Anti-Slavery International

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Anti-Slavery International
AbbreviationAnti-Slavery
Founded1839;182 years ago (1839)
Purpose Anti-slavery
Headquarters London, SW9
United Kingdom
Region served
International
Director
Jasmine O'Connor
Website www.antislavery.org

Anti-Slavery International, founded as the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1839, [1] [2] is an international non-governmental organisation, registered charity [3] and advocacy group, based in the United Kingdom. It is the world's oldest international human rights organisation, and works exclusively against slavery and related abuses. [4]

Contents

In 1909, the society merged with the Aborigines' Protection Society to form the Anti-Slavery and Aborigines' Protection Society, [2] whose prominent member was Kathleen Simon, Viscountess Simon. It became the Anti-Slavery Society in July 1947, [5] and from 1956 to 1990 it was named the Anti-Slavery Society for the Protection of Human Rights. In 1990 it was renamed Anti-Slavery International for the Protection of Human Rights, and in 1995 relaunched as Anti-Slavery International. [6]

It owes its origins to the radical element of an older organisation also commonly referred to as the "Anti-Slavery Society", the Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery Throughout the British Dominions, which had substantially achieved abolition of slavery in the British Empire by August 1838. [1]

The new British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society was created to campaign against the practice of slavery in other countries.

History

A painting of the 1840 World's Anti-Slavery Convention. Use a cursor to see who is who. The Anti-Slavery Society Convention, 1840 by Benjamin Robert Haydon.jpgIsaac Crewdson (Beaconite) writerSamuel Jackman Prescod - Barbadian JournalistWilliam Morgan from BirminghamWilliam Forster - Quaker leaderGeorge Stacey - Quaker leaderWilliam Forster - Anti-Slavery ambassadorJohn Burnet -Abolitionist SpeakerWilliam Knibb -Missionary to JamaicaJoseph Ketley from GuyanaGeorge Thompson - UK & US abolitionistJ. Harfield Tredgold - British South African (secretary)Josiah Forster - Quaker leaderSamuel Gurney - the Banker's BankerSir John Eardley-WilmotDr Stephen Lushington - MP and JudgeSir Thomas Fowell BuxtonJames Gillespie Birney - AmericanJohn BeaumontGeorge Bradburn - Massachusetts politicianGeorge William Alexander - Banker and TreasurerBenjamin Godwin - Baptist activistVice Admiral MoorsonWilliam TaylorWilliam TaylorJohn MorrisonGK PrinceJosiah ConderJames Dean (abolitionist)John Keep - Ohio fund raiserJoseph EatonJoseph Sturge - Organiser from BirminghamJames WhitehorneGeorge BennettRichard AllenWilliam Leatham, bankerSir Edward Baines - JournalistSamuel Fox, Nottingham grocerJonathan BackhouseWilliam Dawes - Ohio fund raiserRobert Kaye Greville - BotanistJoseph Pease - reformer in India)M.M. Isambert (sic)Mary Clarkson -Thomas Clarkson's daughter in lawWilliam TatumSaxe Bannister - PamphleteerRichard Davis Webb - IrishNathaniel Colver - Americannot knownJohn Cropper - Most generous LiverpudlianWilliam JamesWilliam WilsonThomas SwanEdward Steane from CamberwellWilliam BrockEdward BaldwinJonathon MillerCapt. Charles Stuart from JamaicaSir John Jeremie - JudgeCharles Stovel - BaptistRichard Peek, ex-Sheriff of LondonJohn SturgeRev. Isaac BassHenry SterryPeter Clare -; sec. of Literary & Phil. Soc. ManchesterJ.H. JohnsonThomas PriceJoseph ReynoldsSamuel WheelerWilliam BoultbeeDaniel O'Connell - "The Liberator"William FairbankJohn WoodmarkWilliam Smeal from GlasgowJames Carlile - Irish Minister and educationalistRev. Dr. Thomas BinneyEdward Barrett - Freed slaveJohn Howard Hinton - Baptist ministerJohn Angell James - clergymanJoseph CooperDr. Richard Robert Madden - IrishThomas BulleyIsaac HodgsonEdward SmithSir John Bowring - diplomat and linguistJohn EllisC. Edwards Lester - American writerTapper Cadbury - Businessmannot knownThomas PinchesDavid Turnbull - Cuban linkRichard BarrettJohn SteerHenry TuckettJames Mott - American on honeymoonRobert Forster (brother of William and Josiah)John BirtWendell Phillips - AmericanJean-Baptiste Symphor Linstant de Pradine from HaitiHenry Stanton - AmericanProf William AdamMrs Elizabeth Tredgold - British South AfricanT.M. McDonnellMrs John BeaumontAnne Knight - FeministElizabeth Pease - SuffragistJacob Post - Religious writerAnne Isabella, Lady Byron - mathematician and estranged wifeAmelia Opie - Novelist and poetMrs Rawson - Sheffield campaignerThomas Clarkson's grandson Thomas ClarksonThomas MorganThomas Clarkson - main speakerGeorge Head Head - Banker from CarlisleWilliam AllenHenry Beckford - emancipated slave and abolitionistUse your cursor to explore (or Click "i" to enlarge)
A painting of the 1840 World's Anti-Slavery Convention. Use a cursor to see who is who.

