Human Development Index

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World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2019 data, published in 2020).
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0.800-1.000 (very high)
0.700-0.799 (high)
0.550-0.699 (medium)
0.350-0.549 (low)
Data unavailable 2020 UN Human Development Report.svg
World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2019 data, published in 2020).
  0.800–1.000 (very high)
  0.700–0.799 (high)
  0.550–0.699 (medium)
  0.350–0.549 (low)
  Data unavailable
World map of countries by Human Development Index categories in increments of 0.050 (based on 2019 data, published in 2020).
>= 0.900
0.850-0.899
0.800-0.849
0.750-0.799
0.700-0.749
0.650-0.699
0.600-0.649
0.550-0.599
0.500-0.549
0.450-0.499
0.400-0.449
<= 0.399
Data unavailable Countries by Human Development Index (2020).png
World map of countries by Human Development Index categories in increments of 0.050 (based on 2019 data, published in 2020).
  ≥ 0.900
  0.850–0.899
  0.800–0.849
  0.750–0.799
  0.700–0.749
  0.650–0.699
  0.600–0.649
  0.550–0.599
  0.500–0.549
  0.450–0.499
  0.400–0.449
  ≤ 0.399
  Data unavailable

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education (mean years of schooling completed and expected years of schooling upon entering the education system), and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the gross national income GNI (PPP) per capita is higher. It was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)'s Human Development Report Office. [1] [2] [3]

Contents

The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality), while the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum level of HDI) that could be achieved if there were no inequality." [4]

The index is based on the human development approach, developed by Mahbub ul Haq, anchored in Amartya Sen's work on human capabilities, often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include – being: well fed, sheltered, healthy; doing: work, education, voting, participating in community life. The freedom of choice is central – someone choosing to be hungry (as during a religious fast) is quite different from someone who is hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. [5]

The index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others. [6]

Origins

Mahbub ul Haq Mahbub-ul-Haq.jpg
Mahbub ul Haq

The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, and had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public, academics, and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being.

The underlying principles behind the Human Development Index. HDI explained the best way.png
The underlying principles behind the Human Development Index.

Dimensions and calculation

New method (2010 HDI onwards)

Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: [7] [8]

In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used:

1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI)

LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.

2. Education Index (EI) [9]

2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI) [10]
Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025.
2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) [11]
Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.

3. Income Index (II)

II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100.

Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices:

LE: Life expectancy at birth
MYS: Mean years of schooling (i.e. years that a person aged 25 or older has spent in formal education)
EYS: Expected years of schooling (i.e. total expected years of schooling for children under 18 years of age)
GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita

Old method (HDI before 2010)

The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 report:

HDI trends between 1975 and 2004
OECD
Europe (not in the OECD), and CIS
Latin America and the Caribbean
East Asia
Arab League
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa Human Development Index trends.svg
HDI trends between 1975 and 2004
   OECD
   Europe (not in the OECD), and CIS
   Latin America and the Caribbean
   East Asia

This methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report.

The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). [12] In general, to transform a raw variable, say , into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:

where and are the lowest and highest values the variable can attain, respectively.

The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the uniformly weighted sum with 13 contributed by each of the following factor indices:

2019 Human Development Index (2020 report)

The Human Development Report 2020 by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 15 December 2020, and calculates HDI values based on data collected in 2019. [13] The list comprises countries and territories with very high human development:

