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Military police (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state.
In different countries it may refer to:
The status of military police is usually prominently displayed on the helmet, with an armband, brassard, or arm or shoulder flash. Military police personnel may also wear a more traditional police badge, usually on the front of their uniform; They may also wear other accoutrements exclusive to military police personnel.
Naval police personnel are sometimes called "masters-at-arms" and/or "shore patrol". Law enforcement personnel of an air force are sometimes called "air police," "security police," or "security forces."
In Argentina there are several militarized law enforcement forces but they are not considered military police. Under the Ministry of Security is the Argentine National Gendarmerie (which is the border protection force, environmental security, rural security and also responsible for security in strategic sites. It is also used to combat drug trafficking, kidnappings and crimes under federal law) and the Argentine Naval Prefecture that is responsible for the protection of maritime, fluvial and lacustrine waters, also the battle against illegal fishing and public security in coastal areas. Also at the federal level is the Argentine Federal Police and the Airport Security Police, but they are not militarized security forces.
Under the Ministry of Defense of Argentina, each military force (Argentine Army, Argentine Navy and Argentine Air Force have their own military police forces. The Army's primary military police formation is the 601st MP Company based in Campo de Mayo. Other units can organize their own MP service to protect their own premises and facilities.
The Argentine Navy has its own military police called "Naval Facilities Police". The Argentine Air Force has its military police that secures military air installations.
"Military police" is a law enforcement agency which follows the Brazilian military rules, responsible for Preventive police of the civilian population. Each state has its own Military Police department similar to a Gendarmerie. However, and despite their name, these corps are not military organizations, nor have they any link to the military or the Ministry of Defense.
Traditional Provost duties are held by different corps within each branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces: Army Police (Portuguese : Polícia do Exército, PE) for the Army, Navy Police (Portuguese : Polícia da Marinha) for the Navy, and Air Force Police (Portuguese : Polícia da Aeronáutica, PA) for the Air Force.
The Canadian Forces Military Police (CF MP) contribute to the effectiveness and readiness of the Canadian Forces (CF) and the Department of National Defence (DND) through the provision of professional police, security and operational support services worldwide.
CFMP are classified as Peace Officers in the Criminal Code,which gives them the same powers as civilian law enforcement personnel to enforce Acts of Parliament on or in relation to DND property or assets anywhere in the world. They have the power to arrest anyone who is subject to the Code of Service Discipline (CSD), regardless of position or rank under the National Defence Act (NDA). MP have the power to arrest and charge non-CSD bound civilians only in cases where a crime is committed on or in relation to DND property or assets, or at the request of the Minister of Public Safety, Commissioner of the Correctional Service of Canada or Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Although MP jurisdiction is only on DND property across Canada and throughout the world, any civilian accessing these areas falls under MP jurisdiction and are dealt with in the same manner as any civilian policing agency. If a crime is committed on or in relation to DND property or assets, MP have the power to arrest and charge the offender, military or civilian, under the Criminal Code. It is important to note though that the purpose of the CFMP is not to replace the job of a civilian police officer, but rather to support the Canadian Forces through security and policing services. MP also have the power to enforce the Provincial Highway Traffic Acts on all military bases in Canada pursuant to the Government Property Traffic Regulations (GPTR).
In Colombia, MPs (Policía Militar in Spanish) are very common. They can be seen guarding closed roads, museums, embassies, government buildings and airports. In the National Army of Colombia they are assigned to the 37 Military Police Battalions, wearing green uniforms with the military police helmet. A Naval Police battalion is in service in the Colombian Marine Infantry. MP units also provide military bands and drum and bugle corps for ceremonial events. The Air Force also has a military police force (Policía Militar Aérea) that is in charge of protecting and enforcing law inside Colombian Air Force bases.
Each branch of the United States Armed Forces maintains its own police force. The U.S. Coast Guard, which in itself is a law enforcement agency, uses a mixture of enlisted rates and ranks qualified as law enforcement officers to patrol, investigate crimes, and enforce laws and regulations on large bases and training centers through the United States Coast Guard Police. The Coast Guard also uses the Coast Guard Investigative Service, a mixture of civilian, enlisted, reservists, and officers who are qualified and duly sworn federal law enforcement officers separate from the normal Coast Guard chain of command. CGIS primarily investigates and charges those in its own population with serious crimes, such as rape, assault or forgery, that fall under the Uniform Code of Military Justice.
The following is a list of military police forces:
Each service also maintains uniformed civilian police departments. They are referred to as Department of Defense Police (DoD Police). These police fall under each directorate they work for within the United States Department of Defense, for example: DoD Army or DoD Navy Police. The Department of the Air Force Police operate under the Air Provost Marshal. The police officers' duties are similar to those of local civilian police officers. They enforce the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), federal and state laws, and the regulations of their particular installation.
Felony level criminal investigations in the United States Armed Forces are carried out by separate agencies:
The Defense Criminal Investigative Service (DCIS) is a civilian agency that answers directly to the DOD as well as the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA).
The United States Constabulary was a gendarmerie force used to secure and patrol the American Zone of West Germany immediately after World War II.
MP's in the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps, in addition to their roles as enforcers of law and order on military installations, fulfill a number of combat roles as well. Military Police in Afghanistan and Iraq have been widely employed for such duties as convoy security, mounted and dismounted patrols, maritime expeditionary warfare, Military Working Dog operations, security details for senior officers, and detainee handling.Army MPs, Navy MAs, Navy Sailors who possess the Navy Enlisted Classification (NEC) Code 2008 and 9575, Navy Sailors who have completed the Individual Augmentee (IA) training for Detention Operations, and Air Force Security Forces have been widely used as prison guards in detainee facilities, whereas Marine Corps MPs focus on securing and processing detainees before passing them on to Army holding facilities.
Since U.S. Army Military Police Soldiers and U.S. Air Force Security Forces Airmen are members of the armed forces, they are prohibited from exercising domestic law enforcement powers under the Posse Comitatus Act (PCA), a federal law passed in 1878. MPs may enforce certain limited powers, such as traffic stops, on access roads and other federal property not necessarily within the boundaries of their military base or installation. When combined, the Posse Comitatus Act and Insurrection Act place significant limits on presidential power to use the military in a law enforcement capacity. The PCA directly applies only to the Army and Air Force, without mentioning the Navy and Marine Corps. The Navy and Marine Corps are limited from enforcing domestic laws due to DoD policy and regulations.