Background

Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Westminster, London Anti-Slavery Society Commemoration.jpg
Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Westminster, London

The Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, founded in 1787, also referred to as the Abolition Society, was responsible for achieving abolition of the international slave trade, when the British Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act 1807.

The Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery Throughout the British Dominions, later known as the (London) Anti-slavery Society, was founded in 1823 and was committed to the abolition of slavery in the British Empire, which was substantially achieved in 1838 under the terms of the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.

Foundation (1839)

With abolition of slavery throughout the British dominions achieved, British abolitionists in the Agency Committee of the Anti-Slavery Society considered that a successor organisation was needed to tackle slavery worldwide. Largely under the guidance of English activist Joseph Sturge, the committee duly formed a new society, British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society on 17 April 1839, [8] [9] which worked to outlaw slavery in other countries. It became widely known as the Anti-Slavery Society, as had the earlier society.

The first secretary was John Harfield Tredgold, the first treasurer, George William Alexander of Stoke Newington. Along with the founding committee, which included the Anglican Thomas Fowell Buxton, the Quaker William Allen, and the Congregationalist Josiah Conder, they organised the first World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840, [10] that attracted delegates from around the world (including from the United States of America, in the South of which slavery was at times referred to as "our peculiar institution") to the Freemasons' Hall, London on 12 June 1840. Many delegates were notable abolitionists, with Thomas Clarkson the key speaker, and the image of the meeting was captured in a remarkable painting that still hangs in the National Portrait Gallery in London. [11] The convention had been advertised as a "whole world" convention, but the delegates representing anti-slavery societies in the United States included several women, among them Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who later were instrumental in the movement for women's rights. Convention leaders refused to seat the women delegates from America, and prominent male abolitionists such as Thomas Knight were outraged. He went on to form his own society.[ citation needed ]

In the 1850s, under Louis Chamerovzow, the society helped John Brown write and publish his autobiography a decade before the American Civil War ended slavery in the United States.

The second secretary of the Anti-Slavery Society, appointed under the honorary secretaries Joseph Cooper and Edmund Sturge, was the Rev. Aaron Buzacott (1829–81), the son of a South Seas missionary also named Aaron Buzacott. With American slavery abolished in 1865, Buzacott worked closely with Joseph Cooper in researching and publishing work designed to help abolish slavery in elsewhere, particularly in the Middle East, Turkey and Africa.

