Military organization

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Organization chart of the Royal Danish Army, April 1940 Royal Danish Army 1940.png
Organization chart of the Royal Danish Army, April 1940

Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national defense policy may require. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in a nation's armed forces, though not considered military. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces, often mimic military organizations, or use ad hoc structures, while formal military organization tends to use hierarchical forms.

Contents

History

The use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army.

In modern times, executive control, management and administration of military organization is typically undertaken by governments through a government department within the structure of public administration, often known as a ministry of defence or department of defense. These in turn manage military branches that themselves command formations and units specialising in combat, combat support and combat-service support.

Executive control, management and administration

The senior leadership of the Ukrainian Armed Forces in May 2019. Volodymyr Zelensky 2019 presidential inauguration 18.jpg
The senior leadership of the Ukrainian Armed Forces in May 2019.

The usually civilian or partly civilian executive control over the national military organization is exercised in democracies by an elected political leader as a member of the government's cabinet, usually known as a minister of defence. In presidential systems, such as the United States, the president is the commander-in-chief, and the cabinet-level defense minister is second in command. Subordinated to that position are often secretaries for specific major operational divisions of the armed forces as a whole, such as those that provide general support services to the military, including their dependants.

Then there are the heads of specific departmental agencies responsible for the provision and management of specific skill- and knowledge-based service such as strategic advice, capability development assessment, or military science provision of research, and design and development of technologies. Within each departmental agency will be found administrative branches responsible for further agency business specialization work.

Military branches

A mixed aircraft and ship formation of military vehicles during an exercise with USN and JASDF vehicles. USN-JASDF ship and aircraft formations during ANNUALEX 2008 081119-N-7047S-140.jpg
A mixed aircraft and ship formation of military vehicles during an exercise with USN and JASDF vehicles.

In most countries the armed forces are divided into three military branches (also service, armed service, or military service): army, navy, and air force.

Many countries have a variation on the standard model of three basic military branches. Some nations also organize their marines, special forces or strategic missile forces as independent armed services. A nation's coast guard may also be an independent branch of its military, although in many nations the coast guard is a law enforcement or civil agency. A number of countries have no navy, for geographical reasons.

In larger armed forces the culture between the different branches of the armed forces can be quite different.

Most smaller countries have a single organization that encompasses all armed forces employed by the country in question. Armies of developing countries tend to consist primarily of infantry, while developed countries armies tend to have larger units manning expensive equipment and only a fraction of personnel in infantry units.

It is worthwhile to make mention of the term joint . In western militaries, a joint force is defined as a unit or formation comprising representation of combat power from two or more branches of the military.

Internal security forces

Gendarmeries, including equivalents such as internal troops, paramilitary forces and similar, are an internal security service common in most of the world, but uncommon in countries with English common law histories where civil police are employed to enforce the law, and there are tight restrictions on how the armed forces may be used to assist. [lower-alpha 1]

Commands, formations, and units

It is common, at least in the European and North American militaries, to refer to the building blocks of a military as commands, formations, and units.

In a military context, a command is a collection of units and formations under the control of a single officer. Although during the Second World War a command was also a name given to a battle group in the US Army, in general it is an administrative and executive strategic headquarters which is responsible to the national government or the national military headquarters. It is not uncommon for a nation's services to each consist of their own command (such as Land Component, Air Component, Naval Component, and Medical Component in the Belgian Army), but this does not preclude the existence of commands which are not service-based.

A formation is defined by the US Department of Defense as "two or more aircraft, ships, or units proceeding together under a commander". [1] Formin in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia emphasised its combined-arms nature: "Formations are those military organisations which are formed from different speciality Arms and Services troop units to create a balanced, combined combat force. The formations only differ in their ability to achieve different scales of application of force to achieve different strategic, operational and tactical goals and mission objectives." [2] It is a composite military organization that includes a mixture of integrated and operationally attached sub-units, and is usually combat-capable. Example of formations include: divisions, brigades, battalions, wings, etc. Formation may also refer to tactical formation, the physical arrangement or disposition of troops and weapons. [3] Examples of formation in such usage include: pakfront, panzerkeil, testudo formation, etc.