The only military forces exempt from the act are the United States Coast Guard, as its mission includes maritime law enforcement duties; United States Space Force, which has authority to conduct law enforcement regarding space-related activities; and Army and Air National Guard units while under state authority. Army and Air National Guard troops are not exempt from Posse Comitatus while they are serving under federal Title 10 orders.
The Algerian People's National Armed Forces has maintained military police units since its founding upon Algerian independence in 1962. The task of the Algerian military police is to maintain law and order within units and hunt down conscripts trying to flee military service, protect and secure military installations, and organize and move large combat units. In the 1990s, three military police battalions were established as combat units, and they have taken part in combat operations.
The Botswana Defence Force maintains provosts to enforce order within the ranks who are authorized to carry out arrests and to order other service personnel to arrest someone. Soldiers and officers suspected of committing offenses may be arrested by military personnel of superior rank. An officer may be arrested by another officer of superior rank, while soldiers may be arrested by any officer, warrant officer, or non-commissioned officer.
The Egyptian Army maintains a Military Police Corps consisting of 24 battalions, divided into 12 Inland MP battalions (222nd, 224th, 226th, 228th, 230th, 232nd, 234th, 236th, 238th, 240th, 242nd, 244th) and 12 Field MP battalions (221st, 223rd, 225th, 227th, 229th, 231st, 233rd, 235th, 237th, 239th, 241st, 243rd).
The Kenya Army maintains a Military Police Corps which consists of two battalions and the School of Military Police.
The Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie, a part of the Royal Moroccan Army, is directly subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. It is divided into 22 Regional Gendarmeries, a Mobile Gendarmerie, Air Gendarmerie, and Maritime Gendarmerie.
The Nigerian Army maintains a military police force, the Nigerian Army Corps of Military Police (NACMP). It is responsible for protecting installations, guarding important personnel as well as military convoys and prisoners, and investigating crimes. Nigerian military police personnel are divided into three fields, and all MPs are required to specialize in at least one: criminal investigations, general policing duties, and K9 handling.
The Gendarmerie, or "Military Police", known as the Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia is a paramilitary unit with about 7,000 soldiers deployed in all provinces. It is headquartered in Phnom Penh. The unit's chain of command is through the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces High Command.
The Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia is deployed in every province and cities to keep the law and order. Military police in Cambodia play an important role in Cambodia society, keeping law and order in cities along with the National Police.
The Corps of Military Police (CMP) is the military police of the Indian Army. In addition, the CMP is trained to handle prisoners of war and to regulate traffic, as well as to handle basic telecommunication equipment such as telephone exchanges. They can be identified by their red berets, white lanyards and belts, and they also wear a black brassard with the letters "MP" imprinted in red.
Internal policing duties in a regiment (or a station) are handled by the Regimental Police, who are soldiers of the unit who are assigned to policing tasks for a short period of time. They are essentially used to regulate traffic, and can be identified by a black brassard with the letters "RP" embossed in gold or white.
The Indian Air Force is policed by the Indian Air Force Police. They can be identified by their white peaked caps, white lanyards and belts (with a pistol holster). They used to wear a black brassard with the letters "IAF(P)" imprinted in red, until 2013. Now Indian Air Force Provost and Security officers and IAF(P) wear an arm badge.
The Indian Navy has the Navy Police, and they can be identified by a black brassard with the letters "NP" in gold, with the state emblem placed in between the N and the P.
In Indonesia, the institution which solely has the responsibility and authority concerning the maintenance of discipline and law enforcement towards members of the Indonesian National Armed Forces is the Military Police Command (Indonesian: Pusat Polisi Militer TNI abbreviated "Puspom TNI"), an institution directly under the auspices of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Headquarters ("Mabes TNI") which heads the three Military Police corps which are the:
which are responsible for conducting law enforcement in the scope of the military. Other than conducting law enforcement in the scope of the armed forces, MPs which are attached to the Paspampres also conduct escort and Honour guard duties for the head of state, high-ranking military officials, and VVIPs.The Military police are also responsible in supervising prisoners of war (POWs), controlling military prisoners, arresting deserters, managing military traffic, issuing military driving licenses and conduct joint law enforcement operations with the civilian police such as implementing traffic checkpoints and crime investigation to take action towards military personnel caught red-handed in violations.
In Indonesia, the Military Police does not have authority towards civilians as it is the realm of the Indonesian National Police (Polri), and in the other hand, the civilian Police does not have authority towards active members of the military, except accompanied by the Military police. If a military member is caught red-handed by the civilian police, then the violator will be sent to the Military Police or the Military police would be contacted.
The Army, Navy, and Air force have their own Military Police unit which focuses on their own branches, but any Military policemen from either branch can take action towards military members from a different branch if caught red-handed, then the violator will be sent to the Military police of their branch. The Military Police in Indonesia are known locally as Polisi Militer sometimes shortened "PM" or "POM".
The uniforms worn by the Military police varies for the tri-services. The Army Military Police wear dark green, the Navy Military Police wear blue-gray and the Air Force Military Police wear light blue. The beret of the three Military police corps of Indonesia is the same which is blue, dragged to the left with the Military police symbol on the right side when worn (except those attached to the Presidential guard). Military policemen are identifiable by their white belts, white Aiguillette, white helmets, and brassard worn on their upper left sleeve imprinted the word "PM". In Indonesia, Military policemen are usually present directing traffic and assisting the police for security during occasions such as state visits, military funerals, military ceremonies/receptions, large-scale outdoor/indoor military agendas, military operations and other type of military or state occasions where the VVIPs or high-ranking military officials are present.
The Central Provost of Islamic Republic of Iran Army is the police service of the Islamic Republic of Iran Armed Forces. It has authority within all branches of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army and has seniority over the designated provosts of the "Sea Police" of the Islamic Republic of Iran Navy and the "Air Police" of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force. Separately, the General Provost of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps maintains police authority over the land, air, and sea branches of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and the Basij militia.
The Military Police Corps (Kheil HaMishtara HaTzva'it), Mem Tzadeh for short, is the military police/provost of the Israel Defense Forces. It is responsible for investigating crimes committed by soldiers, traffic enforcement among military traffic, arresting soldiers suspected of criminal offenses, assisting officers in enforcing discipline, locating deserters, guarding military prisons, and helping man checkpoints. In times of emergency, enemy detainees are held and sorted by the military police. It is a brigade-sized force commanded by a Brigadier General.
