Conscription

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No standing army
No current enforced conscription
Active draft system, but less than 20% of the whole age group are recruited
Plan to abolish conscription by the current government
Current ongoing conscription
No information Conscription map of the world.svg
  No standing army
  No current enforced conscription
  Active draft system, but less than 20% of the whole age group are recruited
  Plan to abolish conscription by the current government
  Current ongoing conscription
  No information

Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service. [5] Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names. The modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a very large and powerful military. Most European nations later copied the system in peacetime, so that men at a certain age would serve 1–8 years on active duty and then transfer to the reserve force.

National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service. Conscription is mandatory national service. The term national service comes from the United Kingdom's National Service Act 1939. Many young people spent one or more years in such programmes. Compulsory military service typically requires all male citizens to enroll for one or two years, usually at age 18, while voluntary national service requires only three months of basic military training. The US equivalent is Selective Service. In the United States, voluntary enrollments at the Peace Corps and AmeriCorps are also known as national service.

Military service Performing the service in the armed forces of a state

Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job (volunteer) or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).

French Revolution social and political revolution in France and its colonies occurring from 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Contents

Conscription is controversial for a range of reasons, including conscientious objection to military engagements on religious or philosophical grounds; political objection, for example to service for a disliked government or unpopular war; and ideological objection, for example, to a perceived violation of individual rights. Those conscripted may evade service, sometimes by leaving the country, [6] and seeking asylum in another country. Some selection systems accommodate these attitudes by providing alternative service outside combat-operations roles or even outside the military, such as Siviilipalvelus (alternative civil service) in Finland, Zivildienst (compulsory community service) in Austria and Switzerland. Several countries conscript male soldiers not only for armed forces, but also for paramilitary agencies, which are dedicated to police-like domestic only service like Internal Troops, Border Guards or non-combat rescue duties like Civil defence troops – none of which is considered alternative to the military conscription.

Right of asylum

The right of asylum is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by one's own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary. This right was recognized by the Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Hebrews, from whom it was adopted into Western tradition. René Descartes fled to the Netherlands, Voltaire to England, and Thomas Hobbes to France, because each state offered protection to persecuted foreigners.

Combat purposeful violent conflict, typically refers to armed conflict or melee

Combat is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed.

Siviilipalvelus, or civiltjänst, is an alternative service in Finland. It is provided as an alternative to military service provided by Article 127 of the Finnish constitution for conscientious objectors. The service length is 347 days, changed from 395 days in 2008. It can be entered into by filing paperwork indicating that one has ethical or religious objections to military service.

As of the early 21st century, many states no longer conscript soldiers, relying instead upon professional militaries with volunteers enlisted to meet the demand for troops. The ability to rely on such an arrangement, however, presupposes some degree of predictability with regard to both war-fighting requirements and the scope of hostilities. Many states that have abolished conscription therefore still reserve the power to resume it during wartime or times of crisis. [7] States involved in wars or interstate rivalries are most likely to implement conscription, whereas democracies are less likely than autocracies to implement conscription. [8] Former British colonies are less likely to have conscription, as they are influenced by British anticonscription norms that can be traced back to the English Civil War. [8]

A volunteer military or all-volunteer military is one which derives its manpower from volunteers rather than conscription or mandatory service. A country may offer attractive pay and benefits through military recruitment to attract potential recruits. Many countries with volunteer militaries reserve the right to renew conscription in the event of an emergency.

War Organised and prolonged violent conflict between states

War is a state of armed conflict between states, governments, societies and informal paramilitary groups, such as mercenaries, insurgents and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general. Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties.

History

In pre-modern times

Ilkum

Around the reign of Hammurabi (1791–1750 BC), the Babylonian Empire used a system of conscription called Ilkum. Under that system those eligible were required to serve in the royal army in time of war. During times of peace they were instead required to provide labour for other activities of the state. In return for this service, people subject to it gained the right to hold land. It is possible that this right was not to hold land per se but specific land supplied by the state. [9]

Hammurabi sixth king of Babylon

Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC. He was preceded by his father, Sin-Muballit, who abdicated due to failing health. During his reign, he conquered Elam and the city-states of Larsa, Eshnunna, and Mari. He ousted Ishme-Dagan I, the king of Assyria, and forced his son Mut-Ashkur to pay tribute, bringing almost all of Mesopotamia under Babylonian rule.

Various forms of avoiding military service are recorded. While it was outlawed by the Code of Hammurabi, the hiring of substitutes appears to have been practiced both before and after the creation of the code. Later records show that Ilkum commitments could become regularly traded. In other places, people simply left their towns to avoid their Ilkum service. Another option was to sell Ilkum lands and the commitments along with them. With the exception of a few exempted classes, this was forbidden by the Code of Hammurabi. [10]

Code of Hammurabi Babylonian code of law or conduct

The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BCE. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code. A partial copy exists on a 2.25 meter (7.5 ft) stone stele. It consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" as graded based on social stratification depending on social status and gender, of slave versus free, man versus woman.

Medieval levies

In medieval Scandinavia the leiðangr (Old Norse), leidang (Norwegian), leding, (Danish), ledung (Swedish), lichting (Dutch), expeditio (Latin) or sometimes leþing (Old English), was a levy of free farmers conscripted into coastal fleets for seasonal excursions and in defence of the realm.

Scandinavia Region in Northern Europe

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia also refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, which is always known locally as the Nordic countries.

Norwegian language North Germanic language spoken in Norway

Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language. Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties, and some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close. These Scandinavian languages, together with Faroese and Icelandic as well as some extinct languages, constitute the North Germanic languages. Faroese and Icelandic are hardly mutually intelligible with Norwegian in their spoken form because continental Scandinavian has diverged from them. While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it. Norwegian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.

Danish language North Germanic language spoken in Denmark

Danish is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status. Also, minor Danish-speaking communities are found in Norway, Sweden, Spain, the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina. Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland speak Danish as their first language.

The bulk of the Anglo-Saxon English army, called the fyrd , was composed of part-time English soldiers drawn from the freemen of each county. In the 690s Laws of Ine, three levels of fines are imposed on different social classes for neglecting military service. [11] Some modern writers claim military service was restricted to the landowning minor nobility. These thegns were the land-holding aristocracy of the time and were required to serve with their own armour and weapons for a certain number of days each year. The historian David Sturdy has cautioned about regarding the fyrd as a precursor to a modern national army composed of all ranks of society, describing it as a "ridiculous fantasy":

The persistent old belief that peasants and small farmers gathered to form a national army or fyrd is a strange delusion dreamt up by antiquarians in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries to justify universal military conscription. [12]

Medieval levy in Poland was known as the pospolite ruszenie .

