Debt bondage

Last updated

Debt bondage, also known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is the pledge of a person's services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where the terms of the repayment are not clearly or reasonably stated, and the person who is holding the debt and thus has some control over the laborer. Freedom is assumed on debt repayment. [1] The services required to repay the debt may be undefined, and the services' duration may be undefined, thus allowing the person supposedly owed the debt to demand services indefinitely. [2] Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation. [2]

Contents

Currently, debt bondage is the most common method of enslavement with an estimated 8.1 million people bonded to labour illegally as cited by the International Labour Organization in 2005. [3] Debt bondage has been described by the United Nations as a form of "modern day slavery" and the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery seeks to abolish the practice. [2] [4] [5]

The practice is still prevalent primarily in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, although most countries in these regions are parties to the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery. It is predicted that 84 to 88% of the bonded labourers in the world are in South Asia. [4] [6] Lack of prosecution or insufficient punishment of this crime are the leading causes of the practice as it exists at this scale today. [6] [7]

Overview

Definition

Though the Forced Labour Convention of 1930 by the International Labour Organization, which included 187 parties, sought to bring organised attention to eradicating slavery through forms of forced labor, formal opposition to debt bondage in particular came at the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery in 1956. [1] [2] The convention in 1956 [2] defined debt bondage under Article 1, section (a):

"Debt bondage, that is to say, the status or condition arising from a pledge by a debtor of his personal services or of those of a person under his control as security for a debt if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied towards the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined;" [2]

When a pledge to provide services to pay off debt is made by an individual, the employer often illegally inflates interest rates at an unreasonable amount, making it impossible for the individual to leave bonded labour. [8] When the bonded labourer dies, debts are often passed on to children. [8] [9]

Usage of term

Although debt bondage, forced labour, and human trafficking are all defined as forms or variations of slavery, each term is distinct. [1] [10] [11] Debt bondage differs from forced labour and human trafficking in that a person consciously pledges to work as a means of repayment of debt without being placed into labor against will. [1] [10]

Debt bondage only applies to individuals who have no hopes of leaving the labor due to inability to ever pay debt back. [1] [8] Those who offer their services to repay a debt and the employer reduces the debt accordingly at a rate commensurate with the value of labor performed are not in debt bondage. [1] [8]

History

Africa

Important to both East and West Africa, pawnship, defined by Wilks as "the use of people in transferring their rights for settlement of debt," was common during the 17th century. [12] The system of pawnship occurred simultaneously with the slave trade in Africa. [13] Though the export of slaves from Africa to the Americas is often analyzed, slavery was rampant internally as well. [12] Development of plantations like those in Zanzibar in East Africa reflected the need for internal slaves. [14] [12] Furthermore, many of the slaves that were exported were male as brutal and labor-intensive conditions favored the male body build. [14] This created gender implications for individuals in the pawnship system as more women were pawned than men and often sexually exploited within the country. [14]

After the abolition of slavery in many countries in the 19th century, Europeans still needed laborers. [13] Moreover, conditions for emancipated slaves were harsh. [14] [13] Discrimination was rampant within the labor market, making attainment of a sustainable income for former slaves tough. [14] Because of these conditions, many freed slaves preferred to live through slavery-like contracts with their masters in a manner parallel to debt bondage. [13]

Americas

Asia

In the 19th century, people in Asia were bonded to labor due to a variety of reasons ranging from farmers mortgaging harvests to drug addicts in need for opium in China. [14] When a natural disaster occurred or food was scarce, people willingly chose debt bondage as a means to a secure life. [14] In the early 20th century in Asia, most laborers tied to debt bondage had been born into it. [14] In certain regions, such as in Burma, debt bondage was far more common than slavery. [14] Many went into bondage to pay off interest on a loan or to pay taxes, [17] and as they worked, often on farms, lodging, meals, and clothing fees were added to the existing debt causing overall debt and interest to increase. These continued added loan values made leaving servitude unattainable. [14]