The corps has very little civilian jurisdiction and for that reason works in conjunction with the Israel Police when civilians are involved. The Israel Border Police, a branch of the civilian police force, is Israel's gendarmerie equivalent.
The civilian police and military police share a computer database. Should a suspect apprehended by the civilian police on a civilian charge and wearing civilian clothes turn out to be a deserting or AWOL soldier, he or she is turned over to the Military Police.
During World War II, the Kenpeitai were the military police of the Imperial Japanese Army and the Tokkeitai were the military police of the Imperial Japanese Navy. They also performed intelligence and secret police functions and were active in Japan and its occupied territories.
Today's Japan Self-Defense Forces maintain military police units called the Keimutai (警務隊), with its personnel called Keimukan (警務官).
The Military Police in Kazakhstan refers to law enforcement bodies in the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The military police is under the joint jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the National Security Committee, all of which manage the activities of the military police.
The Mongolian Armed Forces maintain two law enforcement units. The Internal Troops of Mongolia is a paramilitary gendarmerie unit that performs special guard and reserve duties. Among other duties, it guards government installations and serves as a riot police force. The 032 Military Unit engages in law enforcement as well as organizing daily activities and military supplies and services.
The Kor Polis Tentera DiRaja (Royal Military Police Corps) performs military police duties in the Malaysian Army. Apart from enforcing discipline and conduct of members of the Army, the Corps oversees security of designated Army installations, performs escort and ceremonial duties, and assists civil law enforcement authorities. The Kor Polis Tentera is also tasked with crime prevention and investigating criminal activities on Army property or by military personnel. With its roots in the British Royal Military Police, members of the Kor Polis Tentera DiRaja also wear the distinctive red peaked cap, white lanyard and belt, as well as a black brassard with the letters "PT" imprinted. PT stands for "Polis Tentera", the Malay words for "Military Police". Military police on traffic duty wear armbands sporting the letters "MP" in red.
Since the establishment and inception of the Pakistan Armed Forces, they have maintained their own military police. The Pakistan Army received its share of Muslim personnel from the former Royal Indian Military Police, forming the Pakistan Army Military Police or "MP". Later, the Pakistan Navy established the "naval police" with its centre commissioned at "PNS Nighaban", and the Pakistan Air Force later established the PAF Police to maintain order.
The Pakistan Navy's Naval Police can be identified by their red armbands with the letters "NP" written in white. They are headquartered at PNS Qasim in Karachi.
The Pakistan Army's military police is known as the Pakistan Army Corps of Military Police. They can be identified by their red armbands, white cross belts and white combat helmets with the letters "MP", written in white.
The Pakistan Air Force established its own military police, known as the "Pakistan Air Force Police" commonly referred to as Provost. The PAF Police can be identified by their red armlets, white cross belts and white combat helmets with "PAF Police" written in red.
The MP, NP and the PAF Police do not exercise any jurisdiction over civilians, nor can the civil courts interfere in the operations of the Military Police. In some cases, the Military Police Corps have worked with civilian police agencies if civilians are involved.
The Armed Forces of the Philippines currently maintains its own military police distinct from the nation's civilian force, reporting to the Chief of Staff through the service commanding generals.
The American-established (now defunct) Philippine Constabulary (PC) was also known as the Military Police Command. Pursuant to Republic Act 6975 (the DILG Reorganization Act of 1991), the PC and the Integrated National Police merged to form the civilian Philippine National Police, and was placed under the Department of the Interior and Local Government.
The Saudi Arabian military police are a small subset of the national police and are charged mainly with keeping peace in areas with high levels of aggression and tension. They wear red berets and camouflaged uniform.
Each branch of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces has its own military police/Provost section. The Sri Lanka Army is policed by the Sri Lanka Corps of Military Police and by Regimental Police, who belong to each individual regiments or corps.
The Military Police force carries out the following missions:
The Sri Lanka Navy is policed by the Provost Branch. The Sri Lanka Air Force is policed by the Air Force Police (AFP).
In Singapore, the Singapore Armed Forces Military Police Command serves as the law enforcement agency of the Singapore Armed Forces. The Command is headed by a colonel, otherwise also known as the Provost Marshal. Its sub-units included the Military Police Enforcement Unit (including Special Investigations Branch and ceremonial and drill components), the Detention Barracks (DB), The 1st Provost Bn, MP Training School and the Security Support Forces (including Military working Dog Wing, Close Protection and Security Ops Unit). The command also collaborates closely with the Singapore Police Force in terms of policing work duties, investigations, etc.
The Republic of Korea Armed Forces maintains a series of separate military police commands for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps. ROK Army MPs also function as border guards at the Korean Demilitarized Zone.
The ROCMP is responsible for enforcing military law, maintaining military discipline, providing backup for the civilian police force or serving as combat troops during times of emergency, providing security for historical sites (such as the Cihu Mausoleum) and certain government buildings, including the Presidential Office Building in Taipei City, as well as performing counter-terrorism and VIP protection operations. The ROCMP are also charged with the defense of the capital Taipei.
In Thailand, each branch of the armed forces has its own military police force. The Royal Thai Navy has the สารวัตรทหารเรือ (Naval Military Police), the Royal Thai Army has the สารวัตรทหาร (Army Military Police), and the Royal Thai Air Force has the สารวัตรทหารอากาศ (Air Force Military Police).
The duties of the Air Military Police Department (กรมทหารสารวัตรทหารอากาศ) are peacekeeping, security, regulating traffic discipline within Air Force installations and housing areas, apprehending deserters, escorting VIPs and investigating crimes under the authority of the Military Court. These investigations include prisoners of war, enemy aliens, refugees and displaced officers within the Air Force and designated areas. It is under supervision of the Commander of the Air Military Police Department.
There is one active Air MP Battalion called the Battalion of Military Air Police (กองพันทหารสารวัตรทหารอากาศ). The Air Military Police Department is one unit under the supervision of the Office of Don Muang RTAF Base Commander (สำนักงานผู้บังคับทหารอากาศดอนเมือง).