Military slavery

Ottoman janissaries Battle of Vienna.SultanMurads with janissaries.jpg
Ottoman janissaries

The system of military slaves was widely used in the Middle East, beginning with the creation of the corps of Turkish slave-soldiers ( ghulams or mamluks ) by the Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tasim in the 820s and 830s. The Turkish troops soon came to dominate the government, establishing a pattern throughout the Islamic world of a ruling military class, often separated by ethnicity, culture and even religion by the mass of the population, a paradigm that found its apogee in the Mamluks of Egypt and the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire, institutions that survived until the early 19th century.

In the middle of the 14th century, Ottoman Sultan Murad I developed personal troops to be loyal to him, with a slave army called the Kapıkulu . The new force was built by taking Christian children from newly conquered lands, especially from the far areas of his empire, in a system known as the devşirme (translated "gathering" or "converting"). The captive children were forced to convert to Islam. The Sultans had the young boys trained over several years. Those who showed special promise in fighting skills were trained in advanced warrior skills, put into the sultan's personal service, and turned into the Janissaries, the elite branch of the Kapıkulu. A number of distinguished military commanders of the Ottomans, and most of the imperial administrators and upper-level officials of the Empire, such as Pargalı İbrahim Pasha and Sokollu Mehmet Paşa, were recruited in this way. [13] By 1609, the Sultan's Kapıkulu forces increased to about 100,000. [14]

In later years, Sultans turned to the Barbary Pirates to supply their Jannissaries corps. Their attacks on ships off the coast of Africa or in the Mediterranean, and subsequent capture of able-bodied men for ransom or sale provided some captives for the Sultan's system. Starting in the 17th century, Christian families living under the Ottoman rule began to submit their sons into the Kapikulu system willingly, as they saw this as a potentially invaluable career opportunity for their children. Eventually the Sultan turned to foreign volunteers from the warrior clans of Circassians in southern Russia to fill his Janissary armies. As a whole the system began to break down, the loyalty of the Jannissaries became increasingly suspect. Mahmud II forcibly disbanded the Janissary corps in 1826. [15] [16]

Similar to the Janissaries in origin and means of development were the Mamluks of Egypt in the Middle Ages. The Mamluks were usually captive non-Muslim Iranian and Turkish children who had been kidnapped or bought as slaves from the Barbary coasts. The Egyptians assimilated and trained the boys and young men to become Islamic soldiers who served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. The first mamluks served the Abbasid caliphs in 9th-century Baghdad. Over time they became a powerful military caste. On more than one occasion, they seized power, for example, ruling Egypt from 1250 to 1517.

From 1250 Egypt had been ruled by the Bahri dynasty of Kipchak origin. Slaves from the Caucasus served in the army and formed an elite corp of troops. They eventually revolted in Egypt to form the Burgi dynasty. The Mamluks' excellent fighting abilities, massed Islamic armies, and overwhelming numbers succeeded in overcoming the Christian Crusader fortresses in the Holy Land. The Mamluks were the most successful defense against the Mongol Ilkhanate of Persia and Iraq from entering Egypt. [17]

On the western coast of Africa, Berber Muslims captured non-Muslims to put to work as laborers. They generally converted the younger people to Islam and many became quite assimilated. In Morocco, the Berber looked south rather than north. The Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail, called "the Bloodthirsty" (1672–1727), employed a corps of 150,000 black slaves, called his Black Guard. He used them to coerce the country into submission. [18]

In modern times

Conscription of Poles to the Russian Army in 1863 (by Aleksander Sochaczewski). Branka 1863.JPG
Conscription of Poles to the Russian Army in 1863 (by Aleksander Sochaczewski).

Modern conscription, the massed military enlistment of national citizens, was devised during the French Revolution, to enable the Republic to defend itself from the attacks of European monarchies. Deputy Jean-Baptiste Jourdan gave its name to the 5 September 1798 Act, whose first article stated: "Any Frenchman is a soldier and owes himself to the defense of the nation." It enabled the creation of the Grande Armée , what Napoleon Bonaparte called "the nation in arms", which overwhelmed European professional armies that often numbered only into the low tens of thousands. More than 2.6 million men were inducted into the French military in this way between the years 1800 and 1813. [19]

The defeat of the Prussian Army in particular shocked the Prussian establishment, which had believed it was invincible after the victories of Frederick the Great. The Prussians were used to relying on superior organization and tactical factors such as order of battle to focus superior troops against inferior ones. Given approximately equivalent forces, as was generally the case with professional armies, these factors showed considerable importance. However, they became considerably less important when the Prussian armies faced forces that outnumbered their own in some cases by more than ten to one. Scharnhorst advocated adopting the levée en masse , the military conscription used by France. The Krümpersystem was the beginning of short-term compulsory service in Prussia, as opposed to the long-term conscription previously used. [20]

In the Russian Empire, the military service time "owed" by serfs was 25 years at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1834 it was decreased to 20 years. The recruits were to be not younger than 17 and not older than 35. [21] In 1874 Russia introduced universal conscription in the modern pattern, an innovation only made possible by the abolition of serfdom in 1861. New military law decreed that all male Russian subjects, when they reached the age of 20, were eligible to serve in the military for six years. [22]

In the decades prior to World War I universal conscription along broadly Prussian lines became the norm for European armies, and those modeled on them. By 1914 the only substantial armies still completely dependent on voluntary enlistment were those of Britain and the United States. Some colonial powers such as France reserved their conscript armies for home service while maintaining professional units for overseas duties.

World Wars

Young men registering for conscription during World War I, New York City, June 5, 1917. Young men registering for military conscription, New York City, June 5, 1917.jpg
Young men registering for conscription during World War I, New York City, June 5, 1917.

The range of eligible ages for conscripting was expanded to meet national demand during the World Wars. In the United States, the Selective Service System drafted men for World War I initially in an age range from 21 to 30 but expanded its eligibility in 1918 to an age range of 18 to 45. [23] In the case of a widespread mobilization of forces where service includes homefront defense, ages of conscripts may range much higher, with the oldest conscripts serving in roles requiring lesser mobility. Expanded-age conscription was common during the Second World War: in Britain, it was commonly known as "call-up" and extended to age 51. Nazi Germany termed it Volkssturm ("People's Storm") and included children as young as 16 and men as old as 60. [24] During the Second World War, both Britain and the Soviet Union conscripted women. The United States was on the verge of drafting women into the Nurse Corps because it anticipated it would need the extra personnel for its planned invasion of Japan. However, the Japanese surrendered and the idea was abandoned. [25]

Soviet conscripts. Moscow, 1941. RIAN archive 662758 Recruits entering Voroshilov Barracks.jpg
Soviet conscripts. Moscow, 1941.

Arguments against conscription

Gender-based

Feminists [26] [27] [28] and other opponents of discrimination against men [29] [30] :102 have criticized military conscription, or compulsory military service, as sexist.

Feminists have argued that military conscription is sexist because wars serve the interests of what they view as the patriarchy, the military is a sexist institution, conscripts are therefore indoctrinated in sexism, and conscription of men normalizes violence by men as socially acceptable. [31] [32] Feminists have been organizers and participants in resistance to conscription in several countries. [33] [34] [35] [36]

Historically, only men have been subjected to conscription. [30] [37] [38] [39] [40] Men who opt out of military service must often perform alternative service, such as Zivildienst in Austria and Switzerland, whereas women do not have these obligations.