Moreover, after the development of the international economy, more workers were needed for the pre-industrial economies of Asia during the 19th century. [14] A greater demand for labor was needed in Asia to power exports to growing industrial countries like the United States and Germany. [14] Cultivation of cash crops like coffee, cocoa, and sugar and exploitation of minerals like gold and tin led farm owners to search for individuals in need of loans for the sake of keeping laborers permanently. [18] In particular, the Indian indenture system was based on debt bondage by which an estimated two million Indians were transported to various colonies of European powers to provide labor for plantations. [14] It started from the end of slavery in 1833 and continued until 1920. [14]

Europe

Classical antiquity

Debt bondage was "quite normal" in classical antiquity. [19] The poor or those who had fallen irredeemably in debt might place themselves into bondage "voluntarily"—or more precisely, might be compelled by circumstances to choose debt bondage as a way to anticipate and avoid worse terms that their creditors might impose on them. [20] In the Greco-Roman world, debt bondage was a distinct legal category into which a free person might fall, in theory temporarily, distinguished from the pervasive practice of slavery, which included enslavement as a result of defaulting on debt. Many forms of debt bondage existed in both ancient Greece and ancient Rome. [21]

Ancient Greece

Debt bondage was widespread in ancient Greece. The only city-state known to have abolished it is Athens, as early as the Archaic period under the debt reform legislation of Solon. [22] Both enslavement for debt and debt bondage were practiced in Ptolemaic Egypt. [23] By the Hellenistic period, the limited evidence indicates that debt bondage had replaced outright enslavement for debt. [23]

The most onerous debt bondage was various forms of paramonē, "indentured labor." As a matter of law, a person subjected to paramonē was categorically free, and not a slave, but in practice his freedom was severely constrained by his servitude. [24] Solon's reforms occurred in the context of democratic politics at Athens that required clearer distinctions between "free" and "slave"; as a perverse consequence, chattel slavery increased. [25]

The selling of one's own child into slavery is likely in most cases to have resulted from extreme poverty or debt, but strictly speaking is a form of chattel slavery, not debt bondage. The exact legal circumstances in Greece, however, are far more poorly documented than in ancient Rome. [24]

Ancient Rome

Nexum was a debt bondage contract in the early Roman Republic. Within the Roman legal system, it was a form of mancipatio . Though the terms of the contract would vary, essentially a free man pledged himself as a bond slave (nexus) as surety for a loan. He might also hand over his son as collateral. Although the bondsman might be subjected to humiliation and abuse, as a legal citizen he was supposed to be exempt from corporal punishment. Nexum was abolished by the Lex Poetelia Papiria in 326 BC, in part to prevent abuses to the physical integrity of citizens who had fallen into debt bondage. [26]

Roman historians illuminated the abolition of nexum with a traditional story that varied in its particulars; basically, a nexus who was a handsome but upstanding youth suffered sexual harassment by the holder of the debt. In one version, the youth had gone into debt to pay for his father's funeral; in others, he had been handed over by his father. In all versions, he is presented as a model of virtue. Historical or not, the cautionary tale highlighted the incongruities of subjecting one free citizen to another's use, and the legal response was aimed at establishing the citizen's right to liberty (libertas), as distinguished from the slave or social outcast. [27]

Cicero considered the abolition of nexum primarily a political maneuver to appease the common people (plebs): the law was passed during the Conflict of the Orders, when plebeians were struggling to establish their rights in relation to the hereditary privileges of the patricians. Although nexum was abolished as a way to secure a loan, debt bondage might still result after a debtor defaulted. [27]

European Middle Ages

While serfdom under feudalism was the predominant political and economic system in Europe in the High Middle Ages, persisting in the Austrian Empire till 1848 and the Russian Empire until 1861 (details), [28] debt bondage (and slavery) provided other forms of unfree labour.

Modern practice

Though the figures differ from those of the International Labour Organization, researcher Siddharth Kara has calculated the number of slaves in the world by type, and determined that at the end of 2011 there were 18 to 20.5 million bonded laborers. [6] Bonded laborers work in industries today that produce goods including but not limited to frozen shrimp, bricks, tea, coffee, diamonds, marble, and apparel. [6]

South Asia

Although India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh all have laws prohibiting debt bondage, it is estimated by Kara that 84 to 88% of the bonded laborers in the world are in South Asia. [6] Figures by the Human Rights Watch in 1999 are drastically higher estimating 40 million workers, composed mainly of children, are tied to labor through debt bondage in India alone. [29] [30]

