WorldCat

Last updated

WorldCat
WorldCat logo.svg
Screenshot
WorldCat homepage.png
WorldCat homepage as of June 2019
Type of site
Network of library content and services
Available in13 languages [1]
List of languages
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Czech
  • Dutch
  • English
  • French
  • German
  • Italian
  • Korean
  • Japanese
  • Portuguese
  • Spanish
  • Thai
  • Urdu
Owner OCLC
URL www.worldcat.org OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
CommercialNo
RegistrationOptional, but some features require registration (such as writing reviews and making lists or bibliographies)
LaunchedJanuary 21, 1998;23 years ago (1998-01-21) (date of registry of the new domain name; the database already existed since 1971) [2]
Current statusOnline
Content license
Copyright policy
OCLC  number 756372754

WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 15,637 libraries in 107 countries [3] that participate in the OCLC global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC, Inc. [4] The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database. [5] The database includes other information sources in addition to member library collections. [6] OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscription OCLC services (such as resource sharing and collection management). WorldCat is used by librarians for cataloging and research and by the general public.

Contents

History

OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour. [7] That same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would later evolve into WorldCat; the first catalog records were added in 1971. [7] [8]

In 2003, OCLC began the "Open WorldCat" pilot program, making abbreviated records from a subset of WorldCat available to partner web sites and booksellers, to increase the accessibility of its subscribing member libraries' collections. [9] [10]

In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. [11] WikiD was later phased out, although WorldCat later incorporated user-generated content in other ways. [12] [13]

In 2006, it became possible for anyone to search WorldCat directly at its open website, [14] not only through the subscription FirstSearch interface where it had been available on the web to subscribing libraries for more than a decade before. [15] Options for more sophisticated searches of WorldCat have remained available through the FirstSearch interface. [14]

In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million "identities", which are metadata about names—predominantly authors and persons who are the subjects of published titles. [16]

In 2017, OCLC's WorldCat Search API was integrated into the cite tool of Wikipedia's VisualEditor, allowing Wikipedia editors to cite sources from WorldCat easily. [17] [18]

Beginning in 2017, OCLC and the Internet Archive have collaborated to make the Internet Archive's records of digitized books available in WorldCat. [19]

As of February 2021, WorldCat contained over 512 million bibliographic records in 483 languages, representing over 3 billion physical and digital library assets, [4] and the WorldCat persons dataset (mined from WorldCat) included over 100 million people. [20]

System architecture

Local catalogs of OCLC member libraries are intermittently synchronized with the WorldCat database. [21] WorldCat allows participating institutions to add direct links from WorldCat to their own local catalog entries for particular items, which enables the user to click through to the local catalog to quickly determine an item's real-time status (for example, whether or not it is checked out). [22]

In a small percentage of libraries, [23] the local catalog is also run by OCLC using an integrated library system called WorldCat Discovery and WorldShare Management Services. [24]

Library contributions to WorldCat are made via the Connexion computer program, [25] which was introduced in 2001; its predecessor, OCLC Passport, was phased out in May 2005. [26] Cataloging librarians may also use the WorldShare Record Manager [27] or WorldCat Metadata API [28] for similar purposes. [29]

See also

Related Research Articles

Interlibrary loan is a service whereby a patron of one library can borrow books, DVDs, music, etc. and/or receive photocopies of documents that are owned by another library. The user makes a request with their home library; which, acting as an intermediary, identifies libraries with the desired item, places the request, receives the item, makes it available to the user, as well as arranges for its return. The lending library usually sets a due date and overdue fees of the material borrowed. Although books and journal articles are the most frequently requested items, some libraries will lend audio recordings, video recordings, maps, sheet music, and microforms of all kinds. In some cases, nominal fees accompany the interlibrary loan services.

The online public access catalog, often abbreviated OPAC, and frequently synonymous with library catalog, is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries. Online catalogs progressed from analog card catalogs, and similarly enable searching the library's collection of books and other materials.