A typical unit is a homogeneous military organization (either combat, combat-support or non-combat in capability) that includes service personnel predominantly from a single arm of service, or a branch of service, and its administrative and command functions are self-contained. Any unit subordinate to another unit is considered its sub-unit or minor unit. It is not uncommon in the United States for unit and formation to be used synonymously. In Commonwealth of Nations practice, formation is not used for smaller organizations like battalions which are instead called "units", and their constituent platoons or companies are referred to as sub-units. In the Commonwealth, formations are divisions, brigades, etc.

Different armed forces, and even different branches of service of the armed forces, may use the same name to denote different types of organizations. An example is the "squadron". In most navies a squadron is a formation of several ships; in most air forces it is a unit; in the U.S. Army it is a battalion-sized cavalry unit; and in Commonwealth armies a squadron is a company-sized sub-unit.

Table of organization and equipment

A table of organization and equipment (TOE or TO&E) is a document published by the U.S. Army Force Management Support Agency that prescribes the organization, manning, and equipage of units from divisional size and down, but also including the headquarters of Corps and Armies.

It also provides information on the mission and capabilities of a unit as well as the unit's current status. A general TOE is applicable to a type of unit (for instance, infantry) rather than a specific unit (the 3rd Infantry Division). In this way, all units of the same branch (such as infantry) follow the same structural guidelines.

Modern hierarchy

Army hierarchy

The following table gives an overview of some of the terms used to describe army hierarchy in armed forces across the world. Whilst it is recognized that there are differences between armies of different nations, many are modeled on the British or American models, or both. However, many military units and formations go back in history for a long time, and were devised by various military thinkers throughout European history.

For example, the modern Corps was first introduced in France about 1805 by Napoleon as a more flexible tactical grouping of two or more divisions during the Napoleonic Wars.

APP-6A SymbolName Nature StrengthConstituent unitsCommander or leader
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Region or Front.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
Combatant Command [4] or equivalent
region
theater
Command1,000,000–10,000,0004+ army groupsOF-10: field marshal
OF-9: general, army general or colonel general
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Army Group.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
army group or equivalent
front
Command400,000–1,000,0002+ armiesOF-10 field marshal
OF-9: general, army general or colonel general
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Army.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
army Command100,000–200,0002–4 corpsOF-10: field marshal
OF-9: general, army general or colonel general
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Corps.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
corps Formation20,000–50,0002+ divisionsOF-9: army general [lower-alpha 2]
OF-8 or OF-9: general or corps general
OF-8: lieutenant general or colonel general [lower-alpha 3]
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Division.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
division, legion Formation6,000–25,0002–4 brigades or regimentsOF-7 or OF-8: lieutenant general or divisional general
OF-7: major general
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Brigade.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
brigade Formation3,000–5,0002+ regiments or groups, or
3–8 battalions or equivalent
OF-6 or OF-7: major general or Brigade general
OF-6: brigadier, brigadier general
OF-5: colonel(some countries in some instances only)
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Regiment or Group.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
regiment or groupUnit1,000–3,0002+ battalions or equivalentOF-5: colonel
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Battalion.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
battalion or equivalent
regiment (some countries for some arms only)
squadron (US Cavalry)
squadron (some countries for aviation)
cohort
Unit300–1,0002–6 sub-units (companies or equivalent)OF-4: lieutenant colonel
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Company or Squadron or Battery.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
company or equivalent
artillery battery
squadron (some countries for some arms only)
U.S. cavalry troop
centuria
Unit or
Subunit
80–2502–8 platoons or equivalentOF-3: Major
OF-2: captain
OR-9: chief warrant officer
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Staffel (Echelon) - Germany.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
staffel [5] or echelon [6] Sub-subunit 50-902 platoons/troops or 6-10 sectionsOF-2: captain or Staff Captain
OR-8: warrant officer or master warrant officer
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Platoon or Troop.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
platoon or equivalent
troop (some countries for some arms only)
French Army section [7]
Sub-subunit 26–552+ Section, or vehiclesOF-1: first or second lieutenant
OR-7: warrant officer
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Section.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
section or patrol or French "groupe de combat"-8–241–2+ squads or 3–6 fireteamsOR-6: staff sergeant
OR-5: sergeant
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Detachment or Squad.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
squad or crew-8–122–3 fireteams or 1+ cellOR-5: sergeant
OR-4: corporal
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Team or Crew.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
fireteam or cell, fire and maneuver team -2-4n/aOR-3: lance corporal to OR-5: sergeant