Brick kilns

Child labor in brick kilns in South Asia Child Labour in Brick Kilns of Nepal.jpg
Child labor in brick kilns in South Asia

Research by Kara estimates there to be between 55,000 and 65,000 brick kiln workers in South Asia with 70% of them in India. [6] Other research estimates 6,000 kilns in Pakistan alone. [31] Total revenue from brick kilns in South Asia is estimated by Kara to be $13.3 to $15.2 billion. [6] Many of the brick kiln workers are migrants and travel between brick kiln locations every few months. [6] [31] Kiln workers often live in extreme poverty and many began work at kilns through repayment of a starting loan averaging $150 to $200. [6] Kiln owners offer laborers "friendly loans" to avoid being criminalized in breaking bonded labor laws. [31] Bonded brick kiln laborers, including children, work in harsh and unsafe conditions as the heat from the kiln may cause heat stroke and a number of other medical conditions. [31] [32] Although these laborers do have the option to default on loans, there is fear of death and violence by brick kiln owners if they choose to do so. [31]

Rice harvesting

Workers storing rice in India in 1952 Storing rice, India, 1956 (16795758519).jpg
Workers storing rice in India in 1952

An essential grain to the South Asian diet, rice is harvested throughout India and Nepal in particular. [11] [14] In India, more than 20% of agricultural land is used to grow rice. [14] Rice mill owners often employ workers who live in harsh conditions on farms. [14] Workers receive such low wages that they must borrow money from their employers causing them to be tied to the rice mill through debt. [14] For example, in India, the average pay rate per day was $0.55 American dollars as recorded in 2006. [14] Though some workers may be able to survive minimally from their compensation, uncontrollable life events such as an illness require loans. [14] [33] Families, including children, work day and night to prepare the rice for export by boiling it, drying it in the sun, and sifting through it for purification. [14] Furthermore, families who live on rice mill production sites are often excluded from access to hospitals and schools. [14]

Sub-Saharan Africa

Though there are not reliable estimates of bonded laborers in Sub-Saharan Africa to date from credible sources, the Global Slavery Index estimates the total number of those enslaved in this region is 6.25 million. [34] In countries like Ghana, it is estimated that 85% of people enslaved are tied to labor. [34] Additionally, this region includes Mauritania, the country with the highest proportion of slavery in the world as an estimated 20% of its population is enslaved through methods like debt bondage. [34]

A worker preparing fish caught off the coast of South Africa Filleting the catch at Hout Bay Harbour.JPG
A worker preparing fish caught off the coast of South Africa

Fisheries

The Environmental Justice Foundation found human rights violations in the fisheries on the coasts of South and West Africa including labor exploitation. [35] Exporter fish companies drive smaller businesses and individuals to lower profits, causing bankruptcy. [35] In many cases, recruitment to these companies occurs by luring small business owners and migrant workers through debt bondage. [35] In recruiting individual fishers, fees are sometimes charged by a broker to use ports which opens the debt cycle. [35]

Domestic labor

After countries began to formally abolish slavery, unemployment was rampant for blacks in South Africa and Nigeria pushing black women to work as domestic workers. [17] [36] Currently, estimates from the International Labour Organization state that between 800,000 and 1.1 million domestic workers are in South Africa. [37] Many of these domestic servants become bonded to labor in a process similar to other industries in Asia. [36] The wages given to servants are often so poor that loans are taken when servants are in need of more money, making it impossible to escape. [36] The hours of working for domestic servants are unpredictable, and because many servants are women, their young children are often left under the care of older children or other family members. [17] [36] Moreover, these women can work up to the age of 75 and their daughters are likely to be servants in the same households. [36]

Prostitution

A 1994 report of Burmese prostitutes in Thailand reports compulsory indebtedness is common for girls in forced prostitution, especially those transported across the border. They are forced to work off their debt, often with 100 percent interest, and to pay for their room, food and other items. In addition to debt bondage, the women and girls face a wide range of abuses, including illegal confinement; forced labor; rape; physical abuse; and more. [38]

