Human Development Index

Last updated

World map of countries by Human Development Index categories in increments of 0.050 (based on 2017 data, published on 14 September 2018).
>= 0.900
0.850-0.899
0.800-0.849
0.750-0.799
0.700-0.749
0.650-0.699
0.600-0.649
0.550-0.599
0.500-0.549
0.450-0.499
0.400-0.449
<= 0.399
Data unavailable 2018 HDI.svg
World map of countries by Human Development Index categories in increments of 0.050 (based on 2017 data, published on 14 September 2018).
  ≥ 0.900
  0.850–0.899
  0.800–0.849
  0.750–0.799
  0.700–0.749
  0.650–0.699
  0.600–0.649
  0.550–0.599
  0.500–0.549
  0.450–0.499
  0.400–0.449
  ≤ 0.399
  Data unavailable

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the gross national income GNI (PPP) per capita is higher. It was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, and was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP)'s Human Development Report Office. [1] [2] [3]

Life expectancy Statistical measure of how long a person or organism may live, based on factors of their life

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender. The most commonly used measure of life expectancy is at birth (LEB), which can be defined in two ways. Cohort LEB is the mean length of life of an actual birth cohort and can be computed only for cohorts born many decades ago, so that all their members have died. Period LEB is the mean length of life of a hypothetical cohort assumed to be exposed, from birth through death, to the mortality rates observed at a given year.

Education Learning in which knowledge and skills is transferred through teaching

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, however learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.

Per capita income mean income of the people in an economic unit such as a country or city

Per capita income (PCI) or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population.

Contents

The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)", and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)". The index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others. [4]

Human Development Report annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme

The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual report published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Social inequality

Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons. It is the differentiation preference of access of social goods in the society brought about by power, religion, kinship, prestige, race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, and class. The social rights include labor market, the source of income, health care, and freedom of speech, education, political representation, and participation. Social inequality linked to economic inequality, usually described on the basis of the unequal distribution of income or wealth, is a frequently studied type of social inequality. Though the disciplines of economics and sociology generally use different theoretical approaches to examine and explain economic inequality, both fields are actively involved in researching this inequality. However, social and natural resources other than purely economic resources are also unevenly distributed in most societies and may contribute to social status. Norms of allocation can also affect the distribution of rights and privileges, social power, access to public goods such as education or the judicial system, adequate housing, transportation, credit and financial services such as banking and other social goods and services.

In business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it's also defined as being suitable for its intended purpose while satisfying customer expectations. Quality is a perceptual, conditional, and somewhat subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people. Consumers may focus on the specification quality of a product/service, or how it compares to competitors in the marketplace. Producers might measure the conformance quality, or degree to which the product/service was produced correctly. Support personnel may measure quality in the degree that a product is reliable, maintainable, or sustainable.

The index is based on the human development approach, developed by Amartya Sen, often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, sheltered, healthy; Doings: work, education, voting, participating in community life. The freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry (as during a religious fast) is quite different from someone who is hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. [5]

Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. An absolute fast or dry fasting is normally defined as abstinence from all food and liquid for a defined period. Other fasts may be partially restrictive, limiting only particular foods or substances, or be intermittent.

Famine widespread scarcity of food followed by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality

A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies. This phenomenon is usually accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality. Every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history. In the 19th and 20th century, it was generally Southeast and South Asia, as well as Eastern and Central Europe that suffered the most deaths from famine. The numbers dying from famine began to fall sharply from the 2000s.

Origins

Mahbub ul Haq Mahbub-ul-Haq.jpg
Mahbub ul Haq
Amartya Sen Amartya Sen , c2000 (4379246038).jpg
Amartya Sen

The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, and had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, and Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities. [3] Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public, academics, and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being.

United Nations Development Programme global network for development of United Nations

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network. It advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life for themselves. It provides expert advice, training and grants support to developing countries, with increasing emphasis on assistance to the least developed countries. It promotes technical and investment cooperation among nations.

Mahbub ul Haq Pakistani economist

Mahbub ul Haq was a Pakistani game theorist, economist and an international development theorist who served as the 13th Finance Minister of Pakistan from 10 April 1985 until 28 January 1988.

