Human Development Index

Last updated

World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2018 data, published in 2019).
0.800-1.000 (very high)
0.700-0.799 (high)
0.550-0.699 (medium)
0.350-0.549 (low)
Data unavailable 2019 UN Human Development Report.svg
World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2018 data, published in 2019).
  0.800–1.000 (very high)
  0.700–0.799 (high)
  0.550–0.699 (medium)
  0.350–0.549 (low)
  Data unavailable
World map of countries by Human Development Index categories in increments of 0.050 (based on 2018 data, published in 2019).
>= 0.900
0.850-0.899
0.800-0.849
0.750-0.799
0.700-0.749
0.650-0.699
0.600-0.649
0.550-0.599
0.500-0.549
0.450-0.499
0.400-0.449
<= 0.399
Data unavailable Countries by Human Development Index (2019).png
World map of countries by Human Development Index categories in increments of 0.050 (based on 2018 data, published in 2019).
  ≥ 0.900
  0.850–0.899
  0.800–0.849
  0.750–0.799
  0.700–0.749
  0.650–0.699
  0.600–0.649
  0.550–0.599
  0.500–0.549
  0.450–0.499
  0.400–0.449
  ≤ 0.399
  Data unavailable

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education (Literacy Rate, Gross Enrollment Ratio at different levels and Net Attendance Ratio) , and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the gross national income GNI (PPP) per capita is higher. It was developed by Indian economist Amartya Sen and Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)'s Human Development Report Office. [1] [2] [3]

Contents

The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)", and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)". The index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others. [4]

The index is based on the human development approach, developed by Mahbub ul Haq, often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, sheltered, healthy; Doing: work, education, voting, participating in community life. The freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry (as during a religious fast) is quite different from someone who is hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. [5]

Origins

Mahbub ul Haq Mahbub-ul-Haq.jpg
Mahbub ul Haq
Amartya Sen Amartya Sen, c2000 (4379246038).jpg
Amartya Sen

The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, and had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, and Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities. [3] Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public, academics, and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being.

The underlying principle behind the Human Development Index. HDI explained the best way.png
The underlying principle behind the Human Development Index.

Dimensions and calculation

New method (2010 Index onwards)

World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2017 data, published in 2018).
0.800-1.000 (very high)
0.700-0.799 (high)
0.550-0.699 (medium)
0.350-0.549 (low)
Data unavailable 2018 UN Human Development Report.svg
World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2017 data, published in 2018).
  0.800–1.000 (very high)
  0.700–0.799 (high)
  0.550–0.699 (medium)
  0.350–0.549 (low)
  Data unavailable

Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: [7] [8]

In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used:

1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI)

LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.

2. Education Index (EI) [9]

2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI) [10]
Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025.
2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) [11]
Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.

3. Income Index (II)

II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100.

Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices:

LE: Life expectancy at birth
MYS: Mean years of schooling (i.e. years that a person aged 25 or older has spent in formal education)
EYS: Expected years of schooling (i.e. total expected years of schooling for children under 18 years of age)
GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita

Old method (before 2010 Index)

The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report:

HDI trends between 1975 and 2004
OECD
Europe (not in the OECD), and CIS
Latin America and the Caribbean
East Asia
Arab League
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa Human Development Index trends.svg
HDI trends between 1975 and 2004
   OECD
   Europe (not in the OECD), and CIS
   Latin America and the Caribbean
   East Asia

This methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report.

The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). [12] In general, to transform a raw variable, say , into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:

where and are the lowest and highest values the variable can attain, respectively.

The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the uniformly weighted sum with 13 contributed by each of the following factor indices:

Other organizations/companies may include other factors, such as infant mortality, which produces a different HDI.

2018 Human Development Index (2019 report)

The Human Development Report 2019 by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 9 December 2019, and calculates HDI values based on data collected in 2018. [13] Below is the list of countries or territories with ’very high human development’:

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2019 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) [13] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data.

