Non-commissioned officer

Last updated
A sergeant of the Coldstream Guards addressing through the ranks during the rehearsal for the Trooping the Colour ceremony SOLDIERS COMPLETE FINAL REHEARSAL AHEAD OF THE QUEEN'S BIRTHDAY PARADE MOD 45159988.jpg
A sergeant of the Coldstream Guards addressing through the ranks during the rehearsal for the Trooping the Colour ceremony

A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not earned a commission. [1] [2] [3] Non-commissioned officers usually obtain their position of authority by promotion through the enlisted ranks. [4] In contrast, commissioned officers usually enter directly from a military academy, Officer Candidate School (OCS), or Officer Training School (OTS) after receiving a post-secondary degree.

Contents

The NCO corps usually includes many grades of enlisted, corporal and sergeant; in some countries, warrant officers also carry out the duties of NCOs. The naval equivalent includes some or all grades of petty officer. There are different classes of non-commissioned officers, including junior non-commissioned officers (JNCO) and senior (or staff) non-commissioned officers (SNCO).

Function

The non-commissioned officer corps has been referred to as "the backbone" of the armed services, [5] [6] as they are the primary and most visible leaders for most military personnel. Additionally, they are the leaders primarily responsible for executing a military organization's mission and for training military personnel so they are prepared to execute their missions. NCO training and education typically includes leadership and management as well as service-specific and combat training.

Senior NCOs are considered the primary link between enlisted personnel and the commissioned officers in a military organization. Their advice and guidance are considered particularly important for junior officers and in many cases to officers of all senior ranks.

National usage

Australia

In the Australian Army, lance corporals and corporals are classified as junior NCOs (JNCOs), sergeants and staff sergeants (currently being phased out) are classified as senior NCOs (SNCOs) and warrant officer class two and warrant officer class one are classified as warrant officers (WOs).

In the New South Wales Police Force, NCOs perform supervisory and coordination roles. The ranks of probationary constable through to leading senior constable are referred to as "constables". All NCOs within the NSW Police are given a warrant of appointment under the Commissioner's hand and seal.

All officers within the Australian Defence Force Cadets are non-commissioned. ADFC officers are appointed by the Director-General of their respective branch.

Brazil

In Brazil, a non-commissioned officer is called "Graduado" and includes the ranks from corporal to sub-lieutenant (or sub-officer in Brazilian Air Force), the latter being equivalent to warrant officers.

Canada

In the Canadian Forces, the Queen's Regulations and Orders formally defined a non-commissioned officer as "A Canadian Forces member holding the rank of Sergeant or Corporal." [7] In the 1990s, the term "non-commissioned member" (NCM) was introduced to indicate all ranks in the Canadian Forces from recruit to chief warrant officer. [8]

By definition, with the unification of the Canadian Forces into one service, the rank of sergeant included the naval rank of petty officer 2nd class, and corporal includes the naval rank of leading seaman; corporal also includes the appointment of master corporal (naval master seaman).

NCOs are officially divided into two categories: junior non-commissioned officers, consisting of corporals/leading seamen and master corporals/master seamen; and senior non-commissioned officers, consisting of sergeants and petty officers 2nd class. In the Royal Canadian Navy, however, the accepted definition of "NCO" reflects the international use of the term (i.e. all grades of petty officer).

Junior non-commissioned officers mess and billet with privates and seamen; their mess is usually referred to as the junior ranks mess. Conversely, senior non-commissioned officers mess and billet with warrant officers; their mess is normally referred to as the warrant officers and sergeants mess (army and air force establishments) or the chiefs and petty officers mess (naval establishments).

As a group, NCOs rank above privates and below warrant officers. The term "non-commissioned members" includes these ranks.

Finland

In the Finnish Defence Force, NCO's (aliupseeristo) includes all ranks from corporal ( alikersantti , lit. sub-sergeant) to sergeant major (sotilasmestari, lit. soldier master). Ranks of lance corporal (korpraali) and leading seaman (ylimatruusi) are considered not to be NCO ranks. This ruling applies to all branches of service and also to the troops of the Border Guard.