20th century

At the beginning of the 20th century Anti-Slavery Society campaigned against slavery practices perpetrated in the Congo Free State by King Leopold II of Belgium. It was the first campaign in history that used photography to document the abuses (photographs were taken by the missionary Alice Seeley Harris). The campaign eventually helped bring an end to Leopold's tyranny.[ citation needed ]

In 1909, the society merged with the Aborigines' Protection Society [12] to form the Anti-Slavery and Aborigines' Protection Society. Kathleen Simon, Viscountess Simon was a prominent member and stalwart of the society. [13] [14] [15]

In the 1920s the Society helped end the indentured labour system in the British colonies after campaigning against the use of Indian and Chinese "coolies". In 1921 Played a pivotal role in ending the activities of the Peruvian Amazon Company, which was using indigenous slave labour in rubber production. The organisation also successfully lobbied for the League of Nations inquiry into slavery, which resulted in the 1926 Slavery Convention that obliged all ratifying states to end slavery.[ citation needed ] It also heavily influenced the content of the 1956 UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery.

In 1944, a Journalist James Ewing Ritchie issued a paper to the society on sugar trade and slavery. [10]

From 1947 to 1956 it was called the Anti-Slavery Society, and from 1956 to 1990 the Anti-Slavery Society for the Protection of Human Rights. In 1990 it was renamed Anti-Slavery International for the Protection of Human Rights, and in 1995 Anti-Slavery International. [6]

Anti-Slavery International was one of the original supporters of the "End Child Prostitution, Pornography and Trafficking" campaign (ECPAT), and helped set up the UK branch in the 1990s. It also helped to organise the 1998 Global March against Child Labour, which helped lead to the adoption of a new International Labour Organization Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour in 1999. [15]

21st century

In the 21st century it worked with Nepalese NGO INSEC to secure Government backing to abolish the Kamaiya form of bonded labour; in 2003 with local NGO Timidria conducted a survey that led to the criminalisation of slavery in Niger, and lobbied the Brazilian government to introduce a National Plan for the Eradication of Slavery.[ citation needed ] Two years later ASI organised a major campaign on child camel jockeys in the Gulf States, which influenced the UAE's decision to rescue and repatriate up to 3,000 child camel jockeys.

In the UK, it successfully lobbied to make trafficking of sexual and labour exploitation a criminal offence in 2004.[ citation needed ]

In 2008 it was amongst groups that supported a former slave, Hadijatou Mani, in obtaining the verdict of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) court that found the state of Niger guilty of failing to protect her from slavery. The ruling set a legal precedent with respect to the obligations of states to protect its citizens from slavery [16]

In June 2010, following the campaign by Anti-Slavery International and Liberty the UK Parliament introduced a criminal offence of forced labour in the Coroners and Justice Act 2009.[ citation needed ] In 2010 the organisation also exposed the routine use of the forced labour of girls and young women in the manufacture of garments in Southern India for Western high streets, prompting, eventually, business and international civil society efforts to end the practice.

Anti-Slavery lobbied the UK government to sign up to an EU anti-trafficking law to protect the victims and secure justice for people who have been trafficked (2011). It also played a big part in lobbying the International Labour Organization to adopt a Convention on Decent Work for Domestic Workers in June 2011.[ citation needed ]

In 2021 Anti-Slavery International has pressured businesses and governments to address conditions in the Xinjiang cotton industry. [17]

Overview

Anti-Slavery International is the world's oldest international human rights organisation, and bases its work on the United Nations treaties against slavery. It has consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council and observer status at the International Labour Organization. It is a non-religious, non-political independent organisation. It works closely with partner organisations from around the world to tackle all forms of slavery.

Publications

The society published The Anti-Slavery Reporter from 1839, taking over from the earlier organisation (named the London Anti-slavery Society in its last year of existence [18] ). [19]

The journal merged with the Aborigines' Friend to form the Anti-Slavery Reporter and Aborigines' Friend in 1909, [19] when the BFASS merged with the Aborigines' Protection Society. [20]

Modern-day slavery

Human trafficking is the illegal transportation of kidnapped women, children, and men across international borders in order to put them into slavery at the destination. This form of modern slavery is one of the most common and may affect the most people: it is estimated that between 500,000 and 800,000 victims enter the trade each year.