Consequences

Revenue

The International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that $51.2 billion is made annually in the exploitation of workers through debt bondage. [39] Though the employers actively take part in accruing the debt of laborers, buyers of products and services in the country of manufacturing and abroad also contribute to the profitability of this practice. [6] Global supply chains that deliver goods throughout the world are most likely tainted with slave labor. The reason for this includes convoluted supply chain management that crosses many international borders, ineffective labor laws, corporates claiming plausible deniability, global political-economic restructuring and well-intended consumers. This effort to eradicate modern day slavery resonates with well meaning individuals who purchase fair-trade items, hoping they are making a difference. The fair trade industry is estimated to exceed $1.2 billion annually (Davenport & Low 2012). Unfortunately, this is barely a dent into the global economy. International labor laws need to be created by various authorities such as the International Labor Organization, World Trade Organization, Interpol and the United Nations that have teeth to adequately punish the wrongdoers.

On-going cycle

In many of the industries in which debt bondage is common like brick kilns or fisheries, entire families are often involved in paying of the debt of one individual, including children. [6] [33] These children generally do not have access to education thus making it impossible to get out of poverty. [40] Moreover, if a relative who still is in debt dies, the bondage is passed on to another family member, usually the children. [40] At the International Labour Organization Convention, this cycle was labeled as the "Worst Forms of Child Labor." [40] Researchers like Basu and Chau link the occurrence of child labor through debt bondage with factors like labor rights and the stage of development of an economy. [40] Although minimum age labor laws are present in many regions with child debt bondage, the laws are not enforced especially with regard to the agrarian economy. [40]

Policy initiatives

The United Nations

Debt bondage has been described by the United Nations as a form of "modern day slavery" [5] and is prohibited by international law. It is specifically dealt with by article 1(a) of the United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery. It persists nonetheless especially in developing countries, which have few mechanisms for credit security or bankruptcy, and where fewer people hold formal title to land or possessions. According to some economists, like Hernando de Soto, this is a major barrier to development in these countries. For example, entrepreneurs do not dare to take risks and cannot get credit because they hold no collateral and may burden families for generations to come.

South Asia

India was the first country to pass legislation directly prohibiting debt bondage through the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act, 1976. [6] [41] [42] Less than two decades later, Pakistan also passed a similar act in 1992 and Nepal passed the Kamaiya Labour (Prohibition) Act in 2002. [6] Despite the fact that these laws are in place, debt bondage in South Asia is still widespread. [6] According to the Ministry of Labor and Employment of the Government of India, there are over 300,000 bonded laborers in India, with a majority of them in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Odisha. [43]

In India, the rise of Dalit activism, government legislation starting as early as 1949, [44] as well as ongoing work by NGOs and government offices to enforce labour laws and rehabilitate those in debt, appears to have contributed to the reduction of bonded labour there. However, according to research papers presented by the International Labour Organization, there are still many obstacles to the eradication of bonded labour in India. [45] [46]

Sub-Saharan Africa

In many of the countries like South Africa, Nigeria, Mauritania, and Ghana in which debt bondage is prevalent, there are not laws that either state direct prohibition or appropriate punishment. For example, South Africa passed the Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 1997 which prohibits forced labor but the punishment is up to 3 years of jail. [7] In addition, though many of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have laws that vaguely prohibit debt bondage, prosecution of such crimes rarely occurs. [7]

See also

Contemporary:

Related Research Articles

Child labour exploitation of children through any form of work

Child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful. Such exploitation is prohibited by legislation worldwide, although these laws do not consider all work by children as child labour; exceptions include work by child artists, family duties, supervised training, and some forms of child work practiced by Amish children, as well as by indigenous children in the Americas.

Child slavery

Child slavery is the slavery of children. The enslavement of children can be traced back through history. Even after the abolition of slavery, children continue to be enslaved and trafficked in modern times, which is a particular problem in developing countries.

Anti-Slavery International is an international non-governmental organisation, registered charity and advocacy group, based in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1839, it is the world's oldest international human rights organisation. It works exclusively against slavery and related abuses.

Unfree labour Work people are employed in against their will

Unfree labour is any work relation, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence, compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.