RankCountry or TerritoryHDI
2019 data (2020 report) [14] Change over 5 years (2014) [15] 2019 data (2020 report) [14] Average annual HDI growth (2010-2019) [15]
1Steady2.svgFlag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.957Increase2.svg 0.20%
2Increase2.svg (7)Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.955Increase2.svg 0.65%
2Steady2.svgFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.955Increase2.svg 0.16%
4Increase2.svg (7)Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 0.949Increase2.svg 0.54%
4Increase2.svg (4)Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.949Increase2.svg 0.62%
6Decrease2.svg (3)Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.947Increase2.svg 0.24%
7Decrease2.svg (3)Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.945Increase2.svg 0.41%
8Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.944Increase2.svg 0.17%
8Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.944Increase2.svg 0.32%
10Decrease2.svg (6)Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.940Increase2.svg 0.28%
11Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.938Increase2.svg 0.26%
11Steady2.svgFlag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 0.938Increase2.svg 0.35%
13Steady2.svgFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.932Increase2.svg 0.24%
14Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.931Increase2.svg 0.25%
14Increase2.svg (3)Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 0.931Increase2.svg 0.30%
16Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.929Increase2.svg 0.34%
17Decrease2.svg (3)Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.926Increase2.svg 0.12%
18Steady2.svgFlag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.922Increase2.svg 0.22%
19Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.919Increase2.svg 0.29%
19Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.919Increase2.svg 0.39%
19Steady2.svgFlag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 0.919Increase2.svg 0.18%
22Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.917Increase2.svg 0.35%
23Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.916Increase2.svg 0.33%
23Steady2.svgFlag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.916Increase2.svg 0.22%
Flag of Europe.svg  European Union 0.911
25Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.904Increase2.svg 0.40%
26Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of France.svg  France 0.901Increase2.svg 0.28%
27Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.900Increase2.svg 0.38%
28Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.895Increase2.svg 0.54%
29Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.892Increase2.svg 0.51%
29Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.892Increase2.svg 0.16%
31Increase2.svg (6)Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 0.890Increase2.svg 0.91%
32Decrease2.svg (3)Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.888Increase2.svg 0.29%
33Steady2.svgFlag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.887Increase2.svg 0.40%
34Steady2.svgFlag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.882Increase2.svg 0.66%
35Steady2.svgFlag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.880Increase2.svg 0.52%
36Decrease2.svg (4)Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 0.868Increase2.svg 0.40%
37Increase2.svg (3)Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.866Increase2.svg 0.55%
38Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.864Increase2.svg 0.46%
39Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.860Increase2.svg 0.38%
40Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.854Increase2.svg 0.30%
40Decrease2.svg (4)Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 0.854Increase2.svg 0.60%
42Increase2.svg (6)Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 0.852Increase2.svg 0.70%
43Steady2.svgFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.851Increase2.svg 0.65%
43Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.851Increase2.svg 0.48%
45Steady2.svgFlag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 0.848Increase2.svg 0.19%
46Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.845Increase2.svg 0.21%
47Decrease2.svg (6)Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 0.838Increase2.svg 0.15%
48Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 0.829Increase2.svg 0.37%
49Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 0.828Increase2.svg 0.31%
50Decrease2.svg (3)Flag of Palau.svg  Palau 0.826Increase2.svg 0.55%
51Increase2.svg (7)Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 0.825Increase2.svg 0.86%
52Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Russia.svg  Russian Federation 0.824Increase2.svg 0.60%
53Decrease2.svg (4)Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 0.823Increase2.svg 0.39%
54Increase2.svg (5)Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 0.820Increase2.svg 1.16%
55Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 0.817Increase2.svg 0.49%
56Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 0.816Increase2.svg 0.39%
57Increase2.svg (5)Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 0.815Increase2.svg 0.58%
58Decrease2.svg (3)Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas 0.814Increase2.svg 0.12%
58Decrease2.svg (6)Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 0.814Increase2.svg 0.23%
60Decrease2.svg (3)Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 0.813Increase2.svg 0.43%
61Increase2.svg (7)Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 0.812Increase2.svg 0.87%
62Decrease2.svg (3)Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 0.810Increase2.svg 0.64%
62Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 0.810Increase2.svg 0.54%
64Decrease2.svg (5)Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 0.806Increase2.svg 0.25%
64Increase2.svg (3)Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 0.806Increase2.svg 0.57%
66Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 0.804Increase2.svg 0.76%

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2020 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) [16] "equals the HDI when there is no inequality across people but is less than the HDI as inequality rises. In this sense, the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for this inequality), while the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum level of HDI) that could be achieved if there was no inequality. The 'loss' in potential human development due to inequality is given by the difference between the HDI and the IHDI and can be expressed as a percentage." The list comprises countries and territories with very high and high human development:

RankCountry2019 estimates (2020 report) [17] [18] [19]
IHDIHDIOverall loss (%)Growth since 2010
1Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.8990.9576.1Increase2.svg 0.021
2Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.8940.9495.8Increase2.svg 0.055
3Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.8890.9556.9Increase2.svg 0.015
4Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.8880.9385.3Increase2.svg 0.040
5Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.8850.9557.3Increase2.svg 0.066
6Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.8830.9406.1Increase2.svg 0.025
7Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.8820.9456.7Increase2.svg 0.033
8Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.8780.9447.0Increase2.svg 0.036
9Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.8750.9174.6Increase2.svg 0.047
10Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.8690.9478.2Increase2.svg 0.016
11Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.8670.9448.2Increase2.svg 0.011
12Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.8600.9004.4Increase2.svg 0.042
13Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.8590.9317.7Increase2.svg 0.026
14Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 0.8590.9317.7NA
15Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.8570.9227.0Increase2.svg 0.021
16Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.8560.9328.2Increase2.svg 0.032
17Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.8480.9298.7Increase2.svg 0.025
18Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.8430.9198.3Increase2.svg 0.053 [lower-alpha 1]
19Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.8290.8827.1Increase2.svg 0.051
20Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.8260.9169.8Increase2.svg 0.009
21Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 0.8240.94913.2NA
22Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.8230.8958.0Increase2.svg 0.033 [lower-alpha 2]
23Flag of France.svg  France 0.8200.9019.0Increase2.svg 0.022
24Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.8150.91611.0Increase2.svg 0.074
25Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.8140.91911.4Increase2.svg 0.031
26Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 0.8130.93813.3NA
26Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.8130.8807.6Increase2.svg 0.063
28Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.8080.92612.7Decrease2.svg 0.004
29Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.8070.8606.2Increase2.svg 0.032
30Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.8050.8879.2Increase2.svg 0.048
31Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.7910.8547.4Increase2.svg 0.032
31Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.7910.88210.3Increase2.svg 0.055
31Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.7910.88810.9Increase2.svg 0.014
34Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.7830.89212.2Increase2.svg 0.010
34Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.7830.8669.6Increase2.svg 0.050
34Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.7830.8518.0Increase2.svg 0.092
34Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.7830.90413.4Decrease2.svg 0.004
38Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 0.7710.8236.3Increase2.svg 0.050
39Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 0.7660.8257.2Increase2.svg 0.105
40Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.7610.85012.7Increase2.svg 0.031
41Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 0.7490.8299.7Increase2.svg 0.026
42Flag of Russia.svg  Russian Federation 0.7400.82410.2Increase2.svg 0.049
43Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 0.7300.82811.8Increase2.svg 0.022
44Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.7290.84513.7Increase2.svg 0.063
45Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 0.7280.7796.4Increase2.svg 0.035
46Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 0.7210.81611.6Increase2.svg 0.022
47Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 0.7160.81211.8Increase2.svg 0.093
48Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 0.7120.81712.7Increase2.svg 0.055
49Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.7090.85116.7Increase2.svg 0.058
50Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 0.7080.79510.9Increase2.svg 0.058
51Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 0.7060.81313.2NA
52Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 0.7050.80612.5Increase2.svg 0.021

Past top countries

The list below displays the top-ranked country from each year of the Human Development Index. Norway has been ranked the highest sixteen times, Canada eight times, and Japan and Iceland twice.

In each original HDI

The year represents the time period from which the statistics for the index were derived. In parentheses is the year when the report was published.

Geographical coverage

The HDI has extended its geographical coverage: David Hastings, of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, published a report geographically extending the HDI to 230+ economies, whereas the UNDP HDI for 2009 enumerates 182 economies and coverage for the 2010 HDI dropped to 169 countries. [20] [21]

Country/region specific HDI lists

Criticism

HDI vs. ecological footprint Human welfare and ecological footprint.jpg
HDI vs. ecological footprint

The Human Development Index has been criticized on a number of grounds, including alleged lack of consideration of technological development or contributions to the human civilization, focusing exclusively on national performance and ranking, lack of attention to development from a global perspective, measurement error of the underlying statistics, and on the UNDP's changes in formula which can lead to severe misclassification in the categorisation of "low", "medium", "high" or "very high" human development countries. [22]

Sources of data error

Economists Hendrik Wolff, Howard Chong and Maximilian Auffhammer discuss the HDI from the perspective of data error in the underlying health, education and income statistics used to construct the HDI. They identified three sources of data error which are due to (i) data updating, (ii) formula revisions and (iii) thresholds to classify a country's development status and conclude that 11%, 21% and 34% of all countries can be interpreted as currently misclassified in the development bins due to the three sources of data error, respectively. The authors suggest that the United Nations should discontinue the practice of classifying countries into development bins because: the cut-off values seem arbitrary, can provide incentives for strategic behavior in reporting official statistics, and have the potential to misguide politicians, investors, charity donors and the public who use the HDI at large. [22]

In 2010, the UNDP reacted to the criticism and updated the thresholds to classify nations as low, medium, and high human development countries. In a comment to The Economist in early January 2011, the Human Development Report Office responded [23] to a 6 January 2011 article in the magazine [24] which discusses the Wolff et al. paper. The Human Development Report Office states that they undertook a systematic revision of the methods used for the calculation of the HDI, and that the new methodology directly addresses the critique by Wolff et al. in that it generates a system for continuously updating the human-development categories whenever formula or data revisions take place.

In 2013, Salvatore Monni and Alessandro Spaventa emphasized that in the debate of GDP versus HDI, it is often forgotten that these are both external indicators that prioritize different benchmarks upon which the quantification of societal welfare can be predicated. The larger question is whether it is possible to shift the focus of policy from a battle between competing paradigms to a mechanism for eliciting information on well-being directly from the population. [25]

See also

Indices

Other

Notes

  1. Since 2013
  2. Since 2012

Related Research Articles

Geometric mean The n-th root of the product of n numbers

In mathematics, the geometric mean is a mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers by using the product of their values. The geometric mean is defined as the nth root of the product of n numbers, i.e., for a set of numbers x1, x2, ..., xn, the geometric mean is defined as

A per capita GDP of $3,200 ranks Solomon Islands as a lesser developed nation. Over 75% of its labour force is engaged in subsistence farming and fishing.