  1. Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.889
  2. Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.885
  3. Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.882
  4. Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.882
  5. Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.876
  6. Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.874
  7. Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.873
  8. Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.870
  9. Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.865
  10. Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.862
  11. Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.861
  12. Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.858
  13. Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.850
  14. Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.849
  15. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.845
  16. Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.843
  17. Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.841
  18. Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 0.836
  19. Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.822
  20. Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.818
  21. Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 0.815
  22. Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.815
  23. Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 0.810
  24. Flag of France.svg  France 0.809
  25. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.809
  26. Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.804
  27. Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.801
  28. Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.797
  29. Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.788
  30. Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.777
  31. Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.777
  32. Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.776
  33. Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.776
  34. Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.775
  35. Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.768
  36. Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.766
  37. Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 0.765
  38. Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.765
  39. Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 0.759
  40. Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 0.746
  41. Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 0.743
  42. Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.742
  43. Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 0.725
  44. Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 0.725
  45. Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.714
  46. Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 0.714
  47. Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 0.706
  48. Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 0.705
  49. Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 0.703
  50. Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 0.701
  51. Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.696
  52. Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 0.692
  53. Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 0.688
  54. Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 0.686
  55. Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 0.685
  56. Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 0.685
  57. Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 0.683
  58. Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 0.675
  59. Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 0.675

Countries with ’very high human development’ with a missing IHDI: Liechtenstein, United Arab Emirates, Andorra, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Brunei, Bahrain, Palau, Kuwait, Bahamas, Malaysia and Seychelles.

2017 Human Development Index (2018 report)

The Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical update by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 14 September 2018, and calculates HDI values based on data collected in 2017. [14] Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries: [14]

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2018 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) [15] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 30).

  1. Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.878
  2. Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.876
  3. Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.876
  4. Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.871
  5. Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.868
  6. Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.864
  7. Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.861
  8. Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.861
  9. Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.860
  10. Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.857
  11. Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.854
  12. Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.852
  13. Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 0.846
  14. Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.846
  15. Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.840
  16. Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.836
  17. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.835
  18. Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.835
  19. Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 0.816
  20. Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.811
  21. Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 0.809
  22. Flag of France.svg  France 0.808
  23. Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.805
  24. Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.797
  25. Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.797
  26. Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.794
  27. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.787
  28. Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.787
  29. Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.773
  30. Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.773
  31. Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.771
  32. Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.769
  33. Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.759
  34. Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.757
  35. Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.756
  36. Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 0.755
  37. Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.754
  38. Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.753
  39. Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 0.741
  40. Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 0.738
  41. Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 0.737
  42. Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.732
  43. Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 0.717
  44. Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 0.710
  45. Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.710
  46. Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.707
  47. Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 0.707
  48. Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 0.706
  49. Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 0.701
  50. Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 0.689
  51. Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 0.683
  52. Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 0.682
  53. Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 0.681
  54. Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 0.680
  55. Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 0.669

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Liechtenstein, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Andorra, Qatar, Brunei, Bahrain, Oman, Bahamas, Kuwait and Malaysia.

2015 Human Development Index (2016 report)

The 2016 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 21 March 2017, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2015. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries: [16]