France

In France, Belgium and most former French colonies, the term sous-officier (meaning: "lower officer" or "sub-officer") is a class of ranks between the rank-and-file (hommes du rang) and commissioned officers (officiers). Corporals (caporal and caporal-chef) belong to the rank-and-file. Sous-officiers include two subclasses: "subalternes" (sergents and sergents-chefs) and "supérieurs" (adjudants, adjudants-chefs and majors). "Sous-officiers supérieurs" can perform various functions within a regiment or battalion, including commanding a platoon or section.

Germany

In Germany and German-speaking countries like Austria, the term Unteroffizier (with the quite literal translation into English as "under"(unter) "officer"(offizier), thus "under officer", with both words being the progenitors of their English equivalents, and, in use, having the meaning of "lower officer" or sub-officer) describes a class of ranks between normal enlisted personnel (Mannschaften or in Austria Chargen) and officers (Offiziere). In this group of ranks there are, in Germany, two other classes: Unteroffiziere mit Portepee (with sword-knot) and Unteroffiziere ohne Portepee (without swordknot), both containing several ranks, which in Austria would be Unteroffiziere (NCOs) and Höhere Unteroffiziere (senior NCOs or literally translated as "higher under officers").

Ireland

In Ireland, the Irish Defence Forces have a professional body of non-commissioned officers from the ranks of Corporal (Cpl) (OR-4) to Regimental Sergeant Major (RSM) (OF-9) in the Irish Army and Air Corps.

In the Irish Naval Service the NCO ranks rise from Leading Hand or Leading Rate (OR-4) to Warrant Officer (OR-9). In Irish Naval Service parlance the rate or rating is the service members specialisation. Therefore L/S refers to Leading Seaman, L/RRT refers to Leading Radio Radar Technician and so on.

Further to the distinctions within the Irish Defence Forces you have Junior and Senior NCOs. Junior NCOs are Corporals and Sergeants, (OR-4 and OR-5), and Senior NCOs are Company Sergeant and Company Quartermaster Sergeants to Regimental Sergeant Majors and Regimental Quartermaster Sergeants (OR-7 to OR-9). In the Irish Naval Service this further complicated by having Junior and Senior Ratings. Junior ratings from Ordinary Rate (OR-1) to Leading Rate (OR-4), and Senior Ratings are from Petty Officer (OR-5) to Warrant Officer (OR-9). Therefore, it can occur that a person incorrectly describes themselves as a Senior NCO when in fact they mean a Senior Rating.

New Zealand

In the New Zealand Defence Force, a non-commissioned officer is defined as:

"(a) In relation to the Navy, a rating of warrant officer, chief petty officer, petty officer, or leading rank; and includes—
(i) A non-commissioned officer of the Army or the Air Force attached to the Navy; and
(ii) A person duly attached or lent as a non-commissioned officer to or seconded for service or appointed for duty as a non-commissioned officer with the Navy:
(b) In relation to the Army, a soldier above the rank of private but below the rank of officer cadet; and includes a warrant officer; and also includes—
(i) A non-commissioned officer of the Navy or the Air Force attached to the Army; and
(ii) A person duly attached or lent as a non-commissioned officer to or seconded for service or appointed for duty as a non-commissioned officer with the Army:
(c) In relation to the Air Force, an airman above the rank of leading aircraftman but below the rank of officer cadet; and includes a warrant officer; and also includes—
(i) A non-commissioned officer of the Navy or the Army attached to the Air Force; and
(ii) A person duly attached or lent as a non-commissioned officer to or seconded for service or appointed for duty as a non-commissioned officer with the Air Force:" – Defence Act 1990, Sect 2 (Interpretation) [9]

Norway

On 1 January 2016, the Norwegian Armed Forces reintroduced non-commissioned officers in all service branches, having had a single rank tier since 1930, except for certain technical and maintenance units from 1945 to 1975. The NCOs are called specialists, and rank from sergeant to sergeant major (NATO ranks OR5–OR9). The Specialist Corps lance corporal and corporal ranks (OR2–OR4) are reserved for enlisted personnel, while the rank of private (OR1) is for conscripts only.