People-centered development is an approach to international development that focuses on improving local communities' self-reliance, social justice, and participatory decision-making. It recognizes that economic growth does not inherently contribute to human development and calls for changes in social, political, and environmental values and practices.

The underlying principle behind the Human Development Index. HDI explained the best way.png
The underlying principle behind the Human Development Index.

Dimensions and calculation

New method (2010 Index onwards)

World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2017 data, published in 2018).
0.800-1.000 (very high)
0.700-0.799 (high)
0.555-0.699 (medium)
0.350-0.554 (low)
Data unavailable 2018 UN Human Development Report.svg
World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2017 data, published in 2018).
  0.800–1.000 (very high)
  0.700–0.799 (high)
  0.555–0.699 (medium)
  0.350–0.554 (low)
  Data unavailable

Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: [7] [8]

The gross national income (GNI), previously known as gross national product (GNP), is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents. Comparing GNI to GDP shows the degree to which a nation's GDP represents domestic or international activity. GNI has gradually replaced GNP in international statistics. While being conceptually identical, it is calculated differently. GNI is the basis of calculation of the largest part of contributions to the budget of the European Union. In February 2017, Ireland's GDP became so distorted from the base erosion and profit shifting ("BEPS") tax planning tools of U.S. multinationals, that the Central Bank of Ireland replaced Irish GDP with a new metric, Irish Modified GNI*. In 2017, Irish GDP was 162% of Irish Modified GNI*.

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a way of measuring economic variables in different countries so that irrelevant exchange rate variations do not distort comparisons. Purchasing power exchange rates are such that it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then buy a basket of goods in the market as it would cost to purchase the same goods directly with dollars. The purchasing power exchange rate used in this conversion equals the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing powers.

In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used:

1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI)

LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.

2. Education Index (EI) [9]

2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI) [10]
Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025.
2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) [11]
Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.

3. Income Index (II)

II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100.

Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices:

LE: Life expectancy at birth
MYS: Mean years of schooling (i.e. years that a person aged 25 or older has spent in formal education)
EYS: Expected years of schooling (i.e. total expected years of schooling for children under 18 years of age)
GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita

Old method (before 2010 Index)

The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report:

HDI trends between 1975 and 2004
OECD
Europe not in the OECD and CIS
Latin America and the Caribbean
East Asia
Arab League
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa Human Development Index trends.svg
HDI trends between 1975 and 2004
   OECD
   Europe not in the OECD and CIS
   Latin America and the Caribbean
   East Asia

This methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report.

The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). [12] In general, to transform a raw variable, say , into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:

where and are the lowest and highest values the variable can attain, respectively.

The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the uniformly weighted sum with 13 contributed by each of the following factor indices:

Other organizations/companies may include other factors, such as infant mortality, which produces a different HDI.

2017 Human Development Index (2018 report)

The 2018 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 14 September 2018, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2017. [13] Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries: [13]

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2018 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) [14] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 30).

  1. Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.878
  2. Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.876
  3. Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.876
  4. Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.871
  5. Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.868
  6. Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.864
  7. Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.861
  8. Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.861
  9. Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.860
  10. Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.857
  11. Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.854
  12. Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.852
  13. Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 0.846
  14. Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.846
  15. Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.840
  16. Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.836
  17. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.835
  18. Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.835
  19. Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 0.816
  20. Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.811
  21. Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 0.809
  22. Flag of France.svg  France 0.808
  23. Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.805
  24. Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.797
  25. Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.797
  26. Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.794
  27. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.787
  28. Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.787
  29. Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.773
  30. Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.773
  31. Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.771
  32. Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.769
  33. Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.759
  34. Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.757
  35. Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.756
  36. Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 0.755
  37. Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.754
  38. Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.753
  39. Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 0.741
  40. Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 0.738
  41. Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 0.737
  42. Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.732
  43. Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 0.717
  44. Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 0.710
  45. Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.710
  46. Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.707
  47. Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 0.707
  48. Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 0.706
  49. Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 0.701
  50. Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 0.689
  51. Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 0.683
  52. Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 0.682
  53. Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 0.681
  54. Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 0.680
  55. Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 0.669

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Taiwan, Liechtenstein, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Andorra, Qatar, Brunei, Bahrain, Oman, Bahamas, Kuwait and Malaysia.