OR-2: private first class

Rungs may be skipped in this ladder: for example, typically NATO forces skip from battalion to brigade. Likewise, only large military powers may have organizations at the top levels and different armies and countries may also use traditional names, creating considerable confusion: for example, a British or Canadian armored regiment (battalion) is divided into squadrons (companies) and troops (platoons), whereas an American cavalry squadron (battalion) is divided into troops (companies) and platoons. In the French system (used by many African countries) the company is divided into sections (platoons) composed of 3 x "groupes de combat" of 7 soldiers, plus a group of vehicle crews and a HQ that includes 2 x snipers [8]

Army, army group, region, and theatre are all large formations that vary significantly between armed forces in size and hierarchy position. While divisions were the traditional level at which support elements (field artillery, hospital, logistics and maintenance, etc.) were added to the unit structure, since World War II, many brigades now have such support units, and since the 1980s, regiments also have been receiving support elements. A regiment with such support elements is called a regimental combat team in US military parlance, or a battlegroup in the UK and other forces. Canadian Army doctrine also includes the combat team which is a company of infantry augmented with tanks, or a squadron of tanks augmented with infantry, or the combination of a full company of infantry with a full squadron of tanks.

During World War II the Red Army used the same basic organizational structure. However, in the beginning many units were greatly underpowered and their size was actually one level below on the ladder that is usually used elsewhere; for example, a division in the early-WWII Red Army would have been about the size of most nations' regiments or brigades. [9] [10] At the top of the ladder, what other nations would call an army group, the Red Army called a front. By contrast, during the same period the German Wehrmacht Army Groups, particularly on the Eastern Front, such as Army Group Centre significantly exceeded the above numbers, and were more cognate with the Soviet Strategic Directions.

Naval organization at the flotilla level and higher is less commonly abided by, as ships operate in smaller or larger groups in various situations that may change at a moment's notice. However, there is some common terminology used throughout navies to communicate the general concept of how many vessels might be in a unit.

Navies are generally organized into groups for a specific purpose, usually strategic, and these organizational groupings appear and disappear frequently based on the conditions and demands placed upon a navy. This contrasts with army organization where units remain static, with the same men and equipment, over long periods of time.

Unit NameVessel typesNo. of VesselsOfficer in command
Navy or Admiralty All vessels in a navy2+ Fleets Fleet Admiral, Admiral of the Fleet, Grand Admiral or Admiral
Fleet All vessels in an ocean or general region2+ Battle Fleets Admiral or Vice Admiral
Battle Fleet A large number of vessels of all types2+ Task Forces Vice Admiral
Task Force [11] or Strike Group A collection of complementary vessels2+ Task Groups, Divisions or Flotillas Rear Admiral (upper half) or Rear Admiral
Division or Task Group 2+ large vesselsUsually capital ships Rear Admiral (lower half), Commodore, or Division Admiral
Flotilla or Task Group 2+ Squadrons A small number of vessels, usually of the same or similar types Rear Admiral (lower half), Commodore, or Flotilla Admiral
Squadron or Task Unit Small vesselsA small number of vessels, usually of the same or similar types Captain or Commander
Task Element A single vesselOne Captain, Commander, Lieutenant Commander or Lieutenant