In Vietnam, the 144th Brigade of Military Provost (Kiểm soát Quân sự) is under the command of the General Staff of the Vietnam People's Army. The provosts are responsible for guarding and protecting the Presidential Palace, government offices and army offices. They are also responsible for supervising military laws on soldiers and officers. Even though the 144th Brigade is the highest level division in the Military Provost force of Vietnam, there seems to be no unified command for the Military Provost under the General Staff, the Ministry of Defense or another General Department within the Ministry. There are several known Military Provost units such as the 31st Military Provost Battalion of Ho Chi Minh city Military Command, the said 144th Brigade, and the 103rd Military Provost Battalion of the Hanoi Capital Military Command. Besides the Provost units, there are also the military investigative agencies that function similarly to the Provosts, such as the Criminal Investigation Bureau and the Investigative Security Agency within the Defense Ministry.
The Military Police (Armenian : Ռազմական ոստիկանություն; Rrazmakan vostikanut’yun) of Armenia fall under the command of the Ministry of Defence. The Military Police was established in May 1992, by order of the Minister of Defense. The Military Police is considered a division that is separate from the Ministry of Defense. It had no special status until 2007, when a law to define the Military Police status was adopted. Its status is defined in the RA Law on Military Police. According to the law, the Military Police is responsible for the following:
The Military Police Bylaws were approved by the Government of Armenia on 25 December 2008.
The Austrian Military Police (German: Militärpolizei) of the Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) is located in Vienna and consists of the following elements
The Military Police has three locations in Austria. The Military Police Command and one MP Co. are located in Vienna. One MP Co. is in Graz and one in Salzburg.
The Military Police is tasked with law enforcement and the protection of the forces, military events and Armed Forces property. The increasing number of international operations in which Austrian soldiers participate and new threat scenarios hugely expand the spectrum of tasks. In addition to its traditional domestic tasks, the Military Police now also fulfill tasks in international operations. In Austria the Military Police is only tasked with internal Armed Forces matters. Abroad, they are tasked with extensive assignments. It closes the security gap between a conflict that has ended and a functioning society. A large number of experienced specialists and modern equipment are required to meet these demanding tasks.
National tasks include:
International tasks include:
The military commandants of the Armed Forces of Belarus are regional administrations responsible for military police on a unit's territory.Units are assigned to a specific commandant based on their location. There are 6 military commandants in the Belarusian Armed Forces.
|Baranavichy Military Commandant||Brest Region|
|Babruysk Military Commandant||Mogilev Region|
|Barysaw Military Commandant||Minsk Region|
|Brest Military Commandant||Brest Region|
|Grodno Military Commandant||Grodno Region|
|Minsk Military Commandant||Minsk Region|
The Belgian Army's Military Police Group (Groupe Police Militaire in French; Groep Militaire Politie in Dutch) performs military police duties on behalf of all four components of the Belgian military. The group is headed by a colonel and has 188 members in five MP detachments. Until 1995, the Belgian Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie was, besides its civilian policing tasks, responsible for the nation's Military Police duties.
The Military Police Group staff is located in the Queen Elizabeth Barracks in the Brussels suburb of Evere. Alpha Detachment located at Evere covers the province of Flemish Brabant and the capital, Brussels. Bravo Detachment covers the Walloon Brabant, Hainaut Province and Namur Province areas and is located at Nivelles. Charlie Detachment located at Marche-en-Famenne covers the Liège Province and Belgian Luxembourg areas. Delta Detachment covers the Limbourg and Antwerp Province areas and is located at Leopoldsburg. Echo Detachment located at Lombardsijde covers Western and Eastern Flanders.
The Military Police force carries out the following missions:
The Belgian Military Police has also taken part in multinational peacekeeping missions such as Afghanistan, Kosovo and the Congo. The Federal Police's Military Crime Division (DJMM) performs all investigations involving the armed forces.
In 2003, duties relating to refugees and deserters in wartime were transferred from the then disbanded Gendarmerie to the MPs. Members of the former 4 and 6 MP Companies were merged into the new MP Group, along with some Gendarmes previously assigned MP-related duties.
Belgian MPs are identified by black armbands with the letters MP in white block letters, worn on the left arm.
Shortly after the formation of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2005, an intentional strategy was made to limit in law and multi-ethnic, crime violation in the armed forces, so to speak, the Military Police, which was formed later on and approved by the Ministry of Defense of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The first documents reflecting the establishment of interior order bodies in Bulgaria are: Instruction on Establishment of Initial Military Police Governorship, dated 3 July 1877, Instruction on the Rights and Duties of the Constituted Local Police Guards, dated 19 July 1877, and Temporary Regulations on Constituting Police Voluntary Sentries and Armed Guards, dated 8 August 1877.
According to the Instruction on Military Police Governorship in the free Bulgarian lands and regions with army presence, the Military Police enforced the law and order in the rear of the army, suspended possible clashes among members of different religious communities and observed for the proper implementation of commanders instructions.
Irrespective of the military police presence in the rear of the army and troops, newly- appointed civil administrative authorities (governors) were given the right to organize mounted and infantry sentries and armed local guards.
Temporary Regulations on Gendarmerie Structure were promulgated after Prince Alexander I had suspended the Constitution of Turnovo in 1881. The gendarmerie became government guard with military organization and was tasked with maintenance of public law and order, law enforcement, and implementation of police rules issued by the authorities. The new structure was based on French and Austrian experience.
Gendarmerie Corps Chief, subordinate to the Military Minister, was empowered to act as a liaison point between the military administration and the other ministries and institutions as well as to take independent decisions on any issues within his competence. Gendarmerie units' chiefs were independent of the provincial military chiefs and were empowered to issue orders to them.
Drafting of bodies for security and interior order was based on the necessity of mastering and integrating this activity under the Military Ministry. With Decree of the Prince No. 73/ 3 July 1882, the Gendarmerie Corps was converted into the Dragoon Corps. The intention of the military minister was to be set up a cavalry unit authorized to carry out police duties as well. Of interest is Ministerial Order No. 193/ 1882 which tasked the Dragoon Corps with specific tasks on the Ruschuk-Varna railway. Then existing Military Police Railway Command was disbanded on 1 October 1882.
The names used in the documents mentioned above, "military police governorship" and "military police command", connote the meaning and sense of the specific activities of these bodies and prove that military police history dates back to the very beginning of the Third Bulgarian State.
In 1883 started a process of purposeful legislative regulation on the activity of the police forces for public order and security and their gradual differentiation from the Military Ministry. Prince Alexander I tasked Prime Minister Dragan Tsankov with the establishment of a new police structure in Bulgaria. Its activity was to be legally based upon the Regulations on Police Guards, adopted in 1883.