RankCountry or regionScore
2016 estimates for 2015
[17]
Change in rank from previous year [17] 2016 estimates for 2015
[17]
Change from previous year
[17]
1Steady2.svgFlag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.949Increase2.svg 0.001
2Steady2.svgFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.939Increase2.svg 0.002
2Steady2.svgFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.939Increase2.svg 0.001
4Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.926Increase2.svg 0.002
5Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.925Increase2.svg 0.002
5Increase2.svg (6)Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 0.925Increase2.svg 0.013
7Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.924Increase2.svg 0.001
8Steady2.svgFlag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.923Increase2.svg 0.003
9Increase2.svg (7)Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.921Increase2.svg 0.002
10Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.920Increase2.svg 0.001
10Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.920Increase2.svg 0.002
12Steady2.svgFlag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 0.917Increase2.svg 0.001
13Decrease2.svg (4)Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 0.915Increase2.svg 0.002
14Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.913Increase2.svg 0.004
15Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 0.912Increase2.svg 0.001
16Decrease2.svg (4)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.909Increase2.svg 0.003
17Increase2.svg (3)Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.903Increase2.svg 0.001
18Steady2.svgFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.901Increase2.svg 0.002
19Steady2.svgFlag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.899Increase2.svg 0.001
20Steady2.svgFlag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.898Increase2.svg 0.002
21Increase2.svg (1)Flag of France.svg  France 0.897Increase2.svg 0.003
22Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.896Increase2.svg 0.001
23Steady2.svgFlag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.895Increase2.svg 0.002
24Steady2.svgFlag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.893Increase2.svg 0.001
25Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.892Increase2.svg 0.005
26Steady2.svgFlag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.890Increase2.svg 0.002
27Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.887Increase2.svg 0.006
28Steady2.svgFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.878Increase2.svg 0.003
29Steady2.svgFlag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.866Increase2.svg 0.001
30Increase2.svg (10)Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.865Increase2.svg 0.020
31Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.865Increase2.svg 0.002
32Steady2.svgFlag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 0.858Increase2.svg 0.001
33Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.856Increase2.svg 0.002
33Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.856Increase2.svg 0.003
33Steady2.svgFlag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 0.856Increase2.svg 0.001
36Steady2.svgFlag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.855Increase2.svg 0.003
37Steady2.svgFlag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.848Increase2.svg 0.002
38Increase2.svg (4)Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.847Increase2.svg 0.002
38Steady2.svgFlag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 0.847Increase2.svg 0.002
41Steady2.svgFlag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.843Increase2.svg 0.002
42Steady2.svgFlag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 0.840Increase2.svg 0.004
43Steady2.svgFlag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.836Increase2.svg 0.002
44Steady2.svgFlag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.830Increase2.svg 0.002
45Decrease2.svg (5)Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.827Increase2.svg 0.001
45Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.827Increase2.svg 0.004
47Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 0.824Increase2.svg 0.001
48Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 0.807Increase2.svg 0.003
49Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 0.804Decrease2.svg 0.001
50Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 0.802Increase2.svg 0.004
51Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 0.800Increase2.svg 0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2016 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) [18] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 206).

  1. Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.898
  2. Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.868
  3. Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.861
  4. Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.861
  5. Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.859
  6. Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.859
  7. Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.858
  8. Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.851
  9. Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.850
  10. Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.843
  11. Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.839
  12. Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.838
  13. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.836
  14. Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.830
  15. Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.827
  16. Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.821
  17. Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.815
  18. Flag of France.svg  France 0.813
  19. Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.796
  20. Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.793
  21. Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.791
  22. Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.791
  23. Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.788
  24. Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.786
  25. Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.784
  26. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.778
  27. Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.774
  28. Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.771
  29. Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.762
  30. Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.759
  31. Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.758
  32. Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.755
  33. Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.753
  34. Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.752
  35. Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.742
  36. Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 0.736
  37. Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 0.725
  38. Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 0.714
  39. Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.698
  40. Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.691

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Andorra, Bahrain, Brunei, Hong Kong, Kuwait, Liechtenstein, New Zealand, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and United Arab Emirates.

2014 Human Development Index (2015 report)

The 2015 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 14 December 2015, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2014. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries: [19] [20] [21]