Trafficking of children Form of human trafficking and is defined as the "recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, and/or receipt" of a child for the purpose of exploitation

Trafficking of children is a form of human trafficking and is defined as the "recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, and/or receipt" kidnapping of a child for the purpose of slavery, forced labor and exploitation. This definition is substantially wider than the same document's definition of "trafficking in persons". Children may also be trafficked for the purpose of adoption.

Forced prostitution, also known as involuntary prostitution, is prostitution or sexual slavery that takes place as a result of coercion by a third party. The terms "forced prostitution" or "enforced prostitution" appear in international and humanitarian conventions such as the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court but have been insufficiently understood and inconsistently applied. "Forced prostitution" refers to conditions of control over a person who is coerced by another to engage in sexual activity.

Slavery in India

Slavery in India was an established institution in ancient India by the start of the common era, or likely earlier. However, its study in ancient times is problematic and contested because it depends on the translations of terms such as dasa and dasyu.

Slavery in the 21st century refers to the institutions of slavery that continue to exist in the present day

Contemporary slavery, also known as modern slavery or neo-slavery, refers to institutional slavery that continues to occur in present-day society. Estimates of the number of slaves today range from around 21 million to 46 million, depending on the method used to form the estimate and the definition of slavery being used. The estimated number of slaves is debated, as there is no universally agreed definition of modern slavery; those in slavery are often difficult to identify, and adequate statistics are often not available. The International Labour Organization estimates that, by their definitions, over 40 million people are in some form of slavery today. 24.9 million people are in forced labor, of whom 16 million people are exploited in the private sector such as domestic work, construction or agriculture; 4.8 million persons in forced sexual exploitation, and 4 million persons in forced labor imposed by state authorities. 15.4 million people are in forced marriage.

The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003, R.A. No. 9208, is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. 2444 and House Bill No. 4432. It was enacted and passed by Congress of the Philippines' Senate of the Philippines and House of Representatives of the Philippines assembled on May 12, 2003 and signed into law by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on May 26, 2003. It institutes policies to eliminate and punish human trafficking, especially women and children, establishing the necessary institutional mechanisms for the protection and support of trafficked persons. It aims "to promote human dignity, protect the people from any threat of violence and exploitation, and mitigate pressures for involuntary migration and servitude of persons, not only to support trafficked persons but more importantly, to ensure their recovery, rehabilitation and reintegration into the mainstream of society."

Human trafficking Trade of humans for the first book of forced labor, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation

Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal. Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim's rights of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation. Human trafficking is the trade in people, especially women and children, and does not necessarily involve the movement of the person from one place to another.

Child labour in India overview about child labour in India

In 2011 the national census of India found the total no. of child labourers, aged 5–14, to be at 10.1 million, and the total to be 259.64 million in that age group. The child labour problem is not unique to India; worldwide, about 217 million children work, many full-time.

Siddharth Kara Scholar on slavery

Siddharth Kara is an author, activist and expert on modern day slavery and human trafficking. He is an Adjunct Lecturer in Public Policy and Director of the Program on Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and also a Visiting Scientist on Forced Labor at the Harvard School of Public Health. He is best known for his award-winning book trilogy on modern slavery, Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery (2009), Bonded Labor: Tackling the System of Slavery in South Asia (2012) and Modern Slavery: A Modern Perspective (2017).

Human trafficking in Nepal is a growing criminal industry affecting multiple other countries beyond Nepal, primarily across Asia and the Middle East. Nepal is mainly a source country for men, women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. U.S. State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons placed the country in "Tier 2" in 2017.

The Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour (SAP-FL) is the International Labour Organization (ILO) Programme combating forced labour and related issues. SAP-FL strives to provide evidence-based policy advice, tools and services to enable governments, employers’ and workers’ organizations and other partners to take effective, coordinated and rights-based action to prevent and eradicate forced labour. SAP-FL indicates that all human trafficking leads to forced labour.

Debt bondage in India

Debt bondage in India or Bandhua Mazdoori was legally abolished in 1976 but remains prevalent due to weak enforcement by the government. Bonded labour is a system in which lenders force their borrowers to repay loans through labor. Additionally, these debts often take a large amount of time to pay off and are unreasonably high, propagating a cycle of generational inequality. This is due to the typically high interest rates on the loans given out by employers. Although debt bondage is considered to be a voluntary form of labor, people are forced into this system by social situations.