The five-star ranks of admiral of the fleet and fleet admiral have largely been out of regular use since the 1990s, with the exception of ceremonial or honorary appointments. Currently, all major navies (blue-water and green-water navies) are commanded by an admiral of either four-star rank or three-star rank depending on relative size. Smaller naval forces, such as the RNZN, or those navies that are effectively coast guards, are commanded by a rear-admiral (two-star rank), commodore (one-star rank) or even a captain.

Aircraft carriers are typically commanded by a captain. Submarines and destroyers are typically commanded by a captain or commander. Some destroyers, particularly smaller destroyers such as frigates (formerly known as destroyer escorts) are usually commanded by officers with the rank of commander. Corvettes, the smallest class of warship, are commanded by officers with the rank of commander or lieutenant-commander. Auxiliary ships, including gunboats, minesweepers, patrol boats, military riverine craft, tenders and torpedo boats are usually commanded by lieutenants, sub-lieutenants or warrant officers. Usually, the smaller the vessel, the lower the rank of the ship's commander. For example, patrol boats are often commanded by ensigns, while frigates are rarely commanded by an officer below the rank of commander.

Historical navies were far more rigid in structure. Ships were collected in divisions, which in turn were collected in numbered squadrons, which comprised a numbered fleet. Permission for a vessel to leave one unit and join another would have to be approved on paper.

The modern U.S. Navy is primarily based on a number of standard groupings of vessels, including the carrier strike group and the expeditionary strike group. [12]

Additionally, naval organization continues aboard a single ship. The complement forms three or four departments (such as tactical and engineering), each of which has a number of divisions, followed by work centers.

Air Force hierarchy

The organizational structures of air forces vary between nations: some air forces (such as the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force) are divided into commands, groups and squadrons; others (such as the Soviet Air Force) have an Army-style organizational structure. The modern Royal Canadian Air Force uses Air division as the formation between wings and the entire air command. Like the RAF, Canadian wings consist of squadrons.

NATO Symbol
(for Army comparison)
Unit Name
(USAF/RAF/Other air forces)
No. of personnelNo. of aircraftNo. of subordinate units
(USAF/RAF)
Officer in command
(USAF/RAF)
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Region or Front.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
Combatant Command [13] or national air force Entire air forceEntire air forceAll Major Commands / Commands GAF / MRAF or Air Chf Mshl
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Army Group.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
Major Command/Command or Tactical Air Force
/ Russian Air army [14]
VariesVariesVaries by Region or Duty Gen/Air Chf Mshl or Air Mshl
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Army.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
Numbered Air Force/No RAF equivalentVaries by Region or DutyVaries2+ Wings/Groups Maj-Gen or Lt-Gen / N/A
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Division.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
No USAF equivalent/No RAF equivalent
/Aviation Division /Air division
Varies by Region or DutyVaries2+ Wings/Groups Maj-Gen or Div-Gen
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Brigade.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
Wing/Group (inc. EAGs)
/Russian aviation brigade/Air Brigade
1,000–5,00048–1002+ Groups/Wings Brig-Gen/AVM or Air Cdre
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Regiment or Group.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
Group/Wing (inc. EAWs) or Station
/Russian aviation regiment
300–1,00017–483–4 Squadrons/3–10 Flights Col/Gp Capt or Wg Cdr
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Battalion.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
Squadron 100–3007–163–4 Flights Lt Col or Maj/Wg Cdr or Sqn Ldr
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Company or Squadron or Battery.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
Flight or flying staffel [15] 20–1004–62 Sections plus maintenance and support crew Maj or Capt/Sqn Ldr or Flt Lt
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Staffel (Echelon) - Germany.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
No USAF equivalent/No RAF equivalent
/German ground staffel [16] or echelon [17]
40–1606-121-2 Flights plus maintenance and support crew Capt or Staff Captain
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Platoon or Troop.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
Element or Section 10–40n/a–2n/a Junior Officer or Senior NCO
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Section.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
Detail 8–12n/an/a Senior NCO or Junior NCO
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Detachment or Squad.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg
squad or crew2–4n/an/a Junior NCO