Developed country Country with a developed industry and infrastructure

A developed country is a sovereign state that has a high quality of life, developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living. Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. A point of reference of 20,000 USD in 2021 USD nominal GDP per capita for the IMF is a good point of departure, it is a similar level of development to the United States in 1960. Some countries with lower nominal gdp per capita could be considered as developed given that their PPP gdp per capita is much higher to their nominal gdp per capita, therefore having a higher standard of living than would be considered if one only looks at nominal gdp.

The Human Poverty Index (HPI) was an indication of the poverty of community in a country, developed by the United Nations to complement the Human Development Index (HDI) and was first reported as part of the Human Deprivation Report in 1997. It was considered to better reflect the extent of deprivation in deprived countries compared to the HDI. In 2010, it was supplanted by the UN's Multidimensional Poverty Index.

Human Development Report Annual report by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme

The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual report published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Happy life expectancy (HLE) is calculated by multiplying life expectancy by a happiness index. The first uses life expectancy at birth. The happiness index is the average appreciation of life from the world databases of happiness.

The Gender Related Development Index (GDI) is an index designed to measure gender equality.

Human development is the process characterized by the variation of material conditions. These conditions influence the possibilities of satisfying needs and desires. They also explore and realize the physical and psychic, biological and cultural, individual and social potentials of each person. It is also the name of the science that seeks to understand how and why the people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time. It involves studies of the human condition with its core being the capability approach. The inequality adjusted Human Development Index is used as a way of measuring actual progress in human development by the United Nations. It is an alternative approach to a single focus on economic growth, and focused more on social justice, as a way of understanding progress.

Education Index Component of the Human Development Index

An Education index is a component of the Human Development Index published every year by the United Nations Development Programme. Alongside the GDP Index and Life Expectancy Index, it helps measure the educational attainment, GDP per capita and life expectancy of countries.

Multidimensional Poverty Index

Multidimensional Poverty Indices use a range of indicators to calculate a summary poverty figure for a given population, in which a larger figure indicates a higher level of poverty. This figure considers both the proportion of the population that is deemed poor, and the 'breadth' of poverty experienced by these 'poor' households, following the Alkire & Foster 'counting method'. The method was developed following increased criticism of monetary and consumption based poverty measures, seeking to capture the deprivations in non-monetary factors that contribute towards well-being. While there is a standard set of indicators, dimensions, cutoffs & thresholds used for a 'Global MPI', the method is flexible and there are many examples of poverty studies that modify it to best suit their environment. The methodology has been mainly, but not exclusively, applied to developing countries.

Gender Inequality Index

The Gender Inequality Index (GII) is an index for measurement of gender disparity that was introduced in the 2010 Human Development Report 20th anniversary edition by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). According to the UNDP, this index is a composite measure to quantify the loss of achievement within a country due to gender inequality. It uses three dimensions to measure opportunity cost: reproductive health, empowerment, and labor market participation. The new index was introduced as an experimental measure to remedy the shortcomings of the previous indicators, the Gender Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), both of which were introduced in the 1995 Human Development Report.

Measures of gender equality or (in)equality are statistical tools employed to quantify the concept of gender equality.

References

  1. A. Stanton, Elizabeth (February 2007). "The Human Development Index: A History". PERI Working Papers: 14–15. Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  2. "Human Development Index". Economic Times. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  3. "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  4. Human Development Index, "Composite indices — HDI and beyond", Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  5. 1 2 "What is Human Development". UNDP. 2017. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017. ... human development approach, developed by the economist Mahbub Ul Haq ...'
  6. The Courier. Commission of the European Communities. 1994.
  7. "Human Development Report 2010". UNDP. 4 November 2010. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  8. "Technical notes" (PDF). UNDP. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  9. "New method of calculation of Human Development Index (HDI)". India Study Channel. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  10. Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years) is a calculation of the average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older in their lifetime based on education attainment levels of the population converted into years of schooling based on theoretical duration of each level of education attended. Source: Barro, R. J.; Lee, J.-W. (2010). "A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010". NBER Working Paper No. 15902. doi: 10.3386/w15902 . Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  11. (ESYI is a calculation of the number of years a child is expected to attend school, or university, including the years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrollment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education and is calculated assuming the prevailing patterns of age-specific enrollment rates were to stay the same throughout the child's life. Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. (Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010). Correspondence on education indicators. March. Montreal.)
  12. "Definition, Calculator, etc. at UNDP site". Archived from the original on 20 December 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
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