Involuntary servitude

American libertarians oppose conscription and call for the abolition of the Selective Service System, believing that impressment of individuals into the armed forces is "involuntary servitude." [41] Ron Paul, a former presidential nominee of the U.S. Libertarian Party has said that conscription "is wrongly associated with patriotism, when it really represents slavery and involuntary servitude." [42] The philosopher Ayn Rand opposed conscription, suggesting that "of all the statist violations of individual rights in a mixed economy, the military draft is the worst. It is an abrogation of rights. It negates man's fundamental right—the right to life—and establishes the fundamental principle of statism: that a man's life belongs to the state, and the state may claim it by compelling him to sacrifice it in battle." [43]

In 1917, a number of radicals and anarchists, including Emma Goldman, challenged the new draft law in federal court arguing that it was a direct violation of the Thirteenth Amendment's prohibition against slavery and involuntary servitude. However, the Supreme Court unanimously upheld the constitutionality of the draft act in the case of Arver v. United States on 7 January 1918. The decision said the Constitution gave Congress the power to declare war and to raise and support armies. The Court emphasized the principle of the reciprocal rights and duties of citizens:

"It may not be doubted that the very conception of a just government in its duty to the citizen includes the reciprocal obligation of the citizen to render military service in case of need and the right to compel." [44]

Economic

It can be argued that in a cost-to-benefit ratio, conscription during peacetime is not worthwhile. [45] Months or years of service performed by the most fit and capable subtract from the productivity of the economy; add to this the cost of training them, and in some countries paying them. Compared to these extensive costs, some would argue there is very little benefit; if there ever was a war then conscription and basic training could be completed quickly, and in any case there is little threat of a war in most countries with conscription. In the United States, every male resident is required by law to register with the Selective Service System within 30 days following his 18th birthday and be available for a draft; this is often accomplished automatically by a motor vehicle department during licensing or by voter registration.

The cost of conscription can be related to the parable of the broken window in anti-draft arguments. The cost of the work, military service, does not disappear even if no salary is paid. The work effort of the conscripts is effectively wasted, as an unwilling workforce is extremely inefficient. The impact is especially severe in wartime, when civilian professionals are forced to fight as amateur soldiers. Not only is the work effort of the conscripts wasted and productivity lost, but professionally skilled conscripts are also difficult to replace in the civilian workforce. Every soldier conscripted in the army is taken away from his civilian work, and away from contributing to the economy which funds the military. This may be less a problem in an agrarian or pre-industrialized state where the level of education is generally low, and where a worker is easily replaced by another. However, this is potentially more costly in a post-industrial society where educational levels are high and where the workforce is sophisticated and a replacement for a conscripted specialist is difficult to find. Even direr economic consequences result if the professional conscripted as an amateur soldier is killed or maimed for life; his work effort and productivity are lost. [46]

Arguments in favor of conscription

Political and moral motives

Conscription in Iran Conscription in Iran 3.jpg
Conscription in Iran

Jean Jacques Rousseau argued vehemently against professional armies, believing that it was the right and privilege of every citizen to participate to the defense of the whole society, and a mark of moral decline to leave this business to professionals. He based this belief upon the development of the Roman republic, which came to an end at the same time as the Roman army changed from a conscript to professional force. [47] Similarly, Aristotle linked the division of armed service among the populace intimately with the political order of the state. [48] Niccolò Machiavelli argued strongly for conscription, [49] seeing the professional armies as the cause of the failure of societal unity in Italy.

Other proponents, such as William James, consider both mandatory military and national service as ways of instilling maturity in young adults. [50] Some proponents, such as Jonathan Alter and Mickey Kaus, support a draft in order to reinforce social equality, create social consciousness, break down class divisions and for young adults to immerse themselves in public enterprise. [51] [52] [53] Charles Rangel called for the reinstatement of the draft during the Iraq war, not because he seriously expected it to be adopted, but to stress how the socioeconomic restratification meant that very few children of upper-class Americans served in the all-volunteer American armed forces.

Economic and resource efficiency

It is estimated by the British military that in a professional military, a company deployed for active duty in peacekeeping corresponds to three inactive companies at home. Salaries for each are paid from the military budget. In contrast, volunteers from a trained reserve are in their civilian jobs when they are not deployed. [54]

It was more financially beneficial for less-educated young Portuguese men born in 1967 to participate in conscription, as opposed to participating in the highly competitive job market with men of the same age who continued through to higher education. [55]

Drafting of women

Female Israeli soldiers Flickr - Israel Defense Forces - Karakal Winter Training (1).jpg
Female Israeli soldiers

Traditionally conscription has been limited to the male population of a given body. Women and disabled men have been exempt from conscription. Many societies have considered, and continue to consider, military service as a test of manhood and a rite of passage from boyhood into manhood. [56] [57]

As of 2013, countries that were actively drafting women into military service included Bolivia, [58] Chad, [59] Eritrea, [60] [61] [62] Israel, [60] [61] [63] Mozambique [64] and North Korea. [65] Israel has universal female conscription, although in practice women can avoid service by claiming a religious exemption and over a third of Israeli women do so. [60] [61] [66] Sudanese law allows for conscription of women, but this is not implemented in practice. [67] In the United Kingdom during World War II, beginning in 1941, women were brought into the scope of conscription but, as all women with dependent children were exempt and many women were informally left in occupations such as nursing or teaching, the number conscripted was relatively few. [68]

After a law passed in March 2003, Tunisia became the first Arab country to universally conscript women.

In 2015 Norway introduced female conscription, making it the first NATO member and first European country to have a legally compulsory national service for both men and women. [69] In practice only motivated volunteers are selected to join the army in Norway. [70]

In the USSR, there was no systematic conscription of women for the armed forces, but the severe disruption of normal life and the high proportion of civilians affected by World War II after the German invasion attracted many volunteers for what was termed "The Great Patriotic War". [71] Medical doctors of both sexes could and would be conscripted (as officers). Also, the Soviet university education system required Department of Chemistry students of both sexes to complete an ROTC course in NBC defense, and such female reservist officers could be conscripted in times of war. The United States came close to drafting women into the Nurse Corps in preparation for a planned invasion of Japan. [72] [73]

In 1981 in the United States, several men filed lawsuit in the case Rostker v. Goldberg , alleging that the Selective Service Act of 1948 violates the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment by requiring that only men register with the Selective Service System (SSS). The Supreme Court eventually upheld the Act, stating that "the argument for registering women was based on considerations of equity, but Congress was entitled, in the exercise of its constitutional powers, to focus on the question of military need, rather than 'equity.'" [74]

On October 1, 1999 in Taiwan, the Judicial Yuan of the Republic of China in its Interpretation 490 considered that the physical differences between males and females and the derived role differentiation in their respective social functions and lives would not make drafting only males a violation of the Constitution of the Republic of China. [75] [ (see discussion) verification needed ] Though women are not conscripted in Taiwan, transsexual persons are exempt. [76]

Conscientious objection

A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or, more often, with any role in the armed forces. [77] [78] In some countries, conscientious objectors have special legal status, which augments their conscription duties. For example, Sweden used to allow (and once again, with the re-introduction of conscription, allows) conscientious objectors to choose a service in the "weapons-free" branch, such as an airport fireman, nurse, or telecommunications technician.