The NCOs are in charge of military training, discipline, practical leadership, role modelling, unit standards and mentoring officers, especially juniors. Officers commanding platoons and above are assigned a chief or master sergeant, which is the unit's highest ranking specialist, although chief and master sergeants are functions and not ranks in themselves.

Norway took a top-down approach to establishing the Specialist Corps. Since August 2015, volunteer commissioned officers have converted into sergeant majors, command sergeants and first sergeants.

Singapore

In the Singapore Armed Forces, the term "non-commissioned officer" is no longer officially used, being replaced with Specialist for all ranks from 3rd Sergeant to Master Sergeant (Staff and Master Sergeants are known as Senior Specialists). The term used to address Warrant Officers and Specialists combined is "WOSpec". The term "NCO" however is still frequently used unofficially in the army.[ citation needed ]

Sweden

In 1983 the NCO corps, since 1972 called the Platoon Officer Corps, was disbanded and its members were given commissions as officers in ranks of second or first lieutenant in Sweden's new one-tier military leadership system. In 2009 a similar system as the NCO corps was re-established, called "specialist officers". Direct recruitment from civilian life is followed by basic and preparatory leadership training, and advanced leadership training during 1.5 year as a specialist cadet at the military academy in Halmstad, a warrant as an OR-6, followed by specialist technical training. Swedish specialist officers have relative ranks that match those of the commissioned officers; an OR-7 takes precedence over a second lieutenant, for instance.

United Kingdom

Sergeant, Royal Artillery, on the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle, firing the one o'clock gun District Gunner.jpg
Sergeant, Royal Artillery, on the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle, firing the one o'clock gun

In the British Armed Forces, NCOs are divided into two categories. Lance corporals (including lance bombardiers) and corporals (including lance sergeants, bombardiers, and lance corporals of horse) are junior NCOs. Sergeants (including corporals of horse), staff sergeants (including colour sergeants and staff corporals), and RAF chief technicians and flight sergeants are senior NCOs.

Warrant officers are often included in the senior NCO category, but actually form a separate class of their own, similar in many ways to NCOs but with a royal warrant. Senior NCOs and WOs have their own messes, which are similar to officers' messes (and are usually known as sergeants' messes), whereas junior NCOs live and eat with the unranked personnel, although they may have a separate corporals' club to give them some separate socialising space.

The Royal Navy does not refer to its petty officers and chief petty officers as NCOs, but calls them senior ratings (or senior rates). Leading ratings and below are junior ratings.

United States

A First Sergeant with the 55th Signal Company (Combat Camera) gets his soldiers ready for a uniform inspection US Army 55th Signal Company 1SG gives pre-inspection.jpg
A First Sergeant with the 55th Signal Company (Combat Camera) gets his soldiers ready for a uniform inspection

In the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, all ranks of sergeant are termed NCOs, as are corporals in the Army and Marine Corps. A Marine Corps lance corporal (E-3) is not an NCO, but rather junior enlisted. The rank of corporal (E-4) in the Army and Marine Corps is a junior NCO, and is to be shown the same respect as any other NCO. In the Air Force, E-5 (staff sergeant) and E-6 (technical sergeant) are classified under the NCO tier, while E-7 (master sergeant), E-8 (senior master sergeant), and E-9 (chief master sergeant) are considered senior non-commissioned officers (SNCOs). [10] In the Navy and Coast Guard, all ranks of petty officer are so designated. Junior NCOs (E-4 through E-6 grade), or simply "NCOs" (E-4 and E-5 only) in Marine Corps usage, and function as first-tier supervisors and technical leaders.