Task force

A task force is a unit or formation created as a temporary grouping for a specific operational purpose. Aside from administrative hierarchical forms of organization that have evolved since the early 17th century in Europe, fighting forces have been grouped for specific operational purposes into mission-related organizations such as the German Kampfgruppe or the U.S. Combat Team (Army) and Task Force (Navy) during the Second World War, or the Soviet Operational manoeuvre group during the Cold War. In the British and Commonwealth armies the battlegroup became the usual grouping of companies during the Second World War and the Cold War.

Within NATO, a Joint Task Force (JTF) would be such a temporary grouping that includes elements from more than one armed service, a Combined Task Force (CTF) would be such a temporary grouping that includes elements from more than one nation, and a Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF) would be such a temporary grouping that includes elements of more than one armed service and more than one nation.

See also

Notes

  1. In the United States it is a common misunderstanding that their armed forces are totally prohibited from doing so by the Posse Comitatus Act. The Act, which reserves to Congress the power to employ federal military force to enforce law and order, refers specifically only to the US Army and US Air Force. The US Marines and Navy are separately regulated, and the Coast Guard has a clear law enforcement role in its peacetime status. The state-controlled Army National Guard (technically a branch of the US Army) is also excluded from the Posse Comitatus Act. The Insurrection Act specifically permits the president to use federal military force to restore public order in extreme emergency situations: the Act was implemented during the "Rodney King Riots" in Los Angeles.
  2. Some countries such as Brazil.
  3. Eastern Bloc

Related Research Articles

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Lithuanian Armed Forces

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Army of North Macedonia

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Portuguese Armed Forces Combined military forces of Portugal

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Austrian Armed Forces Combined military forces of the Republic of Austria

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Military rank Element of hierarchy in armed forces

Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships, within an armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines. The military rank system defines dominance, authority, and responsibility in a military hierarchy. It incorporates the principles of exercising power and authority into the military chain of command – the succession of commanders superior to subordinates through which command is exercised. The military chain of command constructs an important component for organized collective action.

Brigade Large military formation (3-6 battalions / 3-10 thousand troops

A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements. It is roughly equivalent to an enlarged or reinforced regiment. Two or more brigades may constitute a division.

Corps Military unit size designation

Corps is a term used for several different kinds of organization. A military innovation by Napoleon, the formation was first named as such in 1805. The size of a corps varies greatly, but from two to five divisions and anywhere from 40,000 to 80,000 are the numbers stated by the US Department of Defense.

Canadian Armed Forces Combined military forces of Canada

The Canadian Armed Forces is the unified military of Canada, comprising sea, land, and air elements referred to as the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).

Yugoslav Peoples Army Armed forces of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

The Yugoslav People's Army, also called the Yugoslav National Army, was the military of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and its antecedents from 1945 to 1992 and primary branch of Yugoslav armed forces.

In military aviation, a wing is a unit of command. In most military aviation services, a wing is a relatively large formation of planes. In Commonwealth countries a wing usually comprises three squadrons, with several wings forming a group. Each squadron will contain around 20 planes.

Norwegian Armed Forces

The Norwegian Armed Forces is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Norway. It consists of four branches, the Norwegian Army, the Royal Norwegian Navy, which includes the Coast Guard, the Royal Norwegian Air Force, and the Home Guard, as well as several joint departments.

A group is a military unit or a military formation that is most often associated with military aviation.