In compliance with the Decree of His Highness No. 756/ 17 September 1883, the Dragoon Corps was disbanded on 1 October 1883. Its property, clothing, armament and ammunition were to be given to the Ministry of the Interior.
In the Act on the Armed Forces Regulation in the Bulgarian Principality, adopted by the Sixth Regular National Assembly on 3 December 1891, envisaged establishment of six semi-companies in stages. Each of them was to be added to a division and to be set military police tasks in wartime. Such units were not actually formed but this fact shows the political will for their creation in case of eventual military activities.
Tasks and strength of the MPs were precisely defined in the eve of the 1912 Balkan Wars with the Ottoman Empire. A Military Police infantry platoon of 60 with an officer in charge and a mounted platoon of 50 were added to any division. The Military Police patrolled in the troops' areas and in the rear, maintaining the order and discipline.
While Bulgaria was getting ready for the war, the Strategic Command assessed the need of military police presence in the army. In 1915 a military police sector of six squadrons was founded under the Staff of the acting army. In the same year was issued Instruction on the Officer Qualities and Posts in the Military Police Troops. The document reads their goals: to maintain order and law in the troops' areas and in the rear, to enforce laws, ordinances, regulations, and orders of senior commanders and chiefs. The Military Police were tasked with guarding staffs, transport, warehouses and other army installations. They were also empowered to implement specific tasks – crime investigation, protection of civilians against despoiling and abusing, fight against marauders, supervision and control over the civilians following the army and especially the unreliable and/ or espionage suspected individuals. MPs convoyed, secured refugees, prisoners-of-war, military posts and mail, collected and stored weapons left behind by its own or enemy troops, horses and other objects, checked on the regularity of troops at the railway stations.
With Ministerial Order No.160/ 20 December 1916 was promulgated Instruction on Military Police Service within First Infantry Division of Sofia. It empowered the Military Police to apprehend, subject to search, and detain any suspected individuals as well as individuals without proper documents no matter whether they were civilian or military.
In 1923 the Act on Military Police Replenishment was adopted due to the necessity of organizational and structural building of the Military Police. The criteria for personnel selection were too high for that time and met the high standards and specific requirements for performing military police duties.
In 1940 the Ministry of War issued Recommendations on the Military Police Service. Military police units were tasked with maintenance of order, morale, and discipline in the army. The Recommendations also listed a lot of measures for securing staffs, communications and messages in the rear. In the last chapter, it was emphasized that the Recommendations were valid in wartime and were to be executed on maneuvers and under martial law declared in peacetime.
The Military Police Group was set up under the Chief Army Command on 20 February 1941, shortly before Bulgaria entered World War II. Military Police School for Initial and Further Personnel Training was founded in Sofia in 1942.
The Military Police Group was transformed into the Securing Group in compliance of the Order of the Military Ministry, dated 2 September 1944. In January 1945 this Military Securing Group was disbanded and a special group for implementation of specific tasks in the army was formed. In 1946 it became regiment. In 1947 under Ordinance No. 523 of 8 April the Regiment was disbanded under the Paris Peace Treaty clauses.
In 1991 the Ministry of Defense tasked the General Staff with the planning of the Military Police organization and structure in order to re-establish the service. A few months later, on 5 November 1991 the Ministerial Council issued Decree No. 217 which proclaimed the establishment of the Military Police – based on regional principle, part of the Bulgarian Army, and to meet the needs of the Armed Forces, troops, ministries, administrations, and Civil Defense of the Republic of Bulgaria.
The Military Police units are specialized bodies under the Minister of Defense for the purposes of law enforcement, prevention and disclosure of crimes and other violations, maintenance of army order and discipline within garrisons, control over army transport and protection of legal interests and rights of the Bulgarian Army personnel.
The Military Police, due to the required specific knowledge, experience and skills, had become professional ten years earlier before the Bulgarian Army abolished conscription. The Military Police gradually turns into a modern NATO-modelled formation.
With Order of the Minister of Defense No. OX-0082/ 29 January 1998 the Military Police Administration – GS was transferred from its immediate subordination to the Chief of the General Staff of the Bulgarian Army to subordination to the Minister of Defense.
On 2 December 1999 with Ministerial Order No. 985 was founded the Security Service – Military Police and Military Counterintelligence under the Minister of Defense. It was the successor to the then existing administrations MPs and MCI.
On 1 April 2008, as a result of reformation of the national security system, the Military Counterintelligence passed to the newly founded State Agency National Security. The Security Service – Military Police and Military Counterintelligence was transformed into the Military Police Service under the Minister of Defense.
The fifth of November has been announced the Military Police Service Celebration Day with Order of the Minister of Defense No. OX-708/ 10 October 2008.
The current chief of the Bulgarian Military Police Service is Brigadier General Borislav Sertov.
The Croatian Military Police (Croatian : Vojna policija) is a part of the Croatian Armed Forces (Oružane snage Republike Hrvatske). The Croatian Military Police was formed on 27 August 1991, shortly after the National Guard Corps (Zbor narodne garde) – now the Croatian Army – was formed.
Parts of Croatian Military Police are:
The Military Police Corps (Czechoslovakia)(Czech vojenská policie) was set up on 21 January 1991. Within the provisions of the Czechoslovak Law No. 124/1992 Dig. regarding the Military Police, they are responsible for police protection of armed forces, military facilities, military material and other state property controlled by the Ministry of Defence. The Military Police are a professional force. Since 1 January 1993, Czechoslovak Military Police Corps were divided to Czech and Slovak separate Military Police Corps.
The Military Police are headed by a Chief,who directly reports to the Minister of Defence.
As of 1 July 2003, the Military Police officers are equipped with accessories black in colour, including their distinctive feature – the black beret.
The structure is based on the territorial principle. The Military Police subordinated headquarters are located in Prague, Tábor, and Olomouc.
Military police officers are assigned directly to military units, and they form also part of military contingents of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic in foreign deployments. Foreign Deployments:
The military police officers serve within contingents of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic on foreign operations on the territory of Iraq and on the Balkans, and as of March 2007 its Special Operation Group (SOG) also in southern Afghanistan in the Helmand Province.
Military Police of the Czech republic also contains active reserve units. Members of the active reserve have a civilian profession but several times a year participate in training or other MP activities.