Discogs Website and database about audio recordings

Discogs is a website and crowdsourced database of information about audio recordings, including commercial releases, promotional releases, and bootleg or off-label releases. While the site was originally created with a goal of becoming the largest online database of electronic music, the site now includes releases in all genres on all formats. After the database was opened to contributions from the public, rock music began to become the most prevalent genre listed. As of 12 August 2021 Discogs contains over 14.2 million releases, by over 7.6 million artists, across over 1.3 million labels, contributed from over 595,000 contributor user accounts — with these figures constantly growing as users continually add previously unlisted releases to the site over time. The Discogs servers, currently hosted under the domain name discogs.com, are owned by Zink Media, Inc. and located in Portland, Oregon, United States.

OCLC Global library cooperative

OCLC, Inc., doing business as OCLC, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, then became the Online Computer Library Center as it expanded. In 2017, the name was formally changed to OCLC, Inc. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries pay for the many different services it offers. OCLC also maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system.

Tag (metadata) Keyword assigned to information

In information systems, a tag is a keyword or term assigned to a piece of information. This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching. Tags are generally chosen informally and personally by the item's creator or by its viewer, depending on the system, although they may also be chosen from a controlled vocabulary.

An OpenURL is similar to a web address, but instead of referring to a physical website, it refers to an article, book, patent, or other resource within a website.

Music Player Daemon (MPD) is a free and open music player server. It plays audio files, organizes playlists and maintains a music database. In order to interact with it, a client program is needed. The MPD distribution includes mpc, a simple command line client.

The Research Libraries Group (RLG) was a U.S.-based library consortium that existed from 1974 until its merger with the OCLC library consortium in 2006. RLG developed the Eureka interlibrary search engine, the RedLightGreen database of bibliographic descriptions, and ArchiveGrid, a database containing descriptions of archival collections. It also developed a framework known as the "RLG Conspectus" for evaluating research library collections, which evolved into a set of descriptors used in library collection policy statements, last updated in 1997. The Library of Congress used the conspectus in 2015 in the revision of its own collection policy statement, and decided to retain this resource on its website, as a helpful scale for judging an academic collection's depth.

DSpace

DSpace is an open source repository software package typically used for creating open access repositories for scholarly and/or published digital content. While DSpace shares some feature overlap with content management systems and document management systems, the DSpace repository software serves a specific need as a digital archives system, focused on the long-term storage, access and preservation of digital content. The optional DSpace registry lists almost three thousand repositories all over the world.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to library science:

The California Digital Library (CDL) was founded by the University of California in 1997. Under the leadership of then UC President Richard C. Atkinson, the CDL’s original mission was to forge a better system for scholarly information management and improved support for teaching and research. In collaboration with the ten University of California Libraries and other partners, CDL assembled one of the world's largest digital research libraries. CDL facilitates the licensing of online materials and develops shared services used throughout the UC system. Building on the foundations of the Melvyl Catalog, CDL has developed one of the largest online library catalogs in the country and works in partnership with the UC campuses to bring the treasures of California's libraries, museums, and cultural heritage organizations to the world. CDL continues to explore how services such as digital curation, scholarly publishing, archiving and preservation support research throughout the information lifecycle.

Serials Solutions was a division of ProQuest that provided e-resource access and management services (ERAMS) to libraries. These products enabled librarians to more easily manage electronic resources that serve the needs of their users. Serials Solutions became part of ProQuest Workflow Solutions in 2011 and the "Serials Solutions" name was retired in 2014. In 2015, Proquest acquired Ex Libris Group, a library automation company with many similar products to those of ProQuest Workflow Solutions. The Workflow Solutions division was to be merged with Ex Libris into a new business group called Ex Libris, a ProQuest Company.

Fred Kilgour American librarian

Frederick "Fred" Gridley Kilgour was an American librarian and educator known as the founding director of OCLC, an international computer library network and database. He was its president and executive director from 1967 to 1980.