NCOs serving in the top three enlisted grades (E-7, E-8, and E-9) are termed senior non-commissioned officers (chief petty officers in the Navy and Coast Guard). Senior NCOs are expected to exercise leadership at a more general level. They lead larger groups of service members, mentor junior officers, and advise senior officers on matters pertaining to their areas of responsibility.

Within the Marine Corps, senior NCOs are referred to as staff noncommissioned officers (SNCOs) and also include the rank of staff sergeant (E-6). SNCOs are those career Marines serving in grades E-6 through E-9 and serve as unit leaders and supervisors, primary assistants and technical advisors to officers, and senior enlisted advisors to commanding officers, commanding generals, and other higher-level commanders. The ranks include staff sergeant, gunnery sergeant (E-7), master sergeant / first sergeant (E-8), and master gunnery sergeant / sergeant major (E-9).

The title of superintendent is used by the Air Force as the title of the non-commissioned officer in charge (NCOIC) of a section, flight, squadron, group, staff agency, directorate, or similar organization. These positions are assigned to senior non-commissioned officers (SNCOs), as opposed to the titles "NCOIC" and "chief" (which are held by junior NCOs). The titles of commander and director are used for commissioned officers assigned as commanding officer of a unit or the head of a staff agency, directorate, or similar organization, respectively.

A select few senior NCOs in paygrade E-9 serve as "senior enlisted advisors" to senior commanders in each service (e.g., major command, fleet, force, etc.) and in DoD (unified commands, e.g., United States Strategic Command, United States European Command, United States Pacific Command, etc., and DoD agencies, e.g. the Defense Information Systems Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency and the National Security Agency. One senior E-9, selected by the service chief of staff, is the ranking NCO/PO in that service, holds the highest enlisted rank for that service, and is responsible for advising their service secretary and chief of staff.

One E-9 holds a similar position as the SEA to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Senior enlisted advisors, service enlisted advisors and the SEA to the Chairman advise senior officer and civilian leaders on all issues affecting operational missions and the readiness, utilization, morale, technical and professional development, and quality of life of the enlisted force.

Warrant officers in the United States Armed Forces are considered specialty officers and fall in between enlisted and commissioned officers. US warrant officers also have their own tier and paygrade. However, when US warrant officers achieve the rank of chief warrant officer (CWO2) or higher, they are commissioned and are considered commissioned US officers just like any other commissioned officer, but are still held in a different paygrade tier.

U.S. Army NCO Candidate Course

Beginning in 1967 at Fort Benning, Georgia, the US Army Noncommissioned officer candidate course (NCOC) was a Vietnam-war era program developed to alleviate shortages of enlisted leaders at squad and platoon level assignments, training enlisted personnel to assume jobs as squad leaders in combat. [11]

Based loosely on the Officer Candidate School (OCS), NCOC was a new concept (at the time) where high performing trainees attending basic infantry combat training were nominated to attend a two-phased course of focused instruction on jungle warfare, and included a hands-on portion of intense training, promotion to sergeant, and then a 12-week assignment leading trainees going through advanced training. [12]

Regular Army soldiers who had received their promotion through traditional methods (and others) used derisive terms for these draftees (typically) [13] who were promoted quicker, such as "Instant NCOs", "Shake 'n' Bake", and "Whip n' Chills". [14] [15]

The program proved to be so successful that as the war began to wind down they elected to institutionalize training noncommissioned officers and created the NCO Education System (NCOES), which was based around the NCO candidate course. The NCO candidate course generally ended 1971–1972. [13]

U.S. Navy Accelerated Advancement

Within the U.S. Navy there are a couple of different ways that a sailor can earn accelerated advancement to the rank of petty officer third class. [16] If a person tests high enough on their entrance exam they are able to select certain jobs that require a significant amount of training, far greater than the amount required for a basic job (12 months vs. 2 weeks). Because these jobs are more technically advanced the schools have higher attrition rates, demand more responsibility, and require longer initial enlistments, these sailors are able to advance to petty officer third class. Another way for a sailor to earn accelerated advancement is by graduating top 10% of their class within their "A" school. For certain rates, such as Corpsman, this has been discontinued.