2015 Human Development Index (2016 report)

The 2016 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 21 March 2017, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2015. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries: [15]

RankCountry or regionScore
2016 estimates for 2015
[16]
Change in rank from previous year [16] 2016 estimates for 2015
[16]
Change from previous year
[16]
1Steady2.svgFlag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.949Increase2.svg 0.001
2Steady2.svgFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.939Increase2.svg 0.002
2Steady2.svgFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.939Increase2.svg 0.001
4Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.926Increase2.svg 0.002
5Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.925Increase2.svg 0.002
5Increase2.svg (6)Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 0.925Increase2.svg 0.013
7Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.924Increase2.svg 0.001
8Steady2.svgFlag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.923Increase2.svg 0.003
9Increase2.svg (7)Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.921Increase2.svg 0.002
10Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.920Increase2.svg 0.001
10Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.920Increase2.svg 0.002
12Steady2.svgFlag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 0.917Increase2.svg 0.001
13Decrease2.svg (4)Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 0.915Increase2.svg 0.002
14Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.913Increase2.svg 0.004
15Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 0.912Increase2.svg 0.001
16Decrease2.svg (4)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.909Increase2.svg 0.003
17Increase2.svg (3)Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.903Increase2.svg 0.001
18Steady2.svgFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.901Increase2.svg 0.002
19Steady2.svgFlag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.899Increase2.svg 0.001
20Steady2.svgFlag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.898Increase2.svg 0.002
21Increase2.svg (1)Flag of France.svg  France 0.897Increase2.svg 0.003
22Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.896Increase2.svg 0.001
23Steady2.svgFlag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.895Increase2.svg 0.002
24Steady2.svgFlag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.893Increase2.svg 0.001
25Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.892Increase2.svg 0.005
26Steady2.svgFlag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.890Increase2.svg 0.002
27Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.887Increase2.svg 0.006
28Steady2.svgFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.878Increase2.svg 0.003
29Steady2.svgFlag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.866Increase2.svg 0.001
30Increase2.svg (10)Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.865Increase2.svg 0.020
31Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.865Increase2.svg 0.002
32Steady2.svgFlag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 0.858Increase2.svg 0.001
33Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.856Increase2.svg 0.002
33Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.856Increase2.svg 0.003
33Steady2.svgFlag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 0.856Increase2.svg 0.001
36Steady2.svgFlag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.855Increase2.svg 0.003
37Steady2.svgFlag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.848Increase2.svg 0.002
38Increase2.svg (4)Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.847Increase2.svg 0.002
38Steady2.svgFlag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 0.847Increase2.svg 0.002
41Steady2.svgFlag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.843Increase2.svg 0.002
42Steady2.svgFlag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 0.840Increase2.svg 0.004
43Steady2.svgFlag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.836Increase2.svg 0.002
44Steady2.svgFlag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.830Increase2.svg 0.002
45Decrease2.svg (5)Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.827Increase2.svg 0.001
45Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.827Increase2.svg 0.004
47Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 0.824Increase2.svg 0.001
48Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 0.807Increase2.svg 0.003
49Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 0.804Decrease2.svg 0.001
50Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 0.802Increase2.svg 0.004
51Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 0.800Increase2.svg 0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2016 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) [17] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 206).

  1. Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.898
  2. Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.868
  3. Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.861
  4. Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.861
  5. Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.859
  6. Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.859
  7. Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.858
  8. Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.851
  9. Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.850
  10. Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.843
  11. Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.839
  12. Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.838
  13. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.836
  14. Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.830
  15. Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.827
  16. Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.821
  17. Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.815
  18. Flag of France.svg  France 0.813
  19. Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.796
  20. Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.793
  21. Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.791
  22. Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.791
  23. Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.788
  24. Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.786
  25. Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.784
  26. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.778
  27. Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.774
  28. Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.771
  29. Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.762
  30. Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.759
  31. Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.758
  32. Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.755
  33. Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.753
  34. Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.752
  35. Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.742
  36. Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 0.736
  37. Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 0.725
  38. Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 0.714
  39. Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.698
  40. Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.691

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Taiwan, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Kuwait.