In Denmark the military police (Danish: militærpoliti) services are carried out as independent units under each branch. In the army all military police tasks are done as an integral part of the Trænregimentet ,whereas the navy military police is an independent unit under command and control of the commanding officer of the Danish Frogman Corps and the air force, as a part of the force protection squadron (Squadron 660) of the air force Combat Support Wing. Unlike the two other branches, the navy military police also handles installation guard duties (which is carried out by regular soldiers in the army and by an installation protection unit under Squadron 660 in the air force) of naval installations as well as certain military installations in the Danish capital region, such as the Danish Defence Command and the Ministry of Defence.
MP personnel typically wear either branch-specific display dress uniforms with white shoulder markings with the text MP or the branch-common daily combat uniform, with a red beret. In the air force the MP-shoulder markings is typically replaced with markings saying either VAGT or GUARD, but for international missions they also use the MP-markings.
MP personnel generally do not have legal authority over civilians in non-military areas but only over military personnel and on military installations (also publicly accessible places like Holmen Naval Base in Copenhagen). On some occasions MP personnel can support civilian police in certain tasks, but will only have slightly more legal authority than civilians—similar to the police home guard.
In the army military police are almost without exception NCOs or officers, whereas the navy and air force rely mainly of Danish ranks OR-1 to OR-3.
Furthermore, the home guard has a police branch, which supports both the civilian Danish police and the military police.
Typical MP jobs are:
The Sõjaväepolitsei are the Military Police of the Estonian Defence Forces. The Estonian MP organization was created in 1994 and is today divided into tactical (patrol) and investigative units. Additionally, conscript-based reserve MP platoons are trained in Guard Battalion every year. MP tasks include investigation of serious disciplinary cases and some armed service-related crimes, supervision of military discipline within the Forces, military traffic control and various security tasks. Within conflict/crises areas (Afghanistan) the MP may provide close protection of the Estonian national representative and other visiting VIPs. When on regular patrol assignment, Estonian MPs wear a black brassard on their right shoulder, with the letters SP in silver, and are usually equipped with an HK USP 9 mm pistol, spare magazines, radio, handcuffs, pepper spray and an expandable police baton.
The Sotilaspoliisi mm pistol, a baton, pepper spray and handcuffs on his belt. The military police includes both career and conscript personnel, and is primarily used to guard military installations and supervise military traffic. All military police personnel are trained with basic police techniques and usually receive training for fighting in urban areas. In wartime, the tasks are more extensive and include protection of key personnel and targets, especially against enemy special forces, and surveillance, control, pursuit, arrest and destruction missions. For training, almost all brigades have military police companies. The companies are part of and subordinate to the brigade.(literally, "Soldier Police") are the military police of the Finnish Defence Forces. The Finnish MPs wear a black brassard on the left shoulder with the letters 'SP' in white. A military policeman is usually armed with a 9
The military police has jurisdiction over military personnel, military areas, installations and exercise areas. However, a military police patrol may stop a crime that it witnesses in process in a civilian area. Additionally, if a military police unit is near to a serious crime taking place, such as a robbery or an assault, and the civilian police are delayed, a military police unit that is near to the scene can offer to handle the situation until the civilian police arrive. As with some other Finnish Defence Forces units, the military police can be used to provide assistance to the civilian police when they are undermanned or lack special resources. In such case, the military police may take measures deemed necessary by the civilian police. For example, during the 2005 Helsinki World Athletic Championship Games, military police conscripts and career personnel were placed along the marathon route to prevent the large numbers of spectators from obstructing the runners.
Before and during World War II, Finland did not have military police in peacetime, but only temporary sotapoliisi ("war police"). Ex-police officers were conscripted for police officer duty in the armed forces; usually only the officers had police training. Planning for sotapoliisi was still unfinished at the break of war, so regular reservists could not be conscripted. Thus personnel had to be recruited without regard to quality; conscripts found unfit for field duty for e.g. health reasons, and even those with previous criminal record were recruited, and the reputation suffered.For a long time, sotapoliisi existed only in wartime. However, improvement to this came eventually: the military police school was founded in 1963, and civilian police background was no longer required.
The crimes committed by military personnel are, as a rule, investigated by the military. Minor infractions are usually investigated by the career personnel of the unit, while more serious crimes are investigated by the investigative section of the General Staff of the Finnish Defence Forces. In minor matters, the company commander or his superiors may use disciplinary powers, but more serious cases are deferred to the civilian prosecutor who will take the case to the district court.
The Gendarmerie Nationale acts as both the military police and one of the two national law enforcement forces of France. Provost missions are assumed by local units for the garrisons of the Ground Army on French soil and by special divisions :
The Gendarmerie Navale, Gendarmerie de l'Air, Ordnance Gendarmerie and Provost Gendarmerie are placed under the dual supervision of the Gendarmerie and the relevant military branch. However, for judiciary duties, they are under exclusive command of the relevant court.
In addition to the Gendarmerie, Naval Fusiliers (Fusiliers Marins) , Fusilier commandos of the Air Force (Fusiliers Commandos de l'Air) and dedicated regimental platoons maintain order for their respective branches.
The Feldjäger is the military police of the German Bundeswehr . The term Feldjäger ("field hunter") has a long tradition and dates back to the mid-17th century. Their motto is Suum Cuique ("To each his own", derived from Cicero, De Finibus, Bonorum et Malorum, liber V, 67: "(...) ut fortitudo in laboribus periculisque cernatur, (...), iustitia in suo cuique tribuendo.").
The first modern Feldjäger unit was activated on 6 October 1955 when the bill creating the Bundeswehr was signed. The Feldjäger corps serves all component forces of the German Federal Armed Forces ( Bundeswehr ) i.e., German Army, German Navy, German Air Force, Zentraler Sanitätsdienst (Joint Medical Corps) and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service). The Military Police Command has its headquarters in Scharnhorst Kaserne in Hanover and is under the operational command of the Bundeswehr's Territorial Tasks Command of the Streitkräftebasis. The Feldjäger have three regiments of military police stationed around Germany which are subordinate to the Military Police Command.