The International Labour Organization [21] estimates that, by their definitions, over 40 million people are in some form of slavery today. 24.9 million people are in forced labor, of whom 16 million people are exploited in the private sector such as domestic work, construction or agriculture; 4.8 million persons in forced sexual exploitation, and 4 million persons in forced labour imposed by state authorities. 15.4 million people are in forced marriage.

Anti-Slavery International points to the lack of enforcement of existing laws as a barrier to stopping human trafficking. Discrimination on the basis of social status, religion, ethnicity, gender and immigration status operate as additional barriers. [22] The organization joined more than 180 other groups in a campaign to pressure retailers such as Nike, Apple and Gap to stop using forced labour of Uighurs in their factories located in China. [23]

Anti-Slavery Award

Anti-Slavery International instituted the Anti-Slavery Award in 1991 to draw attention to the continuing problem of slavery in the world today and to provide recognition for long-term, courageous campaigning by organisations or individuals in the countries most affected.

See also

Related Research Articles

Abolitionism Movement to end slavery

Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and liberate the enslaved people.

Debt bondage Persons pledge of their labor or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation

Peonage, also known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is the pledge of a person's services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where the terms of the repayment are not clearly or reasonably stated, and the person who is holding the debt thus has some control over the laborer. Freedom is assumed on debt repayment. The services required to repay the debt may be undefined, and the services' duration may be undefined, thus allowing the person supposedly owed the debt to demand services indefinitely. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation.

Child slavery

Child slavery is the slavery of children. The enslavement of children can be traced back through history. Even after the abolition of slavery, children continue to be enslaved and trafficked in modern times, which is a particular problem in developing countries.

Forced labour Work people are employed in against their will

Unfree labour, or forced labour, is any work relation, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence including death, compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to either themselves or members of their families.

<i>Anti-Slavery Reporter</i> British journal

The Anti-Slavery Reporter was founded in London in 1825 as the Anti-Slavery Monthly Reporter by Zachary Macaulay (1768–1838), a Scottish philanthropist who devoted most of his life to the anti-slavery movement. It was also referred to as the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Reporter, and in 1909 merged with the Aborigines' Friend to form the Anti-Slavery Reporter and Aborigines' Friend. From 1981 the journal was again renamed the Anti-Slavery Reporter, and as a publication of Anti-Slavery International continued to be published occasionally as simply Reporter.

Slavery Abolition Act 1833 United Kingdom legislation

The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery in most parts of the British Empire. This Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom expanded the jurisdiction of the Slave Trade Act 1807 and made the purchase or ownership of slaves illegal within the British Empire, with the exception of "the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company", Ceylon, and Saint Helena. The Act was repealed in 1997 as a part of wider rationalisation of English statute law; however, later anti-slavery legislation remains in force.

Anti-Slavery Society (1823–1838)

The Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery Throughout the British Dominions, founded in 1823 and known as the London Anti-slavery Society during 1838 before ceasing to exist in that year, was commonly referred to as the Anti-Slavery Society.

Slavery in contemporary Africa Modern history of slavery in Africa

The continent of Africa is one of the regions most rife with contemporary slavery. Slavery in Africa has a long history, within Africa since before historical records, but intensifying with the trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean slave trade and again with the trans-Atlantic slave trade; the demand for slaves created an entire series of kingdoms which existed in a state of perpetual warfare in order to generate the prisoners of war necessary for the lucrative export of slaves. These patterns have persisted into the colonial period during the late 19th and early 20th century. Although the colonial authorities attempted to suppress slavery from about 1900, this had very limited success, and after decolonization, slavery continues in many parts of Africa despite being technically illegal.