2014 Human Development Index (2015 report)

The 2015 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 14 December 2015, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2014. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries: [18] [19] [20]

RankCountryScore
2015 estimates for 2014
[21]
Change in rank from previous year [21] 2015 estimates for 2014
[21]
Change from previous year
[21]
1Steady2.svgFlag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.944Increase2.svg 0.002
2Steady2.svgFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.935Increase2.svg 0.002
3Steady2.svgFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.930Increase2.svg 0.002
4Steady2.svgFlag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.923Steady2.svg
5Steady2.svgFlag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.922Increase2.svg 0.002
6Steady2.svgFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.916Increase2.svg 0.001
6Increase2.svg (2)Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.916Increase2.svg 0.004
8Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.915Increase2.svg 0.002
9Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.913Increase2.svg 0.001
9Increase2.svg (1)Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 0.913Increase2.svg 0.002
11Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 0.912Increase2.svg 0.003
12Steady2.svgFlag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 0.910Increase2.svg 0.002
13Steady2.svgFlag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 0.908Increase2.svg 0.001
14Steady2.svgFlag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.907Increase2.svg 0.002
14Increase2.svg (1)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.907Increase2.svg 0.005
16Steady2.svgFlag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.899Steady2.svg
17Steady2.svgFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.898Increase2.svg 0.003
18Steady2.svgFlag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.894Increase2.svg 0.001
18Steady2.svgFlag of Macau.svg  Macau 0.894 [22]
19Steady2.svgFlag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.892Increase2.svg 0.002
20Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.891Increase2.svg 0.001
21Steady2.svgFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.890Increase2.svg 0.002
22Steady2.svgFlag of France.svg  France 0.888Increase2.svg 0.001
23Steady2.svgFlag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.885Increase2.svg 0.001
24Steady2.svgFlag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.883Increase2.svg 0.001
25Steady2.svgFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 0.882 [23]
26Steady2.svgFlag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.880Increase2.svg 0.001
27Steady2.svgFlag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.876Increase2.svg 0.002
28Steady2.svgFlag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.873Steady2.svg
29Steady2.svgFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.870Increase2.svg 0.002
30Steady2.svgFlag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.865Increase2.svg 0.002
31Steady2.svgFlag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.861Increase2.svg 0.002
32Steady2.svgFlag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 0.856Increase2.svg 0.004
33Steady2.svgFlag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.850Steady2.svg
33Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 0.850Increase2.svg 0.001
34Steady2.svgFlag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 0.845Increase2.svg 0.001
35Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.844Increase2.svg 0.005
36Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.843Increase2.svg 0.003
37Steady2.svgFlag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.839Increase2.svg 0.002
37Steady2.svgFlag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.839Increase2.svg 0.002
39Steady2.svgFlag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 0.837Increase2.svg 0.001
40Steady2.svgFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.836Increase2.svg 0.003
41Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 0.835Increase2.svg 0.002
42Steady2.svgFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.832Increase2.svg 0.002
43Steady2.svgFlag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.830Increase2.svg 0.002
44Steady2.svgFlag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.828Increase2.svg 0.003
45Steady2.svgFlag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 0.824Increase2.svg 0.003
46Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.819Increase2.svg 0.003
47Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.818Increase2.svg 0.001
48Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 0.816Steady2.svg
49Steady2.svgFlag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 0.802Increase2.svg 0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2015 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) [18] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

Note: The green arrows (Increase2.svg), red arrows (Decrease2.svg), and blue dashes (Steady2.svg) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 216).

  1. Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.893 (Steady2.svg)
  2. Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.861 (Increase2.svg 1)
  3. Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.861 (Increase2.svg 1)
  4. Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.858 (Decrease2.svg 2)
  5. Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.856 (Increase2.svg 3)
  6. Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.853 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  7. Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.846 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  8. Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.846 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  9. Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.836 (Increase2.svg 1)
  10. Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.834 (Increase2.svg 1)
  11. Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.832 (Decrease2.svg 2)
  12. Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.829 (Steady2.svg)
  13. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.829 (Increase2.svg 3)
  14. Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.823 (Increase2.svg 1)
  15. Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.822 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  16. Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.820 (Increase2.svg 1)
  17. Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.816 (Decrease2.svg 4)
  18. Flag of France.svg  France 0.811 (Steady2.svg)
  19. Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.791 (Increase2.svg 2)
  20. Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.782 (Increase2.svg 4)
  21. Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.780 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  22. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.775 (Decrease2.svg 3)
  23. Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.775 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  24. Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.773 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  25. Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.769 (Increase2.svg 2)
  26. Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.767 (Steady2.svg)
  27. Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.760 (Increase2.svg 2)
  28. Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.760 (Steady2.svg)
  29. Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.758 (Increase2.svg 1)
  30. Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.758 (Decrease2.svg 5)
  31. Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.754 (Steady2.svg)
  32. Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.751 (Increase2.svg 1)
  33. Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.744 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  34. Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.743 (Increase2.svg 1)
  35. Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 0.741
  36. Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.730

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Taiwan, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Cuba, and Kuwait.