The paramilitary Greek Gendarmerie fulfilled most security and order duties in Greece until World War II. In 1951, Law 1746/51 established the framework of the Hellenic Army's Greek Military Police (Greek : Ελληνική Στρατιωτική Αστυνομία or ΕΣΑ, Ellinikí Stratiotikí Astynomía). The organization—and particularly its Special Interrogative Department, EAT-ESA—became notorious for its brutality during the 1967–1974 military junta. Law 276/76 renamed it simply to "Military Police" (Στρατονομία). Corresponding organizations exist also for other two branches of the Greek armed forces: for the Hellenic Air Force (Αερονομία, Aeronomia), founded in 1945 as the Greek Air Force Police (Ελληνική Αεροπορική Αστυνομία, ΕΑΑ), and for the Hellenic Navy (Ναυτονομία, Naftonomia, properly Υπηρεσία Ναυτονομίας or Y.ΝΑ.)
These three forces work together often but are independent from each other. Most of the personnel are draftee soldiers undergoing their regular military service.
As part of the Hungarian Defence Forces the Hungarian Military Police (Katonai Rendészet) is a military law enforcement organization with duties of protecting selected objects, investigating accidents involving military vehicles, accompanying military delegations and military forces passing through Hungary, traffic control, personal protection of designated military leaders, performing military police duties in international missions, military law enforcement activities in Hungary.
The Irish Military Police (colloquially "PA"s, deriving from the official title, Póilíní Airm ) are responsible for the prevention and detection of crime in the Irish Defence Forces. Entry to the PA is restricted to serving members of the Defence Forces. All members of the Corps are NCOs, with Officers being transferred in for temporary assignments. Unlike many Military Police Services, they retain responsibility for controlling access to many, but not all, military posts. In addition, they provide a military detachment to the Oireachtas (Houses of Parliament) and have a large ceremonial role. In the past they had a role in training armed elements of the Garda Síochána but in recent times this has decreased. Historically, they were responsible for detaining political prisoners in military prisons (until the handing over of Military Prisons at Cork, Spike Island, Arbour Hill and the Curragh to the Civil Authorities) and in the past occasionally provided firing squads for executions (the last time being the "Emergency" period of 1939–1946).
The Arma dei Carabinieri is a gendarmerie force acting as both the military police and one of the four national police forces in Italy. Formed on 13 July 1814, it has been for almost two centuries the senior branch of the Italian Army, until on 5 October 2000 it became a fully independent Service of the Italian military.
With a strength of about 120,000, the Arma dei Carabinieri is a very large organization, including its own air and naval services, but most of its personnel is used for civilian police duties.
The properly Military Police components of the Arma dei Carabinieri are grouped into the "Divisione Unità Mobili Carabinieri" (Carabinieri Mobile Units Division), organized as follows:
From these units are drawn most of the elements that form the Carabinieri MP coys, platoons and detachments assigned to all the major Italian Army, Navy and Air Force units, as well as many of the personnel forming the MSU Regiments (Multinational Specialist Units) and the IPUs (Integrated Police Units) serving abroad in support of European Union, NATO and United Nation missions. The Arma dei Carabinieri have gained a very good reputation for the professionalism and organization of their MP units in support of international missions, so much that during the 2004 G8 Sea Island Conference the Carabinieri have been tasked to organize and run the CoESPU (Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units), to centralize the training of multinational MP units for international missions.
The 1st Brigade of the same "Divisione Unità Mobili Carabinieri", organized on 11 Mobile battalions and 1 Cavalry Regiment, does contribute to form the same Military Police components as the 1st Brigade, but is mostly tasked to riot control civilian police duties.
During some NATO military mission abroad, the Italian carabinieri contributed to military police operations with the Multinational Specialized Unit.
The Guardia di Finanza acts as a specialized Military Police force when called upon. Its normal duties include being a force acting in border control, customs duties, and police investigations into financial crimes and illegal drug trafficking.
In the Netherlands, the function of military police is performed by the Koninklijke Marechaussee ("Royal Constabulary"), a separate branch of the military independent of the Army, Navy and Air Force. Besides performing military duties, the Marechaussee is also a gendarmerie force.
The word Marechaussee seems to derive from the old French name Marecheaux given to an ancient court of justice in Paris called the "Tribunal of Constables and Marshals of France". These constables and marshals were to become members of the Gendarmerie, which served as a model for the police forces of both Belgium and the Netherlands. The term Marechaussee was also used for the Continental Army's military police during the American Revolution.
In Norway, military police are service members of the Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy or Royal Norwegian Air Force. Since about 2002, all are trained at Sessvollmoen Camp. MPs in the Army are assigned to the Military Police Battalion, located at Bardufoss, Troms county. The first battalion commander and Provost Marshal of 6. division Norwegian Army was Maj M Langvik, the current battalion commander is Lieutenant Colonel Jan Henry Norvalls. The battalion consists of approximately 50 officers and NCOs, and 150 privates and corporals. Norwegian MPs first go through a six-month selection/educational period, before being assigned to the battalion or to regimental duties with other units for the remainder of their twelve-month service. Norwegian MPs do not have authority over civilians, except on or in the vicinity of military installations, vehicles or other property or under martial law. They do have authority over military personnel, including in certain circumstances reservists, anywhere, including when such personnel are off duty.
The Heimevernet ("Home Guard") also has MPs in its ranks. Usually each District (regiment) has one or two platoons, consisting exclusively of former regular or conscript military police personnel.
Norwegian MPs wear a red beret and a red lanyard around the left shoulder extending to the left front pocket. Only personnel currently serving as MPs are allowed to wear this. When on official duty, they also wear the MP armband, which is black with "MP" in red letters. It was previously worn on the right shoulder but is now worn on the left shoulder, following NATO practice. They can also wear white webbing, or a number of items for special duties, like high visibility vests for traffic duty, or as mounted personnel while performing motorcycle escort for the Royal Family or their official guests, etc.
Army canine units are also assigned to the MP battalion, but the personnel in such units are not necessarily MPs. Such personnel do not hold military police authority, and do not wear the MP insignia.
MPs have no other powers over civilians than ordinary members of the public, except inside, or in the immediate vicinity of military installations. More serious cases, like narcotics, are handed over to civilian police for investigation.
The Military Gendarmerie (Żandarmeria Wojskowa, ŻW) are the MPs for the entire Polish military.
In Portugal, each branch of the Armed Forces has its own military police force. The Portuguese Navy has the Polícia Naval (Naval Police), the Portuguese Army has the Polícia do Exército (Army Police), and the Portuguese Air Force has the Polícia Aérea (Air Police). The Air Police is an arm of its own inside the Air Force, but the Army Police is only a speciality of the cavalry arm and the Naval Police is a unit of the Marine Corps ( Fuzileiros ). A military criminal investigation police, common for the three branches of Armed Forces, also exists, this being the Polícia Judiciária Militar (Military Judiciary Police), that is under the direct dependency of the Minister of National Defense.