RankCountryScore
2015 estimates for 2014
[22]
Change in rank from previous year [22] 2015 estimates for 2014
[22]
Change from previous year
[22]
1Steady2.svgFlag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.944Increase2.svg 0.002
2Steady2.svgFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.935Increase2.svg 0.002
3Steady2.svgFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.930Increase2.svg 0.002
4Steady2.svgFlag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.923Steady2.svg
5Steady2.svgFlag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.922Increase2.svg 0.002
6Steady2.svgFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.916Increase2.svg 0.001
6Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.916Increase2.svg 0.004
8Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.915Increase2.svg 0.002
9Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.913Increase2.svg 0.001
9Increase2.svg (1)Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 0.913Increase2.svg 0.002
11Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 0.912Increase2.svg 0.003
12Steady2.svgFlag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 0.910Increase2.svg 0.002
13Steady2.svgFlag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 0.908Increase2.svg 0.001
14Steady2.svgFlag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.907Increase2.svg 0.002
14Increase2.svg (1)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.907Increase2.svg 0.005
16Steady2.svgFlag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.899Steady2.svg
17Steady2.svgFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.898Increase2.svg 0.003
18Steady2.svgFlag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.894Increase2.svg 0.001
18Steady2.svgFlag of Macau.svg  Macau 0.894 [23]
19Steady2.svgFlag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.892Increase2.svg 0.002
20Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.891Increase2.svg 0.001
21Steady2.svgFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.890Increase2.svg 0.002
22Steady2.svgFlag of France.svg  France 0.888Increase2.svg 0.001
23Steady2.svgFlag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.885Increase2.svg 0.001
24Steady2.svgFlag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.883Increase2.svg 0.001
25Steady2.svgFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 0.882 [24]
26Steady2.svgFlag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.880Increase2.svg 0.001
27Steady2.svgFlag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.876Increase2.svg 0.002
28Steady2.svgFlag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.873Steady2.svg
29Steady2.svgFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.870Increase2.svg 0.002
30Steady2.svgFlag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.865Increase2.svg 0.002
31Steady2.svgFlag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.861Increase2.svg 0.002
32Steady2.svgFlag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 0.856Increase2.svg 0.004
33Steady2.svgFlag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.850Steady2.svg
33Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 0.850Increase2.svg 0.001
34Steady2.svgFlag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 0.845Increase2.svg 0.001
35Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.844Increase2.svg 0.005
36Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.843Increase2.svg 0.003
37Steady2.svgFlag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.839Increase2.svg 0.002
37Steady2.svgFlag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.839Increase2.svg 0.002
39Steady2.svgFlag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 0.837Increase2.svg 0.001
40Steady2.svgFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.836Increase2.svg 0.003
41Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 0.835Increase2.svg 0.002
42Steady2.svgFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.832Increase2.svg 0.002
43Steady2.svgFlag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.830Increase2.svg 0.002
44Steady2.svgFlag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.828Increase2.svg 0.003
45Steady2.svgFlag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 0.824Increase2.svg 0.003
46Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.819Increase2.svg 0.003
47Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.818Increase2.svg 0.001
48Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 0.816Steady2.svg
49Steady2.svgFlag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 0.802Increase2.svg 0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2015 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) [19] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

Note: The green arrows (Increase2.svg), red arrows (Decrease2.svg), and blue dashes (Steady2.svg) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 216).

  1. Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.893 (Steady2.svg)
  2. Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.861 (Increase2.svg 1)
  3. Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.861 (Increase2.svg 1)
  4. Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.858 (Decrease2.svg 2)
  5. Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.856 (Increase2.svg 3)
  6. Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.853 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  7. Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.846 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  8. Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.846 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  9. Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.836 (Increase2.svg 1)
  10. Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.834 (Increase2.svg 1)
  11. Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.832 (Decrease2.svg 2)
  12. Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.829 (Steady2.svg)
  13. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.829 (Increase2.svg 3)
  14. Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.823 (Increase2.svg 1)
  15. Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.822 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  16. Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.820 (Increase2.svg 1)
  17. Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.816 (Decrease2.svg 4)
  18. Flag of France.svg  France 0.811 (Steady2.svg)
  19. Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.791 (Increase2.svg 2)
  20. Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.782 (Increase2.svg 4)
  21. Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.780 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  22. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.775 (Decrease2.svg 3)
  23. Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.775 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  24. Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.773 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  25. Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.769 (Increase2.svg 2)
  26. Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.767 (Steady2.svg)
  27. Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.760 (Increase2.svg 2)
  28. Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.760 (Steady2.svg)
  29. Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.758 (Increase2.svg 1)
  30. Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.758 (Decrease2.svg 5)
  31. Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.754 (Steady2.svg)
  32. Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.751 (Increase2.svg 1)
  33. Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.744 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  34. Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.743 (Increase2.svg 1)
  35. Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 0.741
  36. Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.730

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Andorra, Bahrain, Brunei, Hong Kong, Kuwait, Liechtenstein, New Zealand, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and United Arab Emirates.