2013 Human Development Index (2014 report)

The 2014 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 24 July 2014 and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2013. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries or regions: [24] [19] [20]

RankCountry or RegionHDI
New 2014 estimates for 2013
[25]
Change in rank between 2014 report and 2013 report [25] New 2014 estimates for 2013
[25]
Change compared between 2014 report and 2013 report
[25]
1Steady2.svgFlag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.944Decrease2.svg 0.011
2Steady2.svgFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.933Increase2.svg 0.002
3Steady2.svgFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.917Increase2.svg 0.001
4Steady2.svgFlag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.915Steady2.svg
5Steady2.svgFlag of the United States.svg  United States 0.914Increase2.svg 0.002
6Steady2.svgFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.911Steady2.svg
7Steady2.svgFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 0.910Increase2.svg 0.002
8Steady2.svgFlag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.902Increase2.svg 0.001
9Increase2.svg (3)Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 0.901Increase2.svg 0.002
10Steady2.svgFlag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.900Steady2.svg
11Decrease2.svg (3)Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.899Decrease2.svg 0.017
12Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.898Increase2.svg 0.001
13Steady2.svgFlag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.895Increase2.svg 0.002
14Steady2.svgFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.892Increase2.svg 0.002
14Steady2.svgFlag of Macau.svg  Macau 0.892 [22]
15Steady2.svgFlag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 0.891Increase2.svg 0.002
15Increase2.svg (1)Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.891Increase2.svg 0.003
17Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.890Increase2.svg 0.002
18Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 0.889Increase2.svg 0.001
19Steady2.svgFlag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.888Increase2.svg 0.002
20Steady2.svgFlag of France.svg  France 0.884Steady2.svg
21Steady2.svgFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 0.882 [23]
22Steady2.svgFlag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.881Increase2.svg 0.001
22Steady2.svgFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.881Increase2.svg 0.001
22Steady2.svgFlag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.881Increase2.svg 0.001
23Steady2.svgFlag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.879Steady2.svg
24Steady2.svgFlag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.874Steady2.svg
25Steady2.svgFlag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.872Steady2.svg
26Steady2.svgFlag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.869Steady2.svg
27Steady2.svgFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.861Steady2.svg
28Steady2.svgFlag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.853Decrease2.svg 0.001
29Steady2.svgFlag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 0.852Steady2.svg
30Steady2.svgFlag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 0.851Increase2.svg 0.001
31Steady2.svgFlag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.845Decrease2.svg 0.003
32Steady2.svgFlag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.840Increase2.svg 0.001
33Steady2.svgFlag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 0.836Increase2.svg 0.003
34Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.834Increase2.svg 0.003
34Decrease2.svg (1)Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.834Increase2.svg 0.001
35Steady2.svgFlag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 0.830Steady2.svg
35Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.830Increase2.svg 0.001
36Steady2.svgFlag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.829Increase2.svg 0.002
37Steady2.svgFlag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 0.827Increase2.svg 0.002
38Increase2.svg (1)Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.822Increase2.svg 0.003
38Steady2.svgFlag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.822Steady2.svg
39Steady2.svgFlag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.818Increase2.svg 0.001
40Steady2.svgFlag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 0.815Increase2.svg 0.002
40Steady2.svgFlag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 0.815Increase2.svg 0.002
41Decrease2.svg (2)Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 0.814Increase2.svg 0.001
42Steady2.svgFlag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.812Steady2.svg
43Steady2.svgFlag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.810Increase2.svg 0.002
44Steady2.svgFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.808Increase2.svg 0.002

Countries not included

Some countries were not included for various reasons, primarily due to the lack of necessary data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2014 report: [24] North Korea, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Tuvalu.

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2014 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) [24] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

Note: The green arrows (Increase2.svg), red arrows (Decrease2.svg), and blue dashes (Steady2.svg) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 168).