The reasons for refusing to serve in the military are varied. Some people are conscientious objectors for religious reasons. In particular, the members of the historic peace churches are pacifist by doctrine, and Jehovah's Witnesses, while not strictly pacifists, refuse to participate in the armed forces on the ground that they believe that Christians should be neutral in international conflicts.

By country

Conscription by country – Examples
CountryConscription [79] Conscription genderLand area (km2) [80] [81] GDP nominal (US$M) [81] [82] Per capita
GDP (US$) [81] [83]
Population [84] [85] [86] Government [87] [88]
Afghanistan No (abolished in 1992)N/A652,864$572$1,88834,656,032Islamic Republic
Albania No (abolished in 2010) [89] N/A27,398$12,380$3,745.863,010,000Republic
Algeria YesMale2,381,740$227,802$5,886 [90] 38,090,000Presidential Republic
Angola YesMale1,246,700$113,700$4,389.4518,570,000Presidential Republic
Argentina No. Voluntary; conscription may be ordered for specified reasons; per Public Law No.24.429 promulgated on 5 January 1995N/A2,736,690$468,800$8,662.99 [91] 42,610,000Presidential Federal Republic
Australia No (abolished by parliament in 1972) [92] N/A7,617,930$1,520,000$55,290.4322,260,000Parliamentary Federal Monarchy
Austria Yes (alternative service available) [93] Male82,444$417,900$43,660.318,220,000Parliamentary Federal Republic
Azerbaijan YesMale86,600$35,000$3,7599,754,830Republic
Bahamas NoN/A10,070$8,040$20,909.96319,031Parliamentary Monarchy
Bangladesh No (But can volunteer at Bangladesh Ansar)N/A147,610$121,300$1,524163,650,000Republic
Barbados NoN/A431$4,170$14,133.58288,725Parliamentary Monarchy
Belgium No (Conscription was abolished as of 1 January 1994 under the so-called Delcroix Bill of 6 July 1993)N/A30,278$477,400$42,338.2510,440,000Parliamentary Federal Monarchy
Belize NoN/A22,806$1,560$4,637.15334,297Parliamentary Monarchy
Bhutan No [94] N/A47,000$2,140$1,948.56725,296Monarchy
Bolivia Yes (when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal) [95] Male and Female1,084,390$26,860$1,888.4310,460,000Presidential Republic
Bosnia and Herzegovina No (abolished on January 1, 2006) [96] N/A51,197$17,090$4,243.453,880,000Federal Republic
Brazil Yes, but all the recruits have been volunteers in recent years. [97] (alternative service is foreseen in law, [98] but it is not implemented [97] )Male8,456,510$2,220,000$10,368.31201,010,000Presidential Federal Republic
Bulgaria No (abolished by law on January 1, 2008) [99] N/A110,550$50,330$5,951.466,980,000Republic
Canada No (Occurred during 1917-1918 and 1944-1945)N/A9,093,507$1,800,000$45,829.4234,570,000Parliamentary Federal Monarchy
Chile YesMale748,800$264,500$11,614.6517,220,000Presidential Republic
China No (Citizens 18 years of age are required to register in PLA offices, but policy not enforced. Policy exempted in Hong Kong and Macao) [100] [ not in citation given ]N/A9,326,410$15,722,500$11,150.671,410,000,000Communist state
Colombia YesMale1,141,748$427,139$8,858.5448,747,632Presidential Republic
Croatia No (abolished by law in 2008) [101] N/A56,414$55,710$13,563.314,480,000Republic
Cuba YesMale110,860$72,300$5,095.8311,060,000Communist State
Conscription in Cyprus Yes (alternative service available)Male9,240$19,320$22,957.401,165,000Presidential Republic [102]
Czech Republic No (abolished in 2005) [103] N/A77,276$193,000$18,555.5010,160,000Republic
Conscription in Denmark Yes by law, however a great majority of the recruits have been volunteers over the past few years [104] According to Jyllands Posten, conscription has ended in practice. [105] (alternative service available) [106] [107] Male42,394$310,600$56,221.675,560,000Parliamentary Monarchy
Djibouti NoN/A22,980$1,340$1,365.65792,198Presidential Republic
Ecuador No (suspended in 2008)N/A276,840$82,900$3,766.4015,440,000Presidential Republic
Egypt YesMale995,450$253,300$2,776.7985,290,000Presidential Republic
El Salvador No. Legal, not practiced.N/A20,720$23,540$3,505.846,110,000Presidential Republic
Estonia Yes (alternative service available)Male45,339$22,100$14,028.171,270,000Republic
Finland Yes (alternative service available)Male304,473$244,300$44,375.235,270,000Republic
France No (suspended for peacetime in 2001) [108] N/A640,053 [109] $2,580,000$39,288.8165,950,000Presidential Republic
Gambia NoN/A10,000$896$618.811,880,000Presidential Republic
Germany No (suspended for peacetime by federal legislature effective from 1 July 2011) [110] N/A349,223$3,380,000$40,427.0581,150,000Federal Republic
Greece Yes (alternative service available)Male130,800$245,800$26,707.9310,770,000Republic
Grenada No (no military service)N/A344$779$6,161.81109,590Parliamentary Monarchy
Hungary No (Peacetime conscription abolished in 2004) [111] N/A92,340$124,000$13,229.979,940,000Republic
India NoN/A2,973,190$2,400,000$1,747.701,220,000,000Federal Republic
Indonesia NoN/A1,826,440$866,700$2,888.11251,160,000Presidential Republic
Ireland NoN/A70,273$250,286$53,841.004,772,000Parliamentary Republic
Iran YesMale1,636,000$541,200$4,537.8779,850,000Islamic Republic
Iraq No (abolished in 2003)N/A437,072$6,116$17,95238,270,000Republic
Israel YesMale and female20,330$254,000$26,404.857,710,900Republic
Italy No (suspended for peacetime in 2005) [112] N/A294,020$1,990,000$33,678.6761,480,000Republic
Jamaica NoN/A10,831$14,640$4,586.632,910,000Parliamentary Monarchy
Japan No. Japanese Constitution abolished conscription. Enlistment in Japan Self-Defense Force is voluntary at 18 years of age. [113] N/A377,944$4,580,000$42,298.79127,250,000Parliamentary Democracy, Constitutional Monarchy
Jordan No [114]
Male91,971$30,790$4,487.266,480,000Monarchy
North Korea Yes [115] [116] Male and female120,538 [115] $28,000 [115] $1,800.00 [115] 24,851,627 [115] Single-party Republic [117]
South Korea Yes. The military service law was established in 1948. [118] Male98,190$1,670,000$34,961.5548,960,000Presidential Democracy, Republic with Unitary form of government
Kuwait Yes [119] Male17,820$182,000$39,210.052,700,000Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Lebanon No (abolished in 2007) [120] N/A10,230$40,780$9,018.474,130,000Republic