2013 Human Development Index (2014 report)

The 2014 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 24 July 2014 and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2013. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries or regions: [25] [20] [21]

RankCountry or RegionHDI
New 2014 estimates for 2013
[26]
Change in rank between 2014 report and 2013 report [26] New 2014 estimates for 2013
[26]
Change compared between 2014 report and 2013 report
[26]
1Steady2.svgFlag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.944Decrease2.svg 0.011
2Steady2.svgFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.933Increase2.svg 0.002
3Steady2.svgFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.917Increase2.svg 0.001
4Steady2.svgFlag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.915Steady2.svg
5Steady2.svgFlag of the United States.svg  United States 0.914Increase2.svg 0.002
6Steady2.svgFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.911Steady2.svg
7Steady2.svgFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 0.910Increase2.svg 0.002
8Steady2.svgFlag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.902Increase2.svg 0.001
9Increase2.svg (3)Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 0.901Increase2.svg 0.002
10Steady2.svgFlag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.900Steady2.svg
11Decrease2.svg (3)Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.899Decrease2.svg 0.017
12Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.898Increase2.svg 0.001
13Steady2.svgFlag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.895Increase2.svg 0.002
14Steady2.svgFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.892Increase2.svg 0.002
14Steady2.svgFlag of Macau.svg  Macau 0.892 [23]
15Steady2.svgFlag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 0.891Increase2.svg 0.002
15Increase2.svg (1)Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.891Increase2.svg 0.003
17Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.890Increase2.svg 0.002
18Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 0.889Increase2.svg 0.001
19Steady2.svgFlag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.888Increase2.svg 0.002
20Steady2.svgFlag of France.svg  France 0.884Steady2.svg
21Steady2.svgFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 0.882 [24]
22Steady2.svgFlag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.881Increase2.svg 0.001
22Steady2.svgFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.881Increase2.svg 0.001
22Steady2.svgFlag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.881Increase2.svg 0.001
23Steady2.svgFlag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.879Steady2.svg
24Steady2.svgFlag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.874Steady2.svg
25Steady2.svgFlag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.872Steady2.svg
26Steady2.svgFlag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.869Steady2.svg
27Steady2.svgFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.861Steady2.svg
28Steady2.svgFlag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.853Decrease2.svg 0.001
29Steady2.svgFlag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 0.852Steady2.svg
30Steady2.svgFlag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 0.851Increase2.svg 0.001
31Steady2.svgFlag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.845Decrease2.svg 0.003
32Steady2.svgFlag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.840Increase2.svg 0.001
33Steady2.svgFlag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 0.836Increase2.svg 0.003
34Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.834Increase2.svg 0.003
34Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.834Increase2.svg 0.001
35Steady2.svgFlag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 0.830Steady2.svg
35Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.830Increase2.svg 0.001
36Steady2.svgFlag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.829Increase2.svg 0.002
37Steady2.svgFlag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 0.827Increase2.svg 0.002
38Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.822Increase2.svg 0.003
38Steady2.svgFlag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.822Steady2.svg
39Steady2.svgFlag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.818Increase2.svg 0.001
40Steady2.svgFlag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 0.815Increase2.svg 0.002
40Steady2.svgFlag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 0.815Increase2.svg 0.002
41Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 0.814Increase2.svg 0.001
42Steady2.svgFlag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.812Steady2.svg
43Steady2.svgFlag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.810Increase2.svg 0.002
44Steady2.svgFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.808Increase2.svg 0.002

Countries not included

Some countries were not included for various reasons, primarily due to the lack of necessary data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2014 report: [25] North Korea, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Tuvalu.

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2014 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) [25] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

Note: The green arrows (Increase2.svg), red arrows (Decrease2.svg), and blue dashes (Steady2.svg) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 168).

  1. Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.891 (Steady2.svg)
  2. Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.860 (Steady2.svg)
  3. Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.854 (Increase2.svg 1)
  4. Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.847 (Increase2.svg 3)
  5. Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.846 (Steady2.svg)
  6. Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.843 (Increase2.svg 2)
  7. Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.840 (Decrease2.svg 4)
  8. Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.838 (Increase2.svg 1)
  9. Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.833 (Increase2.svg 4)
  10. Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.832 (Decrease2.svg 4)
  11. Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.830 (Steady2.svg)
  12. Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.824 (Decrease2.svg 2)
  13. Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.818 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  14. Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.814 (Increase2.svg 3)
  15. Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.813 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  16. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.812 (Increase2.svg 3)
  17. Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.806 (Decrease2.svg 2)
  18. Flag of France.svg  France 0.804 (Steady2.svg)
  19. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.793 (Increase2.svg 1)
  20. Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.779 (New)
  21. Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.778 (Increase2.svg 1)