  1. Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 0.891 (Steady2.svg)
  2. Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 0.860 (Steady2.svg)
  3. Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0.854 (Increase2.svg 1)
  4. Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 0.847 (Increase2.svg 3)
  5. Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0.846 (Steady2.svg)
  6. Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 0.843 (Increase2.svg 2)
  7. Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0.840 (Decrease2.svg 4)
  8. Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0.838 (Increase2.svg 1)
  9. Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0.833 (Increase2.svg 4)
  10. Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 0.832 (Decrease2.svg 4)
  11. Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 0.830 (Steady2.svg)
  12. Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 0.824 (Decrease2.svg 2)
  13. Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 0.818 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  14. Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 0.814 (Increase2.svg 3)
  15. Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 0.813 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  16. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 0.812 (Increase2.svg 3)
  17. Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 0.806 (Decrease2.svg 2)
  18. Flag of France.svg  France 0.804 (Steady2.svg)
  19. Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 0.793 (Increase2.svg 1)
  20. Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 0.779 (New)
  21. Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 0.778 (Increase2.svg 1)
  22. Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0.775 (Decrease2.svg 2)
  23. Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 0.768 (Increase2.svg 1)
  24. Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0.767 (Increase2.svg 1)
  25. Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 0.762 (Increase2.svg 2)
  26. Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.760 (Decrease2.svg 3)
  27. Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 0.757 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  28. Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0.755 (Decrease2.svg 12)
  29. Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 0.751 (Increase2.svg 1)
  30. Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 0.752 (Decrease2.svg 1)
  31. Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 0.746 (Increase2.svg 2)
  32. Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 0.739 (Steady2.svg)
  33. Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0.736 (Decrease2.svg 5)
  34. Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 0.725 (Increase2.svg 1)
  35. Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 0.721 (Increase2.svg 4)
  36. Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0.680 (Increase2.svg 7)
  37. Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 0.661 (Increase2.svg 4)

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Taiwan, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Cuba, and Kuwait.

Past top countries

The list below displays the top-ranked country from each year of the Human Development Index. Norway has been ranked the highest fourteen times, Canada eight times, and Japan three times. Iceland has been ranked highest twice.

In each original HDI

The year represents when the report was published. In parentheses is the year for which the index was calculated.

Geographical coverage

The HDI has extended its geographical coverage: David Hastings, of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, published a report geographically extending the HDI to 230+ economies, whereas the UNDP HDI for 2009 enumerates 182 economies and coverage for the 2010 HDI dropped to 169 countries. [26] [27]

Country/region specific HDI lists

Criticism

HDI vs. ecological footprint Human welfare and ecological footprint.jpg
HDI vs. ecological footprint

The Human Development Index has been criticized on a number of grounds, including alleged lack of consideration of technological development or contributions to the human civilization, focusing exclusively on national performance and ranking, lack of attention to development from a global perspective, measurement error of the underlying statistics, and on the UNDP's changes in formula which can lead to severe misclassification in the categorisation of "low", "medium", "high" or "very high" human development countries. [28]

Sources of data error

Economists Hendrik Wolff, Howard Chong and Maximilian Auffhammer discuss the HDI from the perspective of data error in the underlying health, education and income statistics used to construct the HDI. They identified three sources of data error which are due to (i) data updating, (ii) formula revisions and (iii) thresholds to classify a country's development status and conclude that 11%, 21% and 34% of all countries can be interpreted as currently misclassified in the development bins due to the three sources of data error, respectively. The authors suggest that the United Nations should discontinue the practice of classifying countries into development bins because: the cut-off values seem arbitrary, can provide incentives for strategic behavior in reporting official statistics, and have the potential to misguide politicians, investors, charity donors and the public who use the HDI at large. [28]

In 2010, the UNDP reacted to the criticism and updated the thresholds to classify nations as low, medium, and high human development countries. In a comment to The Economist in early January 2011, the Human Development Report Office responded [29] to a 6 January 2011 article in the magazine [30] which discusses the Wolff et al. paper. The Human Development Report Office states that they undertook a systematic revision of the methods used for the calculation of the HDI, and that the new methodology directly addresses the critique by Wolff et al. in that it generates a system for continuously updating the human-development categories whenever formula or data revisions take place.

In 2013, Salvatore Monni and Alessandro Spaventa emphasized that in the debate of GDP versus HDI, it is often forgotten that these are both external indicators that prioritize different benchmarks upon which the quantification of societal welfare can be predicated. The larger question is whether it is possible to shift the focus of policy from a battle between competing paradigms to a mechanism for eliciting information on well-being directly from the population. [31]

See also

Indices

Other

Related Research Articles

Developed country country with a developed industry and infrastructure

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or more economically developed country (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living. Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate.