Libya YesMale1,759,540$80,810$12,897.706,000,000 Transitional government [121]
Lithuania Yes [122] Male65,300 [123] $41,570$10,870.693,520,000Republic
Luxembourg NoN/A2,586$56,370$103,421.82514,862Parliamentary Monarchy
Malaysia No, [124] (Malaysian National Service) suspended from January 2015 due to government budget cuts [125] N/A328,550$300,600$7,745.1329,630,000Federal Monarchy
Maldives NoN/A300$2,080$4,399.84393,988Presidential Republic
Malta NoN/A316$8,630$18,752.63411,277Republic
Mexico YesMale1,923,040$1,160,000$8,516.67116,220,000Federal Republic
Republic of Moldova YesMale33,371$7,150$1,503.903,620,000Republic
Morocco Yes (reintroduced in 2018) [126] Male and female446,300$109,300$3,185.2834,314,130Monarchy
Myanmar
sources differ
Yes but not enforced as of January 2011. [127] [128] [129] [130] [131]
No (FWCC [132] )
N/A657,740$54,530$686.4855,170,000Parliamentary Republic
Netherlands No. Suspended since 1997 (except for Curaçao and Aruba [ citation needed ]) [133] N/A33,883$760,400$46,360.6217,283,008Parliamentary Monarchy
New Zealand No, conscription abolished in December 1972.N/A268,021$167,500$31,594.854,370,000Parliamentary Monarchy
North Macedonia No (abolished in 2006) [134] N/A25,713$9,500$3,646.552,090,000Republic
Norway Yes by law, but in practice people are not forced to serve against their will. [70] Also total objectors have not been punished since 2011, instead they are simply exempted from the service. [135] Male and female307,442$492,900$84,573.264,720,000Parliamentary Monarchy
Pakistan NoN/A778,720$222,500$1,009.53193,240,000Federal Republic
Philippines No [132] [136] [138] N/A343,448$246,800$2,019.38105,720,000Presidential Republic
Poland No (ended in 2009), [139] but all men aged 18 are must take part in obligatory military qualification to validate ability in case of wartime or molibization.N/A312,759$483,200$12,308.9238,380,000Republic
Portugal No (Peacetime conscription abolished in 2004 but there remains a symbolic military obligation to all 18-year-old people, from both sexes. It is called National Defense Day, (Dia da Defesa Nacional in Portuguese)). [140] N/A (symbolic obligation is for both male and female)91,951$209,600$21,029.9610,800,000Republic
Qatar Yes Male11,437$189,800$100,297.572,040,000Monarchy
Romania No (ended in 2007) [141] N/A230,340$167,100$7,388.7521,790,000Presidential Republic
Russia YesMale16,995,800$1,366,000$16,372.99142,500,000Presidential Federal Republic
Rwanda NoN/A24,948$7,010$25.3412,020,000Presidential Republic
Saudi Arabia NoN/A2,149,690$701,400$15,936.3826,940,000Monarchy
Seychelles NoN/A455$1,020$10,237.2790,846Presidential Republic
Singapore YesMale719.1$308,051$56,319.005,535,000Republic
Slovenia No [142] N/A20,151$44,810$22,669.331,990,000Republic
South Africa No (ended in 1994, formalized in 2002) [143] N/A1,219,912$379,100$7,089.2348,600,000Republic
Spain No (abolished by law on December 31, 2001) [144] N/A499,542$1,310,000$29,845.2647,370,000Parliamentary Monarchy
Swaziland NoN/A17,203$3,700$2,652.651,400,000Monarchy
Sweden Yes (alternative service available) [145] Male and female410,934$516,700$47,408.1910,031,231Parliamentary Monarchy
Switzerland Yes (Alternative service available) [146] Male39,770$522,400$66,408.197,639,961Federal Republic
Syria YesMale184,050$64,700$2,769.2822,460,000Presidential Republic
Taiwan Yes (alternative service available) [147]
According to the Defence Minister, from 2018 there will be no compulsory enlistment for military service. [2]
Male32,260$484,700 [148] $20,749.21 [148] 23,359,928 [148] Presidential Republic
Thailand YesMale511,770$455,221$6,593.7267,450,000 Military Junta endorsed by Monarchy
Tonga NoN/A718$465$2,891.51106,322Parliamentary Monarchy
Trinidad and Tobago NoN/A5,128$25,400$15,962.711,227,505Republic
Tunisia YesMale and Female163,610$40,260$3,490.8311,703,220Republic
Turkey Yes (Paid military exemption has also been introduced five times since 1980 for various reasons with the last one announced in July 2018.) [149] Male770,760$777,600$19,556.0080,690,000Republic
United Arab Emirates Yes (Implemented in 2014, compulsory for male citizens aged 18–30) [150] Male83,600$269,800$29,9005,628,805Constitutional monarchy
Ukraine Yes [151] Male603,700$173,900$2,977.9444,570,000Presidential Republic
United Kingdom No (abolished December 31, 1960, except Bermuda Regiment) [152] N/A241,590$2,440,000$36,276.8263,180,000Parliamentary Monarchy
United States No [153] – the draft was abandoned in 1973. However, men are currently still legally required to register with the Selective Service System within 30 days of their 18th birthday.N/A9,161,923$16,820,000$51,264.02302,670,000Presidential Democracy, Federal Republic
Vanuatu NoN/A12,200$776$3,051.22261,565Republic
Venezuela Yes [154] [155] Male and female882,050$376,100$9,084.0928,460,000Presidential Federal Republic

China

A terracotta soldier with his horse, China, 210-209 BC Soldier Horse.JPG
A terracotta soldier with his horse, China, 210–209 BC

Universal conscription in China dates back to the State of Qin, which eventually became the Qin Empire of 221 BC. Following unification, historical records show that a total of 300,000 conscript soldiers and 500,000 conscript labourers constructed the Great Wall of China. [156]

In the following dynasties, universal conscription was abolished and reintroduced on numerous occasions.

As of 2011, [157] universal military conscription is theoretically mandatory in the People's Republic of China, and reinforced by law. However, due to the large population of China and large pool of candidates available for recruitment, the People's Liberation Army has always had sufficient volunteers, so conscription has not been required in practice at all. [157]

Europe

Austria

Every male citizen of the Republic of Austria up to the age of 35 can be drafted for a six-month long basic military training in the Bundesheer. For men refusing to undergo this training, a nine-month lasting community service is mandatory.