A union catalog is a combined library catalog describing the collections of a number of libraries. Union catalogs have been created in a range of media, including book format, microform, cards and more recently, networked electronic databases. Print union catalogs are typically arranged by title, author or subject ; electronic versions typically support keyword and Boolean queries.

Geospatial metadata is a type of metadata applicable to geographic data and information. Such objects may be stored in a geographic information system (GIS) or may simply be documents, data-sets, images or other objects, services, or related items that exist in some other native environment but whose features may be appropriate to describe in a (geographic) metadata catalog.

Zotero Reference management software

Zotero is a free and open-source reference management software to manage bibliographic data and related research materials. Notable features include web browser integration, online syncing, generation of in-text citations, footnotes, and bibliographies, as well as integration with the word processors Microsoft Word, LibreOffice Writer, and Google Docs. It is produced by the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University.

Faceted search is a technique that involves augmenting traditional search techniques with a faceted navigation system, allowing users to narrow down search results by applying multiple filters based on faceted classification of the items. A faceted classification system classifies each information element along multiple explicit dimensions, called facets, enabling the classifications to be accessed and ordered in multiple ways rather than in a single, pre-determined, taxonomic order.

LibX is a free, open-source scholars' extension for the Internet Explorer browser that lets people use services offered by their library. Users can search their library catalog(s) and databases through a search bar or through a context menu. The context menu is adaptive and configurable. LibX supports the catalogs of all major vendors. In addition, any resource that can be searched using an http GET request can be included, similar to Firefox's smart keywords.

‡biblios.net Free internet cataloging service

‡biblios.net is a free browser-based cataloging service with a data store containing over thirty-million records. Records are licensed under the Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and License, making the service the world's largest repository of freely-licensed library records. The service was created and is maintained by LibLime.

Trove Australian online library database aggregator

Trove is an Australian online library database aggregator and service which includes full text documents, digital images, bibliographic and holdings data of items which are not available digitally, and a free faceted-search engine as a discovery tool. The database includes archives, images, newspapers, official documents, archived websites, manuscripts and other types of data. Hosted by the National Library of Australia in partnership with content providers, including members of the National and State Libraries Australia, it is one of the most well-respected and accessed GLAM services in Australia, with over 70,000 daily users.