The Human Poverty Index (HPI) was an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations (UN) to complement the Human Development Index (HDI) and was first reported as part of the Human Development Report in 1997. It was considered to better reflect the extent of deprivation in developed countries compared to the HDI. In 2010 it was supplanted by the UN's Multidimensional Poverty Index.

Happy life expectancy (HLE) is calculated by multiplying life expectancy by a happiness index. The first uses life expectancy at birth. The happiness index is the average appreciation of life from the world databases of happiness.

The Gender Related Development Index (GDI) is an index designed to measure gender equality.

Education Index

The United Nations publishes a Human Development Index every year, which consists of the Education index, GDP Index and Life Expectancy Index. These three components measure the educational attainment, GDP per capita and life expectancy respectively.

Multidimensional Poverty Index

The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index(MPI) was developed in 2010 by the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative and the United Nations Development Programme. and uses different factors to determine poverty beyond income-based lists. It replaced the previous Human Poverty Index. The global MPI is released annually by OPHI and the results published on its website.

Gender Inequality Index

The Gender Inequality Index (GII) is an index for measurement of gender disparity that was introduced in the 2010 Human Development Report 20th anniversary edition by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). According to the UNDP, this index is a composite measure to quantify the loss of achievement within a country due to gender inequality. It uses three dimensions to measure opportunity cost: reproductive health, empowerment, and labor market participation.

References

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  2. "Human Development Index". Economic Times. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  3. 1 2 "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  4. The Courier. Commission of the European Communities. 1994.
  5. 1 2 "What is Human Development". UNDP. 2017. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  6. "Human Development Report 2010". UNDP. 4 November 2010. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  7. "Technical notes" (PDF). UNDP. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  8. "New method of calculation of Human Development Index (HDI)". India Study Channel. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  9. Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years) is a calculation of the average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older in their lifetime based on education attainment levels of the population converted into years of schooling based on theoretical duration of each level of education attended. Source: Barro, R. J.; Lee, J.-W. (2010). "A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010". NBER Working Paper No. 15902. doi:10.3386/w15902. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  10. (ESYI is a calculation of the number of years a child is expected to attend school, or university, including the years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrollment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education and is calculated assuming the prevailing patterns of age-specific enrollment rates were to stay the same throughout the child's life. Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. (Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010). Correspondence on education indicators. March. Montreal.)
  11. Definition, Calculator, etc. at UNDP site Archived 20 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  12. 1 2 "Human Development Indices and Indicators – 2018 Statistical Update" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 22–25. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  13. "Human Development Report 2018 – "Human Development Indices and Indicators"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 30–33. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  14. "Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 March 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  15. 1 2 3 4 "Human Development Report 2016—'Human Development for everyone'" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  16. "Report" (PDF). hdr.undp.org. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 March 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  17. 1 2 "Statistics" (PDF). hdr.undp.org. 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  18. 1 2 The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.Macau in Figures, 2015 Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  19. 1 2 Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  20. 1 2 3 4 "Human Development Report 2015—'Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience'" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  21. 1 2 The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI. Macau in Figures, 2016 Archived 11 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  22. 1 2 The UN does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) as a sovereign state. The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures. Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  23. 1 2 3 "Data" (PDF). hdr.undp.org. 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  24. 1 2 3 4 "Human Development Report 2014—'Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience'". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  25. Hastings, David A. (2009). "Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index". United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Working Paper WP/09/02. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
  26. Hastings, David A. (2011). "A "Classic" Human Development Index with 232 Countries". HumanSecurityIndex.org. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011. Information Note linked to data
  27. 1 2 Wolff, Hendrik; Chong, Howard; Auffhammer, Maximilian (2011). "Classification, Detection and Consequences of Data Error: Evidence from the Human Development Index". Economic Journal. 121 (553): 843–870. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2010.02408.x.
  28. "UNDP Human Development Report Office's comments". The Economist. January 2011. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  29. "The Economist (pages 60–61 in the issue of Jan 8, 2011)". 6 January 2011. Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  30. Monni, Salvatore; Spaventa, Alessandro (2013). "Beyond Gdp and HDI: Shifting the focus from Paradigms to Politics". Development. 56 (2): 227–231. doi:10.1057/dev.2013.30.