See also

Related Research Articles

Warrant officer Military rank

Warrant officer (WO) is a rank or category of ranks in the armed forces of many countries. Depending on the service or historical context, some WOs are classified as the most junior of the commissioned ranks, the most senior of the NCO ranks or in a separate category of their own. However, warrant officer ranks are always senior to non-commissioned officer (NCO) ranks and subordinate to commissioned officer ranks. WO ranks are especially prominent in the militaries of Commonwealth nations and the United States.

Regimental sergeant major (RSM) is an appointment that may be held by warrant officers class 1 (WO1) in the British Army, the British Royal Marines and in the armies of many Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, including Australia, Kenya and New Zealand. It is also an appointment that may be held by chief warrant officers (CWO) in the Canadian Forces and warrant officers of any grade in the Singapore Armed Forces, and is a rank in itself in the Irish Defence Forces and formerly in the British Army, Royal Marines and United States Army. Only one warrant officer holds the appointment of RSM in a regiment or battalion, making him the senior warrant officer; in a unit with more than one WO1, the RSM is considered to be "first amongst equals". The RSM is primarily responsible for assisting their commander for maintaining standards and discipline amongst the non-commissioned members and acts as a parental figure to their subordinates.

Sergeant Military rank

Sergeant is a rank in many uniformed organizations, principally military and policing forces. The alternative spelling, serjeant, is used in The Rifles and other units that draw their heritage from the British Light Infantry. Its origin is the Latin serviens, 'one who serves', through the French term sergent.

Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. Within NATO, each member nation's corresponding military rank of corporal is combined under the NATO-standard rank scale code OR-3 or OR-4. However, there are often differences in how each nation employs corporals. Some militaries don't have corporals, but may instead have a Junior Sergeant.

Staff sergeant is a rank of non-commissioned officer used in the armed forces of several countries. It is also a police rank in some police services.

A master sergeant is the military rank for a senior non-commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries.

Sergeant major is a senior non-commissioned rank or appointment in many militaries around the world. In Commonwealth countries, the various degrees of sergeant major are appointments held by warrant officers. In the United States, there are also various grades of sergeant major, all of the same pay grade of E-9; however, the Sergeant Major of the Army and the Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, as their respective service's Senior Enlisted Advisor, receive a special rate of basic pay that is higher than all other sergeants major.

A petty officer (PO) is a non-commissioned officer in many navies and is given the NATO rank denotion OR-5 or OR-6. In many nations, they are typically equal to a corporal or sergeant in comparison to other military branches. Often they may be superior to a seaman, generally the lowest ranks in a navy, and subordinate to a more senior non-commissioned officer, such as a chief petty officer.

The chart below represents the current enlisted rank insignia of the United States Air Force.

The chart below shows the current enlisted rank insignia of the United States Army, with seniority, and pay grade, increasing from right to left. Enlisted ranks of corporal and higher are considered non-commissioned officers (NCOs). The rank of specialist is a soldier of pay grade E-4 who has not yet attained non-commissioned officer status. It is common that a soldier may never be a corporal and will move directly from specialist to sergeant, attaining NCO status at that time.

The mess is an area where military personnel socialize, eat, and live. The term is also used to indicate the groups of military personnel who belong to separate messes, such as the Officers' mess, the CPOs' mess, and the Enlisted mess. In some civilian societies this military usage has been extended to the eating arrangements of other disciplined services such as fire fighting and police forces.

The South African National Defence Force's rank system is largely based on the British system, with the Air Force sharing the Army rank titles. Rank titles changed over time as did the insignia.

Finnish military ranks form a system that incorporates features from Swedish, German, and Russian armed forces. In addition, the system has some typically Finnish characteristics that are mostly due to the personnel structure of the Finnish Defence Forces. The ranks have official names in Finnish and Swedish languages and official English translations. The Swedish forms are used in all Swedish-languages communications in Finland, e.g. in Swedish-speaking units of Finnish Defence Force. The system of ranks in the Swedish Armed Forces is slightly different.