Slavery in international law

Slavery in international law is governed by a number of treaties, conventions and declarations. Foremost among these is the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) that states in Article 4: “no one should be held in slavery or servitude, slavery in all of its forms should be eliminated.”

Human trafficking in Southeast Asia

Human trafficking in Southeast Asia have long been a problem for the area and still is prevalent today. It has been observed that as economies continue to grow, the demand for labor is at an all-time high in the industrial sector and the sex tourism sector. A mix of impoverished individuals and the desire for more wealth creates an environment for human traffickers to benefit in the Southeast Asia region. Many nations within the region have taken preventive measures to end human trafficking within their borders and punish traffickers operating there.

Syeda Ghulam Fatima

Syeda Ghulam Fatima is a Pakistani human and labour rights activist, known for her work in ending bonded labour in brick kilns, and is General Secretary of Lahore-based Bonded Labour Liberation Front Pakistan (BLLF).

Ehsan Ullah Khan Pakistani trade unionist

Muhammad Ehsan Ullah Khan is the founder of the Bonded Labour Liberation Front (BLLF) of Pakistan, an organization that has freed more than 100,000 slaves in its country.

Blood Bricks Campaign

The Blood Bricks Campaign is an international campaign that focuses on fighting against the use of modern slavery in the Indian bricks kiln industry, while also exposing companies that use blood bricks in their supply chain. It was launched in 2014 by multiple, different organizations including Union Solidarity International (USi), Prayas, Action Aid Association, War on Want, and Thompsons Solicitors. This campaign's objectives include supporting unionizing efforts by workers, applying pressure to state and federal governments to enforce or amend laws, identifying companies that use bricks from bonded or forced labour, and bringing attention to the working conditions in the brick industry in India, as well as other parts of the world.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Jordan, Ann (February 2011). "SLAVERY, FORCED LABOR, DEBT BONDAGE, AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING: FROM CONCEPTIONAL CONFUSION TO TARGETED SOLUTIONS" (PDF). Program on Human Trafficking and Forced Labor. Washington College of Law: Center for Human Rights & Humanitarian Law.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Article 1(a) of the United Nations' 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery defines debt bondage as "the status or condition arising from a pledge by a debtor of his personal services or of those of a person under his control as security for a debt, if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied towards the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined".
  3. "Global Report on Forced Labour in Asia: debt bondage, trafficking and state-imposed forced labour". Promoting Jobs, Protecting People. International Labour Organization. 2005.
  4. 1 2 Kevin Bales (2004). New slavery: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO. pp. 15–18. ISBN   978-1-85109-815-6 . Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  5. 1 2 The Bondage of Debt: A Photo Essay, by Shilpi Gupta
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Kara, Siddharth (2012). Bonded Labor: Tackling the System of Slavery in South Asia. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN   9780231158480.
  7. 1 2 3 "South Africa". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  8. 1 2 3 4 von Lilienfeld-Toal, Ulf; Mookherjee, Dilip (1 August 2010). "The Political Economy of Debt Bondage". American Economic Journal: Microeconomics. American Economic Association. 2 (3).
  9. Androff, D.K. "The problem of contemporary slavery: An international human rights challenge for social work". International Social Work. Social Sciences Index. 54 (2).
  10. 1 2 "Swept Under the Rug: Abuses against Domestic Workers around the World" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. 2006.
  11. 1 2 Weitzer, Ronald. "Human Trafficking and Contemporary Slavery". Annual Review of Sociology. Business Source Complete. 41 (1).
  12. 1 2 3 Wilks, I. (1988). "Pawnship in Africa. Debt bondage in historical perspective". African Economic History. 26.
  13. 1 2 3 4 Brown, Carolyn; van der Linden, Marcel (2010). "Shifting Boundaries between Free and Unfree Labor: Introduction". International Labor and Working-Class History. 78 (1).