Indonesian Army Land service branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces

The Indonesian Army is the land branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces. It has an estimated strength of 300,000 active personnel. The history of the Indonesian Army has its roots in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) "Civil Security Forces" first emerged as a paramilitary and police corps.

Portuguese Army Land forces of the Armed Forces of Portugal

The Portuguese Army is the land component of the Armed Forces of Portugal and is also its largest branch. It is charged with the defence of Portugal, in co-operation with other branches of the Armed Forces. With its origins going back to the 12th century, it can be considered one of the oldest active armies in the world.

Spanish Armed Forces Combined military forces of the Kingdom of Spain

The Spanish Armed Forces are in charge of guaranteeing the sovereignty and independence of the kingdom of Spain, defending its territorial integrity and the constitutional order, according to the functions entrusted to them by the Constitution of 1978. They are composed of: the Army, the Air Force, the Navy, the Royal Guard and the Military Emergency Unit, as well as the so-called Common Corps.

Estonian Defence Forces Armed forces of Estonia

The Estonian Defence Forces is the unified armed forces of the Republic of Estonia. The Estonian military is a defence force consisting of Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, and a paramilitary Defence League. The national defence policy aims to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land area, territorial waters, airspace and its constitutional order. Its main goals remain the development and maintenance of a credible capability to defend the nation's vital interests and development of the defence forces in a way that ensures their interoperability with the armed forces of NATO and European Union member states to participate in the full range of missions for these military alliances.

Squadron (aviation) Military aviation unit

A squadron in air force, army aviation, or naval aviation is a unit comprising a number of military aircraft and their aircrews, usually of the same type, typically with 12 to 24 aircraft, sometimes divided into three or four flights, depending on aircraft type and air force. Land based squadrons equipped with heavier type aircraft such as long-range bombers, cargo aircraft, or air refueling tankers have around 12 aircraft as a typical authorization, while most land-based fighter equipped units have an authorized number of 18 to 24 aircraft.

Air force Military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare

An air force – in the broadest sense – is the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare. More specifically, it is the branch of a nation's armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army or navy. Typically, air forces are responsible for gaining control of the air, carrying out strategic and tactical bombing missions, and providing support to land and naval forces often in the form of aerial reconnaissance and close air support.

A combat team is temporary grouping of military organizations of differing types to accomplish a defined mission or objective. Usage varies between commonwealth nations, where the term applies to a sub-unit level grouping, and the United States, where the term is found at unit and formation levels.

References

  1. United States Department of Defense, DOD Dictionary Archived 2008-12-23 at the Wayback Machine
  2. Fomin, N. N., Great Soviet Encyclopaedia (Russian : Большая Советская Энциклопедия), Moscow, 1978
  3. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
  4. FM 1-02 Operational Terms and Graphics. US DoD. 21 September 2004. pp. 5–37.
  5. APP-6C NATO Joint Military Symbology. NATO. May 2011. pp. 2–25.
  6. APP-6 Military Symbols for Land Based Systems. NATO. July 1986. pp. B8.
  7. "Доклад НКО август 1939. doklad-nko-8-39.shtml". Armor.kiev.ua. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
  8. "Archived copy" Центральный государственный архив Советской армии (с июня 1992 г. Российский государственный военный архив). В двух томах. Том 2. Путеводитель. 1993 (in Russian). Guides.rusarchives.ru. Archived from the original on 2015-07-04. Retrieved 2013-11-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. Group. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
  10. US Navy. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
  11. FM 1-02 Operational Terms and Graphics. US DoD. 21 September 2004. pp. 5–37.
  12. http://www.airpages.ru/ru/vvs1.shtml Red Army VVS Organisation(rus)
  13. APP-6D NATO Joint Military Symbology. NATO Standardization Office. October 2017. pp. B-6, B-8.
  14. APP-6C NATO Joint Military Symbology. NATO. May 2011. p. B8.
  15. APP-6 Military Symbols for Land Based Systems. NATO. July 1986. p. 2–25.