Belgium

Belgium abolished the conscription in 1994. The last conscripts left active service in February 1995. To this day (2019), a strong minority of the Belgian citizens (especially in Flanders) supports the idea of reintroducing military conscription, for both men and women.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria had mandatory military service for males above 18 until conscription was ended in 2008. [158] Due to a shortfall in the army of some 5500 soldiers, [159] parts of the current ruling coalition have expressed their support for the return of mandatory military service, most notably Krasimir Karakachanov. Opposition towards this idea from the main coalition partner, GERB, has seen a compromise, where instead of mandatory military service, Bulgaria could possibly introduce a voluntary military service by 2019 where young citizens can volunteer for a period of 6 to 9 months, and will receive a basic wage. [160]

Cyprus

Military service in the Cypriot National Guard is mandatory for all male citizens of the Republic of Cyprus, as well as any male non-citizens born of a parent of Greek Cypriot descent, lasting from the January 1 of the year in which they turn 18 years of age to December 31, of the year in which they turn 50. (Efthymiou, 2016) [161] [162] . All male residents of Cyprus who are of military age (16 and over) are required to obtain an exit visa from the Ministry of Defense. Currently, military conscription in Cyprus lasts 14 months.

Denmark

Conscription duty as Royal Life Guards in Copenhagen. Copenhagen royal guard waiting.jpg
Conscription duty as Royal Life Guards in Copenhagen.

Conscription is known in Denmark since the Viking Age, where one man out of every 10 had to serve the king. Frederick IV of Denmark changed the law in 1710 to every 4th man. The men were chosen by the landowner and it was seen as a penalty.

Since 12 February 1849, every physically fit man must do military service. According to §81 in the Constitution of Denmark, which was promulgated in 1849:

Every male person able to carry arms shall be liable with his person to contribute to the defence of his country under such rules as are laid down by Statute. — Constitution of Denmark [163]

The legislation about compulsory military service is articulated in the Danish Law of Conscription. [164] National service takes 4–12 months. [165] It is possible to postpone the duty when one is still in full-time education. [166] Every male turning 18 will be drafted to the 'Day of Defence', where they will be introduced to the Danish military and their health will be tested. [167] Physically unfit persons are not required to do military service. [165] [168] It is only compulsory for men, while women are free to choose to join the Danish army. [169] Almost all of the men have been volunteers in recent years, [170] 96.9% of the total number of recruits having been volunteers in the 2015 draft. [171]

After lottery, [172] one can become a conscientious objector. [173] Total objection (refusal from alternative civilian service) results in up to 4 months jailtime according to the law. [174] However, in 2014 a Danish man, who signed up for the service and objected later, got only 14 days of home arrest. [175] In many countries the act of desertion (objection after signing up) is punished harder than objecting the compulsory service.

Finland

Finnish conscripts swearing their military oath at the end of their basic training period. Suomalainen sotilasvala.jpg
Finnish conscripts swearing their military oath at the end of their basic training period.

Conscription in Finland is part of a general compulsion for national military service for all adult males (Finnish : maanpuolustusvelvollisuus; Swedish : totalförsvarsplikt) defined in the 127§ of the Constitution of Finland.

Conscription can take the form of military or of civilian service. According to Finnish Defence Forces 2011 data slightly under 80% of Finnish males turned 30 had entered and finished the military service. The number of female volunteers to annually enter armed service had stabilised at approximately 300. [176] The service period is 165, 255 or 347 days for the rank and file conscripts and 347 days for conscripts trained as NCOs or reserve officers. The length of civilian service is always twelve months. Those electing to serve unarmed in duties where unarmed service is possible serve either nine or twelve months, depending on their training. [177] [178]

Any Finnish male citizen who refuses to perform both military and civilian service faces a penalty of 173 days in prison, minus any served days. Such sentences are usually served fully in prison, with no parole. [179] [180] Jehovah's Witnesses are exempted in that they may be granted a deferment of service for 3 years upon presentation of a certificate from their congregation's minister showing they are an active member of that religious community. Providing they are still an active member 3 years later, there is nothing to stop them getting a further certificate and deferment. [181] The inhabitants of the demilitarized Åland Islands are exempt from military service. By the Conscription Act of 1951, they are, however, required to serve a time at a local institution, like the coast guard. However, until such service has been arranged, they are freed from service obligation. The non-military service of Åland islands has not been arranged since the introduction of the act, and there are no plans to institute it. The inhabitants of Åland islands can also volunteer for military service on the mainland. As of 1995, women are permitted to serve on a voluntary basis and pursue careers in the military after their initial voluntary military service.

The military service takes place in Finnish Defence Forces or in the Finnish Border Guard. All services of the Finnish Defence Forces train conscripts. However, the Border Guard trains conscripts only in land-based units, not in coast guard detachments or in the Border Guard Air Wing. Civilian service may take place in the Civilian Service Center in Lapinjärvi or in an accepted non-profit organization of educational, social or medical nature.

Germany

Between 1956 and 2011 conscription for was mandatory for all male citizens in the German federal armed forces (German: Bundeswehr), as well as for the Federal Border Guard (German: Bundesgrenzschutz ) in the 1970s (see Border Guard Service). With the end of the Cold War the government drastically reduced the size of its armed forces. The low demand for conscripts led to the suspension of compulsory conscription in 2011. Since then only volunteer professionals serve in the Bundeswehr.

Greece

Evzones of the Presidential Guard in front of the Greek Parliament armed with M1 Garands. Changing of the Guard-Unknown Soldier-Hellenic Army.jpg
Evzones of the Presidential Guard in front of the Greek Parliament armed with M1 Garands.

Since 1914, Greece has had a period of mandatory military service lasting 9 months for men between the ages of 16 and 45. Citizens discharged from active service are normally placed in the reserve and are subject to periodic recalls of 1–10 days at irregular intervals. [182]

Universal conscription was introduced in Greece during the military reforms of 1909, although various forms of selective conscription had been in place earlier. In more recent years, conscription was associated with the state of general mobilisation declared on July 20, 1974 due to the crisis in Cyprus (the mobilisation was formally ended on December 18, 2002).

The period of time that a conscript is required to serve has varied historically, between 12–36 months depending on various factors particular to the conscript, and the political situation. Although women are employed by the Greek army as officers and petty officers, they are not required to enlist, as men are. Soldiers receive no health insurance, but they are provided medical support during their army service, including hospitalization costs.

Since 2009, Greece has mandatory military service of 9 months for male citizens between the ages of 19 and 45. However, as the Armed forces had been gearing towards a completely professional army, the government had announced that the mandatory military service period would be cut to 6 months by 2008 or even abolished completely. However, this timetable was under reconsideration as of April 2006, due to severe manpower shortages. These had been caused by a combination of financial difficulties, meaning that professional soldiers could not be hired at the projected rate, and widespread abuse of the deferment process, resulting in two-thirds of the conscripts deferred service in 2005. In August 2009, the mandatory service period was reduced to 9 months for the army, but has remained at 12 months for the navy and the air force. The number of conscripts affected to the latter two has been greatly reduced, with an aim towards full professionalisation.