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Campbell, Gwyn; Stanziani, Alessandro (2013). Bonded Labour and debt in the Indian Ocean World. Pickering & Chatto. ISBN   9781848933781.
  15. Cheesman Herrick, White Servitude in Pennsylvania: Indentured and Redemption Labor in Colony and Commonwealth (New York: Negro University Press, 1969), 26.
  16. Dean, Bartholomew Urarina Society, Cosmology, and History in Peruvian Amazonia Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009, ISBN   978-0-8130-3378-5
  17. 1 2 3 Kaarsholm, Preben (2016). "Indian Ocean Networks and the Transmutations of Servitude: The Protector of Indian Immigrants and the Administration of Freed Slaves and Indentured Labourers in Durban in the 1870s". Journal of Southern African Studies. Humanities Source. 42 (3).
  18. Vink, Marcus (2014). "Indian Ocean Debt Slavery". Journal of African History. 55 (3).
  19. Kurt A. Raaflaub, The Discovery of Freedom in Ancient Greece, p. 47.
  20. Raaflaub, The Discovery of Freedom, pp. 32, 47 et passim.
  21. G.E.M. de Ste. Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World (Cornell University Press, 1981), pp. 136–137, noting that economic historian Moses Finley maintained "serf" was an incorrect term to apply to the social structures of classical antiquity.
  22. Ste. Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World, pp. 137, 162.
  23. 1 2 Ste. Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World, p. 165.
  24. 1 2 Ste. Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World, p. 169.
  25. Raaflaub, The Discovery of Freedom, p. 49.
  26. McKrause, Stanford. Slavery and economy in ancient Rome. Brainy Bookstore Mckrause.
  27. 1 2 P.A. Brunt, Social Conflicts in the Roman Republic (Chatto & Windus, 1971), pp. 56-57.
  28. "Serf". Encyclopedia.com. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  29. "Small Change: Bonded Child Labor in India's Silk Industry". Human Rights Watch. 23 January 2003.
  30. Finn, Devin. "Bonded Labor in India" (PDF). HUMAN RIGHTS & HUMAN WELFARE.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 Ercelawn, A; Nauman, M (2004). "Unfree Labour in South Asia: Debt Bondage at Brick Kilns in Pakistan". Economic and Political Weekly. Economic and Political Weekly. 39 (22).
  32. Madheswaran, S.; Paik, Saswati (2010). "Labour Vulnerability and Debt Bondage in Contemporary India". Journal of Social and Economic Development. Business Insights. 2.
  33. 1 2 Bagchi, Amiya Kumar. "An Iron Law of Interconnectedness of Child Labour, Bonded Labour, and Human Trafficking". Indian Journal of Labour Economics. 57 (1).
  34. 1 2 3 "Sub- Saharan Africa - Global Slavery Index 2016". Global Slavery Index. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  35. 1 2 3 4 "Forced labour and trafficking in fisheries" (PDF). International Labour Organization.
  36. 1 2 3 4 5 Seedat-Khan, Mariam; Gunasekharan, Dharmaraja. "A New Form of Bonded Labour: A Comparative Study between Domestic Workers of South Africa and India" (PDF). Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2016.
  37. "Domestic workers (Domestic workers)". www.ilo.org. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  38. Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand
  39. "How profitable is the exploitation of people? Sadly, extraordinarily so". International Labour Organization. 28 May 2014.
  40. 1 2 3 4 5 Basu, Arnab; Chau, Nancy (2003). "Targeting Child Labor in Debt Bondage: Evidence, Theory, and Policy Implications". The World Bank Economic Review. 255.
  41. Belser, P. (2003). "Forced labour nowadays". Pensee. 336.
  42. Gopal, Meena (2012). "Caste, sexuality and labour: The troubled connection". Current Sociology. 2.
  43. Acharya, Arun Kumar; Naranjo, Diego López (2019), "Practices of Bonded Labour in India: Forms of Exploitation and Human Rights Violations", The SAGE Handbook of Human Trafficking and Modern Day Slavery, SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 126–138, doi:10.4135/9781526436146.n6 , retrieved 3 May 2020
  44. Hart, Christine Untouchability Today: The Rise of Dalit Activism, Human Rights and Human Welfare, Topical Research Digest 2011, Minority Rights
  45. International Dalit Solidarity Network: Key Issues: Bonded Labour
  46. Ravi S. Srivastava Bonded Labor in India: Its Incidence and Pattern InFocus Programme on Promoting the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work; and International Labour Office,(2005). Forced Labor. Paper 18

Organisational Reports