Slavery in the 21st century

Contemporary slavery, also known as modern slavery or neo-slavery, refers to institutional slavery that continues to occur in present-day society. Estimates of the number of slaves today range from around 38 million to 46 million, depending on the method used to form the estimate and the definition of slavery being used. The estimated number of slaves is debated, as there is no universally agreed definition of modern slavery; those in slavery are often difficult to identify, and adequate statistics are often not available. The International Labour Organization estimates that, by their definitions, over 40 million people are in some form of slavery today. 24.9 million people are in forced labor, of whom 16 million people are exploited in the private sector such as domestic work, construction or agriculture; 4.8 million persons in forced sexual exploitation, and 4 million persons in forced labor imposed by state authorities. 15.4 million people are in forced marriage.

The Aborigines' Protection Society (APS) was an international human rights organisation founded in 1837, to ensure the health and well-being and the sovereign, legal and religious rights of the indigenous peoples while also promoting the civilisation of the indigenous people who were subjected under colonial powers, in particular the British Empire. In 1909 it merged with the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (BFASS) to form the Anti-Slavery and Aborigines' Protection Society.

George William Alexander

George William Alexander (1802–1890) was an English financier and philanthropist. He was the founding treasurer of the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1839. The American statesman Frederick Douglass said that he "has spent more than an American fortune in promoting the anti-slavery cause ..."

The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003, R.A. No. 9208, is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. 2444 and House Bill No. 4432. It was enacted and passed by Congress of the Philippines' Senate of the Philippines and House of Representatives of the Philippines assembled on May 12, 2003, and signed into law by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on May 26, 2003. It institutes policies to eliminate and punish human trafficking, especially women and children, establishing the necessary institutional mechanisms for the protection and support of trafficked persons. It aims "to promote human dignity, protect the people from any threat of violence and exploitation, and mitigate pressures for involuntary migration and servitude of persons, not only to support trafficked persons but more importantly, to ensure their recovery, rehabilitation and reintegration into the mainstream of society."

Human trafficking Trade of humans for the purpose of forced labor, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation

Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal. Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim's rights of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation. Human trafficking is the trade in people, especially women and children, and does not necessarily involve the movement of the person from one place to another.

Mary Anne Rawson

Mary Anne Rawson (1801–1887) was a slavery abolitionist above all. She was also a campaigner with the Tract Society and the British and Foreign Bible Society, for Italian nationalism and against child labour. She was first involved with a Sheffield group, which successfully campaigned for people to boycott sugar from the West Indies, as it was produced by slave labour. She is pictured attending the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840.

The Slave Route Project

The Slave Route Project is a UNESCO initiative that was officially launched in 1994 in Ouidah, Benin. It is rooted in the mandate of the organization, which believes that ignorance or concealment of major historical events constitutes an obstacle to mutual understanding, reconciliation and cooperation among peoples. The project breaks the silence surrounding the slave trade and slavery that has affected all continents and caused great upheavals that have shaped our modern societies. In studying the causes, the modalities and the consequences of slavery and the slave trade, the project seeks to enhance the understanding of diverse histories and heritages stemming from this global tragedy.

World Anti-Slavery Convention

The World Anti-Slavery Convention met for the first time at Exeter Hall in London, on 12–23 June 1840. It was organised by the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, largely on the initiative of the English Quaker Joseph Sturge. The exclusion of women from the convention gave a great impetus to the women's suffrage movement in the United States.

Slavery in international law

Slavery in international law is governed by a number of treaties, conventions and declarations. Foremost among these is the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) that states in Article 4: “no one should be held in slavery or servitude, slavery in all of its forms should be eliminated.”

International Abolitionist Federation

The International Abolitionist Federation, founded in Liverpool in 1875, aimed to abolish state regulation of prostitution and fought the international traffic in women in prostitution. It was originally called the British and Continental Federation for the Abolition of Prostitution.

Anti-Mui Tsai Activism is efforts to abolish the Mui Tsai system. Mui Tsai describes Chinese women, entering the system from a young age, who worked as domestic servants in China, or in brothels or affluent Chinese households in traditional Chinese society. The Mui Tsai system spread to other parts of the world through immigration and colonization, causing it to become a human rights issue with out reach as far as Great Britain and America.