Like the British Army, the Australian Army does not use the term 'enlisted' to describe its non-commissioned ranks. Instead, personnel who are not commissioned officers are referred to as other ranks. These are soldiers, non-commissioned officers (NCOs) and warrant officers (WOs). Warrant officers are appointed by a warrant which is signed by the Chief of the Army. The insignia for non-commissioned ranks are identical to the British Army up to the rank of warrant officer class two. Since 1976, WO1s and the WO in the Australian Army wear insignia using the Australian Coat of Arms.

Military ranks of the Swedish Armed Forces shows the rank system used in the Swedish Armed Forces today, as well as changes during the 20th century due to changes in the personnel structure.

Enlisted Professional Military Education

The term Enlisted Professional Military Education (EPME) is a general term used by all branches of the U.S. Armed Forces to describe the formal system of education each branch provides to its enlisted personnel. Each branch has its own system and sequence of courses, with the overall focus on leadership and management. Education generally increases in intensity and level of knowledge as individuals progress in rank and assume broader leadership roles. EPME is distinct from the technical training service members receive for their Military Occupational Specialty (MOS), Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC), or Navy Rating.

Warrant officer (United Kingdom) rank class WO1 in the British Army

A warrant officer (WO) in the British Armed Forces is a member of the highest group of non-commissioned ranks, holding the Queen's warrant, which is signed by the Secretary of State for Defence. Warrant officers are not saluted as they do not hold the Queen's Commission, however they are to be addressed as 'Sir/Ma'am' by subordinates. Commissioned officers may address warrant officers either by their appointment or as "Mister", "Mrs", or "Ms" and then their last name, e.g. "Mr Smith". Although often referred to along with non-commissioned officers (NCOs), they are not NCOs, but members of a separate group, although all have been promoted from NCO rank.

Officer (armed forces) Member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority

An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.

References

  1. "non-commissioned officer – definition of non-commissioned officer by Macmillan Dictionary". Macmillandictionary.com. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  2. "NCO – Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online". Ldoceonline.com. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  3. "Definition of non-commissioned – Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  4. "Chambers | Free English Dictionary". Chambersharrap.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  5. General Sir Mike Jackson (September 2003). "Cream Paper 46: The Role of the Non Commissioned Officer in the British Army" (PDF). UK Defence Forum . Retrieved August 19, 2010.[ permanent dead link ]
  6. Chapman, Jordan (August 18, 2009). "Building the NCO Backbone". United States Army. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
  7. "Volume 1 – Administration: Chapter 1 Introduction and Definitions" (PDF). Queen's Regulations and Orders for the Canadian Forces. Assistant Deputy Minister (Finance and Corporate Services), Department of National Defence/Canadian Forces. 9 October 2008. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
  8. Department of National Defence Canada Non-Commissioned Officer Rank Insignia 1967–1985. Canadian Military Police Virtual Museum. Retrieved on: 2011-12-07.
  9. New Zealand Defence Act 1990 No 28, Sect 2. New Zealand Legislation, reprint as at 7 July 2010. Accessed August 19, 2010.
  10. Powers, Rod (8 September 2016). "The Air Force Enlisted Rank Force Structure". The Balance. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  11. Zais, Melvin. "The New NCO", Army. 18 (May 1968): 72–76.
  12. Israr Choudhri, The Noncommissioned Officer Course (PDF)
  13. 1 2 Dan Elder, Shake and Bake: The True Story of the Noncommissioned Officer Candidate Course, pgs.7,14–15 PDF Archived 2014-05-29 at the Wayback Machine
  14. Bud Russell, A Brief History of the Noncommissioned Officer Candidate Course
  15. Jerry Horton, Shake & Bake NCO's
  16. "MILPERSMAN 1430 - 010" (PDF). United States Navy. 30 October 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2017.