Lithuania

Lithuania abolished its conscription in 2008. [183] In May 2015 the Lithuanian parliament voted to return the conscription and the conscripts started their training in August 2015. [184] In practice there is no conscription in Lithuania, since all recruits have been volunteers. [185] [ dubious ]

Luxembourg

Luxembourg practiced military conscription from 1948 until 1967.

Moldova

Moldova, which currently has male conscription, has announced plans to abolish the practice. Moldova's Defense Ministry announced that a plan which stipulates the gradual elimination of military conscription will be implemented starting from the autumn of 2018. [186]

Netherlands

Conscription, which was called "Service Duty" (Dutch : dienstplicht) in the Netherlands, was first employed in 1810 by French occupying forces. Napoleon's brother Louis Bonaparte, who was King of Holland from 1806 to 1810, had tried to introduce conscription a few years earlier, unsuccessfully. Every man aged 20 years or older had to enlist. By means of drawing lots it was decided who had to undertake service in the French army. It was possible to arrange a substitute against payment.

Later on, conscription was used for all men over the age of 18. Postponement was possible, due to study, for example. Conscientious objectors could perform an alternative civilian service instead of military service. For various reasons, this forced military service was criticized at the end of the twentieth century. Since the Cold War was over, so was the direct threat of a war. Instead, the Dutch army was employed in more and more peacekeeping operations. The complexity and danger of these missions made the use of conscripts controversial. Furthermore, the conscription system was thought to be unfair as only men were drafted.

In the European part of Netherlands, compulsory attendance has been officially suspended since 1 May 1997. Between 1991 and 1996, the Dutch armed forces phased out their conscript personnel and converted to an all-professional force. The last conscript troops were inducted in 1995, and demobilized in 1996. The suspension means that citizens are no longer forced to serve in the armed forces, as long as it is not required for the safety of the country. Until then, the Dutch army has become an all-professional force. However, to this day, every male and female [187] citizen aged 17 gets a letter in which they are told that they have been registered but do not have to present themselves for service.

Norway

As of March 2016, Norway currently employs a weak form of mandatory military service for men and women. In practice recruits are not forced to serve, instead only those who are motivated are selected. [188] About 60,000 Norwegians are available for conscription every year, but only 8,000 to 10,000 are conscripted. [189] Since 1985, women have been able to enlist for voluntary service as regular recruits. On 14 June 2013 the Norwegian Parliament voted to extend conscription to women, making Norway the first NATO member and first European country to make national service compulsory for both sexes. [190] In earlier times, up until at least the early 2000s, all men aged 19–44 were subject to mandatory service, with good reasons required to avoid becoming drafted. There is a right of conscientious objection.

Civil defence duty in Norway

In addition to the military service, the Norwegian government draft a total of 8,000 [191] men and women between 18 and 55 to non-military Civil defence duty. [192] (Not to be confused with Alternative civilian service.) Former service in the military does not exclude anyone from later being drafted to the Civil defence, but an upper limit of total 19 months of service applies. [193] Neglecting mobilisation orders to training exercises and actual incidents, may impose fines. [194]

Serbia

As of 1 January 2011, Serbia no longer practises mandatory military service. Prior to this, mandatory military service lasted 6 months for men. Conscientious objectors could however opt for 9 months of civil service instead.

On 15 December 2010, the Parliament of Serbia voted to suspend mandatory military service. The decision fully came into force on January 1, 2011. [195]

Sweden

Swedish conscripts in 2008. Swedish Soldiers Aiming.jpg
Swedish conscripts in 2008.

Sweden had conscription (Swedish : värnplikt) for men between 1901 and 2010. [196] Peacetime conscription was made dormant in 2010, and the law on conscription was simultaneously made gender-neutral. [197]

The Swedish government reintroduced a selective military conscription for men and women beginning January 1, 2018. [198]

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom introduced conscription to full-time military service for the first time in January 1916 (the eighteenth month of World War I) and abolished it in 1920. Ireland, then part of the United Kingdom, was exempted from the original 1916 military service legislation, and although further legislation in 1918 gave power for an extension of conscription to Ireland, the power was never put into effect.

Conscription was reintroduced in 1939, in the lead up to World War II, and continued in force until 1963. Northern Ireland was exempted from conscription legislation throughout the whole period.

In all, eight million men were conscripted during both World Wars, as well as several hundred thousand younger single women. [199] The introduction of conscription in May 1939, before the war began, was partly due to pressure from the French, who emphasized the need for a large British army to oppose the Germans. [200] From early 1942 unmarried women age 19–30 were conscripted. Most were sent to the factories, but they could volunteer for the Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS) and other women's services. Some women served in the Women's Land Army: initially volunteers but later conscription was introduced. However, women who were already working in a skilled job considered helpful to the war effort, such as a General Post Office telephonist, were told to continue working as before. None was assigned to combat roles unless she volunteered. By 1943 women were liable to some form of directed labour up to age 51. During the Second World War, 1.4 million British men volunteered for service and 3.2 million were conscripted. Conscripts comprised 50% of the Royal Air Force, 60% of the Royal Navy and 80% of the British Army. [201]

Britain and its colonies did not develop such pervasive administrative states, and therefore did not opt out for regulatory solutions, such as conscription, as a reliability. [202] The abolition of conscription in Britain was announced on 4 April 1957, by new prime minister Harold Macmillan, with the last conscripts being recruited three years later. [203]

Israel

There is a mandatory service for all men and women who are fit and 18 years old. Men must serve 32 months while women serve 24 months with some exempt from mandatory service:

All of the above can choose to volunteer to the IDF. Relatively large numbers of Bedouin choose to volunteer.

Male Druze and Circassian Israeli citizens are liable, by agreement with their community leaders (Female Druze and Circassian are exempt from service).

United States

In the United States, "the draft" (i.e., conscription) ended in 1973, but males aged between 18 and 25 are required to register with the Selective Service System to enable a reintroduction of conscription if necessary. President Gerald Ford had suspended mandatory draft registration in 1975; but, President Jimmy Carter reinstated that requirement when the Soviet Union intervened in Afghanistan five years later. Consequently, Selective Service registration is still required of almost all young men. [204] There have been no prosecutions for violations of the draft registration law since 1986. [205] Males between the ages of 17 and 45, and female members of the US National Guard may be conscripted for federal militia service pursuant to 10 U.S. Code § 246 and the Militia Clauses of the United States Constitution. [206]

In February 2019, the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas ruled that male-only conscription breached the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause. In National Coalition for Men v. Selective Service System , a case brought by non-profit men's rights organisation the National Coalition for Men against the U.S. Selective Service System, judge Gray H. Miller issued a declaratory judgement that the male-only registration requirement is unconstitutional, though did not specify what action the government should take. [207]

Main articles for conscription by country

See also

Related Research Articles

Danish Defence is the unified armed forces of the Kingdom of Denmark, charged with the defence of Denmark and its constituent, self-governing nations Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Defence also promote Denmark's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts and provide humanitarian aid.