References

  1. 1 2 Sharman, Anne-Marie, ed. (1993). "Anti-Slavery Reporter". 13 (8). London: Anti-Slavery International.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. 1 2 "[Search name authorities]: British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society [Authority record]". Library of Congress Authorities. Library of Congress. 2 December 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  3. "Anti-Slavery International, registered charity no. 1049160". Charity Commission for England and Wales.
  4. Anti-Slavery International UNESCO.
  5. "[Search name authorities]: Anti-slavery Society (Great Britain) [Authority record – click on Heading IXX)]". Library of Congress Authorities. British Library name authority is Anti-slavery Society; [with] reference from Anti-Slavery Society for the Protection of Human Rights. Library of Congress. 2 December 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020. ...name changed from Anti-slavery and Aborigines Protection Society, July 1947CS1 maint: others (link)
  6. 1 2 Kaye, Mike (2005). 1807–2007: Over 200 years of campaigning against slavery (PDF). Anti-Slavery International. p. [i]. ISBN   0-900918-61-6.
  7. Anti-Slavery Society Convention, 1840, National Portrait Gallery, London
  8. About Anti-Slavery International Archived 26 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine antislavery.org
  9. Patricia Hollis (1974). Pressure from without in early Victorian England. p.39.
  10. 1 2 Ritchie, James Ewing. 1944. Thoughts on Slavery and Cheap Sugar, a Letter to The Members and Friends of The British And Foreign Anti-Slavery Society.
  11. "The Anti-Slavery Society Convention, 1840". National Portrait Gallery, London . Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  12. Anti-slavery and Aborigines Protection Society (Great Britain). (1909). The Anti-slavery and Aborigines Protection Society: being the amalgamation, effected on 1st July 1909, of the British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society and the Aborigines Protection Society (Ebook). WorldCat catalogue entry only. Anti-slavery and Aborigines Protection Society. OCLC   231587915.
  13. Pennybacker, Susan D. (2009). From Scottsboro to Munich: Race and Political Culture in 1930s Britain. Princeton University Press. ISBN   978-0691088280. (Chapter 3, Lady Kathleen Simon and Antislavery, pages 103–145)
  14. Matera, M. (2015). Black London: The Imperial Metropolis and Decolonization in the Twentieth Century. California World History Library. University of California Press. p. 60. ISBN   978-0-520-28430-2 . Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  15. 1 2 "Our history". Anti-Slavery International. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  16. Walker, Peter; agencies (27 October 2008). "Niger guilty in landmark slavery case". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  17. SUTHERLAND, EMILY. "Are you selling China's slave cotton?". www.drapersonline.com. Drapers. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  18. "[Search name authorities]: "Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery Throughout the British Dominions"". Library of Congress Authorities. 2 December 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020. (Click on the link labelled "Heading (1XX)" for further detail)
  19. 1 2 "The Anti-slavery reporter / under the sanction of the British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society [1846–1909][Catalogue entry]". National Library of Australia . Retrieved 5 December 2020. New ser., vols. 3–8 (1855–1860) include the 16th–21st annual reports of the British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society. The 22nd–24th annual reports are appended to v. 9-11 (1861–1863)...Volume title pages for 1846–1852 read: The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Reporter.
  20. "British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society [Authority record]". Library of Congress Authorities. Library of Congress. 2 December 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  21. Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage, International Labour Organization, 19 September 2017
  22. Darnell, Christie (29 July 2020). "Will coronavirus thwart global efforts to end human trafficking?". Reuters. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  23. "Apple and Nike urged to cut 'China Uighur ties'". BBC News. 23 July 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  24. "Awards winners". antislavery.org. Anti-Slavery International. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009.

Further reading

Coordinates: 51°28′6.17″N0°7′3.09″W / 51.4683806°N 0.1175250°W / 51.4683806; -0.1175250