References

  1. "Search for library items". WorldCat. OCLC . Retrieved March 29, 2017.
  2. 1998 is the date of registry of the WorldCat.org domain; see: "WorldCat.org WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info – DomainTools". WHOIS . Retrieved January 21, 2017. However, the union catalog that became WorldCat was started three decades earlier, and it was already available on the web to subscriber libraries at OCLC.org several years before WorldCat.org was a registered domain name; see: "OCLC.org WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info – DomainTools". WHOIS . Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  3. "About OCLC". OCLC . Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  4. 1 2 "Inside WorldCat". www.oclc.org. OCLC. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
  5. Oswald, Godfrey (2017). "Largest unified international library catalog". Library world records (3rd ed.). Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. p. 291. ISBN   9781476667775. OCLC   959650095.
  6. "Content available through WorldCat Discovery" (XLS). www.oclc.org. OCLC. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
  7. 1 2 Margalit Fox (August 2, 2006). "Frederick G. Kilgour, Innovative Librarian, Dies at 92". The New York Times . Retrieved December 22, 2009. Frederick G. Kilgour, a distinguished librarian who nearly 40 years ago transformed a consortium of Ohio libraries into what is now the largest library cooperative in the world, making the catalogs of thousands of libraries around the globe instantly accessible to far-flung patrons, died on Monday in Chapel Hill, N.C. He was 92.
  8. "A brief history of WorldCat". oclc.org. February 10, 2015. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  9. O'Neill, Nancy (November–December 2004). "Open WorldCat Pilot: A User's Perspective". Searcher. 12 (10): 54–60. ISSN   1070-4795. OCLC   201889986.
  10. Quint, Barbara (October 27, 2003). "OCLC project opens WorldCat records to Google". infotoday.com. Information Today . Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  11. "WikiD". OCLC. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  12. Storey, Tom (September 2007). "A WorldCat community: using WorldCat.org to build a social network of the world's library users" (PDF). NextSpace. OCLC (7): 16–17. ISSN   1559-0011 . Retrieved June 26, 2019. Online ratings, tags, reviews, recommendations, lists, rankings, personal profiles—the social media revolution is here. It seems the world has exploded with Web 2.0, social networking tools and sites.
  13. Bertot, John Carlo; Berube, Katy; Devereaux, Peter; Dhakal, Kerry; Powers, Stephen; Ray, Jennie (April 2012). "Assessing the usability of WorldCat Local: findings and considerations". The Library Quarterly . 82 (2): 207–221. doi:10.1086/664588. JSTOR   10.1086/664588. S2CID   61287720. Breeding [2] also makes the following observations about the benefits of the search system: the presence of a more visually appealing interface; the grouping of related material; faceted navigation; and the capability for user-generated content (e.g., reviews). Eden [3] also refers to the advantages of user-generated content possible in WCL...
  14. 1 2 Hane, Paula J. (July 17, 2006). "OCLC to open WorldCat searching to the world". infotoday.com. Information Today . Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  15. Prucha, Francis Paul (1994). "National online library catalogs". Handbook for research in American history: a guide to bibliographies and other reference works (2nd ed.). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. pp.  25–27. ISBN   0803237014. OCLC   28018047. Online Computer Library Center has developed two new programs. One is called EPIC, a new command-driven full online service with sophisticated searching features, including subject searches, intended for librarians and other experienced users. The other, designed for end-users, is FirstSearch, which contains the database materials found in EPIC or subsets of them but has a menu interface that nonspecialists find easy to use. Both EPIC and FirstSearch make available the full OCLC Online Union Catalog (called WorldCat in FirstSearch), but they also function as online database services, offering their users a wide array of other databases.
  16. Hickey, Thomas B. (April 15, 2007). "WorldCat Identities: Another View of the Catalog" (PDF). NextSpace. OCLC (6): 18–19. ISSN   1559-0011 . Retrieved January 18, 2016.
  17. "OCLC and Wikipedia Library link citations to millions of library materials, expanding access to quality sources". oclc.org. OCLC. May 11, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  18. Orlowitz, Jake (May 11, 2017). "You can now add automatically generated citations to millions of books on Wikipedia". blog.wikimedia.org. Wikimedia Foundation . Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  19. Michalko, Jim (October 12, 2017). "Syncing Catalogs with thousands of Libraries in 120 Countries through OCLC". blog.archive.org. Internet Archive . Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  20. "Data strategy [WorldCat]". oclc.org. Archived from the original on February 12, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  21. "About data sync collections – OCLC Support". www.oclc.org. OCLC. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  22. "What is WorldCat?". worldcat.org. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  23. Schonfeld, Roger C. (December 5, 2019). "What are the larger implications of Ex Libris buying Innovative?". sr.ithaka.org. Retrieved April 25, 2020. OCLC's WorldShare cloud system has yet to achieve critical mass, amounting to 10% of the academic market (but only 4% of ARL), and OCLC's entire public library business represents just 10% of the public library market. For another source of statistics on library system market share, see: "Library Technology Guides: Marketshare Report". librarytechnology.org.
  24. Breeding, Marshall (March 2014). "OCLC announces WorldCat Discovery service". Smart Libraries Newsletter. American Library Association. 34 (3): 6–7. ISSN   1541-8820.
  25. "Connexion – Features". www.oclc.org. OCLC. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  26. Dean, Becky (March 3, 2005). "OCLC Authorities migration timeline". bibco@listserv.loc.gov (Mailing list). Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  27. "WorldShare Record Manager: Record-at-a-time cataloging service". www.oclc.org. OCLC. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  28. "WorldCat Metadata API | OCLC Developer Network". www.oclc.org. OCLC. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  29. "OCLC cataloging application comparison". www.oclc.org. OCLC. Retrieved June 18, 2021.

Further reading