A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.

Selective Service System US federal government agency that maintains information on those potentially subject to military conscription

The Selective Service System is an independent agency of the United States government that maintains information on those potentially subject to military conscription. All male-at birth U.S. citizens and male immigrant non-citizens, who are between the ages of 18 and 25 are required by law to have registered within 30 days of their 18th birthdays, and must notify Selective Service within ten days of any changes to any of the information they provided on their registration cards, such as a change of address. In practice, the selective service system has minimal practical effect today since the U.S. military operates on a volunteer basis. Nevertheless, it is seen as a contingency mechanism for the possibility that conscription someday becomes necessary again.

Norwegian Armed Forces military organization responsible for the defence of Norway

The Norwegian Armed Forces is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Norway. It consists of four branches, the Norwegian Army, the Royal Norwegian Navy, which includes the Coast Guard, the Royal Norwegian Air Force, and the Home Guard, as well as several joint departments.

Conscription in Australia, or mandatory military service also known as national service, has a controversial history dating back to the first years of nationhood. Australia currently only has provision for conscription during times of war.

Conscription in the United States "The draft" in the United States

Conscription in the United States, commonly known as the draft, has been employed by the federal government of the United States in five conflicts: the American Revolution, the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, and the Cold War. The third incarnation of the draft came into being in 1940 through the Selective Training and Service Act. It was the country's first peacetime draft. From 1940 until 1973, during both peacetime and periods of conflict, men were drafted to fill vacancies in the United States Armed Forces that could not be filled through voluntary means. The draft came to an end when the United States Armed Forces moved to an all-volunteer military force. However, the Selective Service System remains in place as a contingency plan; all male citizens between the ages of 18 and 25 are required to register so that a draft can be readily resumed if needed. United States Federal Law also provides for the compulsory conscription of men between the ages of 17 and 45 and certain women for militia service pursuant to Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution and 10 U.S. Code § 246.

The Federal Republic of Germany had conscription (Wehrpflicht) for male citizens between 1956 and 2011. On 22 November 2010, the German Minister of Defence proposed to the government to put conscription into abeyance on 1 July 2011. The constitution, however, retains provisions that would legalize the potential reintroduction of conscription.

Conscription in Greece

Since 1914, Greece has mandatory military service (conscription) of 9 months in the Army and of 12 months in the Navy and the Air Force for men between the ages of 19 and 45. Citizens discharged from active service are normally placed in the Reserve and are subject to periodic recall of 1–10 days at irregular intervals.

Reservist military personnel in a reserve capacity (not employed on full-time active duty)

A reservist is a person who is a member of a military reserve force. They are otherwise civilians, and in peacetime have careers outside the military. Reservists usually go for training on an annual basis to refresh their skills. This person is usually a former active-duty member of the armed forces, and they remain a reservist either voluntarily, or by obligation. In some countries such as Israel, Norway, Singapore, and Switzerland, reservists are conscripted soldiers who are called up for training and service when necessary.

The Republic of China (Taiwan) has maintained a policy of conscription for all qualified males of military age since 1951. The Taiwanese government planned originally to end this policy in 2014, but abolishing conscription is quite controversial among Taiwanese society, and hence the government has not yet created a firm schedule for its abolition. Females from the outlying islands within the province of Fuchien, which are geographically closest to mainland China, were also required to serve in a civil defense role, although this requirement has been dropped since the lifting of martial law. Although the majority of all enlisted positions in the ROC Armed Forces have been and are currently filled by draftees, the government intends to gradually expand the number of volunteer soldiers with the eventual goal of forming an all volunteer military. However, even then there will be compulsory basic training for all males reaching 18. Recent years have also seen an increase in the service options open to draftees, including alternative service with the Ministry of the Interior (MOI), as well as specialized service options for draftees in specific professions. The draft process is set forth under the ROC Military Service Act under the auspices of the MOI's National Conscription Agency as well as by Article 20 of the ROC Constitution.

Conscription in Turkey

In Turkey, compulsory military service applies to all male citizens from twenty to forty-one years of age. Those who are engaged in higher education or vocational training programs prior to their military drafting are allowed to delay service until they have completed the programs or reach a certain age. The duration of the basic military service varies: for those without 4-year university degrees twelve months as privates; for those with 4-year university degrees or higher either twelve months as reserve officers or six months as short-term privates.

Conscription in the Netherlands was first employed in 1810 by French occupying forces. Napoleon's brother Louis Bonaparte, who was King of Holland from 1806 to 1810, had tried to introduce conscription a few years earlier, unsuccessfully. Every man aged 20 years or older had to enlist. By means of drawing lots it was decided who had to undertake service in the French army. It was possible to arrange a substitute against payment.

Conscription in Israel

Conscription exists in Israel for all Israeli citizens over the age of 18 who are Jewish, Druze, or Circassian; Arab citizens of Israel are not conscripted. Other exceptions are made on religious, physical, or psychological grounds. The normal length of compulsory service is currently two years and eight months for men, and two years for women.

Conscription in Russia is a 12-month draft, mandatory for all male citizens age 18–27, with a number of exceptions. The mandatory term of service was reduced from two years in 2007-2008. Avoiding draft is felony under Russian criminal code and punishable by up to 2 years of imprisonment.

Conscription in the United Kingdom has existed for two periods in modern times. The first was from 1916 to 1920, the second from 1939 to 1960, with the last conscripted soldiers leaving the service in 1963. Known as Military Service from 1916 to 1920, the system of conscription from 1939 to 1960 was called National Service, but between 1939 and 1948, it was often referred to as "war service" in documents relating to National Insurance and pension provision.

Conscription in Egypt is a form of a compulsory military service in Egypt.

Both feminists and opponents of discrimination against men have criticized military conscription, or compulsory military service, as sexist. Feminists argue that military conscription is sexist because wars typically serve the interests of the patriarchy, therefore the military is inherently a sexist institution. They say conscription of men normalizes male violence, conscripts are indoctrinated into sexism and violence against women, and military training socializes conscripts into patriarchal gender roles.

Conscription in Denmark is mandatory for all physically fit men over the age of 18, according to the Constitution of Denmark, §81 and the Danish Law of Conscription, §2. The service lasts between 4 and 12 months. Women may participate, but are not obligated to conscription. Though under the Danish Realm and protected by the Danish Defence, men from Greenland and the Faroe Islands are not required to serve as conscripts.

Conscription in Sweden

Sweden has had mandatory military service for men since 1901 although peacetime conscription was mothballed between 2010 and 2017. When peacetime conscription was mothballed in 2010, the law on conscription was simultaneously made gender-neutral.

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Further reading