark's only land border, 68 kilometers long.

Geography of Hong Kong

Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, can be geographically divided into three territories: Kowloon, Hong Kong Island, and the New Territories. Hong Kong is a coastal city and major port in Southern China, bordering Guangdong province through city of Shenzhen to the north and the South China Sea to the West, East and South. Hong Kong and its 260 territorial islands and peninsulas are located at the mouth of the Pearl River Delta. The area of Hong Kong is distinct from Mainland China, but is considered part of "Greater China".

Geography of Switzerland

The geography of Switzerland encompasses the geographical features of Switzerland, a mountainous and landlocked country located in Western and Central Europe. It is surrounded by 5 countries: Austria and Liechtenstein to the east, France to the west, Italy to the south and Germany to the north. Switzerland has a maximum north–south length of 220 kilometres (140 mi) and an east–west length of about 350 kilometres (220 mi).

Geography of Uganda

Uganda is located in eastern Africa, west of Kenya, south of South Sudan, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and north of Rwanda and Tanzania. It is in the heart of the Great Lakes region, and is surrounded by three of them, Lake Edward, Lake Albert, and Lake Victoria. While much of its border is lakeshore, Uganda is landlocked with no access to the sea.

In 48 of the 50 states of the United States, the county is used for the level of local government immediately below the state itself. Louisiana uses parishes, and Alaska uses boroughs. In several states in New England, some or all counties within states have no governments of their own; the counties continue to exist as legal entities, however, and are used by states for some administrative functions and by the United States Census bureau for statistical analysis. There are 3,242 counties and county equivalent administrative units in total, including the District of Columbia and 100 county-equivalents in the U.S. territories.

Urban area Human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment

An urban area or urban agglomeration, is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. The creation of early predecessors of urban areas during the urban revolution led to the creation of human civilization with modern urban planning, which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources leads to human impact on the environment.

Zama City Hamlet in Alberta, Canada

Zama City is a hamlet in northwestern Alberta, Canada within Mackenzie County.

La Crete Hamlet in Alberta, Canada

La Crete, also spelled La Crête, is a hamlet in northern Alberta, Canada, within Mackenzie County. It is located on Highway 697, approximately 135 kilometres (84 mi) southeast of High Level and 701 kilometres (436 mi) north of Edmonton, Alberta.

Lundbreck Hamlet in Alberta, Canada

Lundbreck is a hamlet in southern Alberta, Canada within the Municipal District of Pincher Creek No. 9. It is located on the south side of Highway 3, approximately 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) east of the southern terminus of Highway 22, 16 km (9.9 mi) east of the Municipality of Crowsnest Pass, 4 km (2.5 mi) west of the Village of Cowley and 16 km (9.9 mi) west of the Town of Pincher Creek. It has an elevation of 1,200 m (3,900 ft).

Namaka, Alberta hamlet in southern Alberta, Canada

Namaka is a hamlet in southern Alberta, Canada within Wheatland County. It is located approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south of Highway 1 and 55 kilometres (34 mi) east of Calgary. Its name means "near the water" in Blackfoot. The first school was built in 1909.

Tees, Alberta

Tees is a hamlet in central Alberta, Canada within Lacombe County. It is located 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) north of Highway 12, approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) northeast of Red Deer.

Rural Municipality of Rudy No. 284 Rural municipality in Saskatchewan, Canada

Rudy No. 284 is a rural municipality in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, located in Census Division 11 which is a part of SARM Division 5. The seat of the municipality is located in the town of Outlook.

Demographics of the world include population density, ethnicity, education level, health measures, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the human population of the Earth.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Matt Rosenberg Population Density. Geography.about.com. March 2, 2011. Retrieved on December 10, 2011.
  2. Minimum viable population size.[ dead link ] Eoearth.org (March 6, 2010). Retrieved on December 10, 2011.
  3. U.S. & World Population Clocks. Census.gov. Retrieved on December 10, 2011.
  4. World. CIA World Handbook
  5. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved March 12, 2009.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. The Monaco government uses a smaller surface area figure resulting in a population density of 18,078 per km2
  7. Portnov, B. A.; Hare, A. Paul (1999). Desert regions : population, migration, and environment. Springer. ISBN   3540657800. OCLC   41320143.
  8. Human Population. Global Issues. Retrieved on December 10, 2011.
  9. The largest cities in the world by land area, population and density. Citymayors.com. Retrieved on December 10, 2011.
  10. Territory claimed by Spain.