Portugal, also, has a gendarmerie type force, the Guarda Nacional Republicana (GNR, National Republican Guard), that is a special corps of troops that executes both civil public security missions and military missions. In time of peace, GNR is under operational command of the Minister of Internal Affairs, but in time of war it can be put under the command of the Armed Forces. GNR is not tasked with enforcing the law within the Armed Forces.
Included in the Portuguese Navy organization also exist two special police forces. The first one is the Polícia Maritima (Maritime Police), that serves as a coast guard and maritime law enforcement agency in the scope of the civil role of the Portuguese Navy as the National Maritime Authority. The other one is the Polícia dos Estabelecimentos da Marinha (Navy's Establishments Police), a small gendarmerie type agency responsible for guarding the Lisbon Naval Base and some other naval facilities.
In Romania, the Romanian Military Police (Poliția Militară) carries out police duties for the Romanian Armed Forces. It usually handles military security and military crimes and it has national jurisdiction. The Romanian military police is organized in four battalions (two of them are headquartered in Bucharest, one in Iași and one in Târgu Mureș).
The Romanian Gendarmerie, although a military force with national jurisdiction, is not tasked with enforcing the law within the armed forces (in contrast to the French Gendarmerie, which acts as both military and national police force).
The Russian Military Police (Военная полиция России) are the MPs for the entire Russian military. They carry out police duties for the Russian Armed Forces.
In April 2012 Chief Military Prosecutor Sergei Fridinsky said Russia's military police will be instituted in two stages: first, the integration of the relevant Defence Ministry services and second, granting the new agency investigative functions. In early February 2014 Russian President Vladimir Putin signed into law the Law on Military Police, the State Duma adopted on 24 January and approved by the Federation Council on 29 January. During consideration of the bill in the lower house of the parliament, presidential envoy to the State Duma Garry Minkh explained that military police has already been created and running, but its activities are governed by departmental orders. President's initiative is aimed at strengthening the legal framework of the forces. On 27 March 2015, Russian President approved the Official Charter of the military police of the Russian Federation.
The Military Police have five main functions:
(Latin: Vojna Policija, Cyrillic: Војна полиција) The Military Police are considered to be among the best qualified and most combat-prepared organizations within the Serbian military. Their responsibilities include counterterrorist operations, combating organized crime, close protection, securing hostages and search and rescue.
Specific training is provided for members of special units of the Military Police. Drills for Military Police units, from squad to battalion, are based on their anticipated tactical employment, including training in putting down civil disorder. The Military Police Directorate of the General Staff of the Serbian Military is responsible for overseeing the units of the Military Police.
Similar units include:
Each branch of the Spanish Armed Forces (Army, Navy and Air Force) has its own military police (Policia Militar, Policia Naval and Policia Aerea respectively). They are only recognized as constabularies with jurisdiction over military installations and military personnel. They have no jurisdiction over civilians (except fragrant crime) off of military installations. They are also in charge of the security of military installations, play a role as bodyguards of generals, admirals and other relevant military personnel, provide security services to military transports and police military personnel abroad.
The Civil Guard (in Spanish Guardia Civil ) is the Spanish gendarmerie force. Along with their civilian law enforcement functions, due to their military nature the Civil Guard is also assigned several functions as a Military Police under the Minister of Defence, the most important of which is Criminal Investigations in military facilities and vessels, other MP functions include traffic and customs enforcement in international missions.
The Soviet Armed Forces did not have any units technically named 'military police'. Two separate agencies handled military police duties on a day-to-day basis.
The Komendantskaya sluzhba or "Commandant's Service" of the Soviet Army wore a yellow letter "K" on a red patch on the sleeve to indicate their membership of this service—the "de facto" army police.
A second organisation called the Traffic Regulators existed within the Rear Services. Traffic Regulators served to control military highway and motor vehicle traffic. Traffic Regulators also wear a white painted helmet with red stripes to indicate their status and either an armband ar patch with the Cyrillic letter "P" (R).
In the Soviet Navy and (later in the present day Russian Navy) the role of Naval provosts was primarily filled by personnel from the Naval Infantry.
The Swedish military police are part of the Life Guards, stationed in Stockholm. There are two MP companies, the 14th and the 15th companies. The 14th MP company serve a so-called GSS/T contract (two years of service over a period of eight years, the remaining time the soldiers can have a civilian job or study) and the 15th MP company serve a so-called GSS/K contract (hired continually for eight years). The Life Guards are also the seat of the Swedish military police unit (MP-enheten) which is responsible for the education of new MPs and is in charge of all MP activities in Sweden. Part of 13th security battalion, which is a counter-intelligence battalion, is also part of the Life Guards and has some soldiers who are trained MPs (mostly corporals and sergeants).
In the Swiss Armed Forces, the Military Police is responsible for law enforcement on military property and for all incidents where military personnel or equipment is involved. Unlike, for example, the United States, a military policeman in Switzerland has the same power to arrest any person that has committed an offense he witnessed or if he has reasonable grounds to believe the person has committed a violent offense.
Furthermore, the military police provides protection of Swiss representatives abroad and is in part responsible for the guarding of embassies and foreign VIPs in Switzerland, as well as maintaining personal security for members of the Swiss Federal Council. In addition, the Swiss Explosive Ordnance Disposal Center is a branch of the MP for the disposal of unexploded ordnance and also participates in various demining operations around the world.
The professional MP units comprise 758 officers and are divided into four Regions, each consisting of two companies and additional groups specialised on criminal investigations and training. The professional MP maintains a standing tactical team, capable of interventions in Switzerland and abroad, headquartered in Bern.In addition, there are four militia MP battalions with a head count of roughly 2000 men. Each MP Battalion has one tactical company who can be called to support either the primary MP tactical team or cantonal police teams if needed.
Unlike regular army personnel, professional military policemen wear olive uniforms in order to provide distinct identification. Militia MP wear the regular Swiss Army TAZ 90 camouflage. Moreover, the (both the professional and the militia) MP is equipped uniquely, armed with Glock side arms, H&K MP5 submachine guns, the Mzgw91 pump-action rifle and the SG553 assault rifle (compared to the standard issue SIG P220 pistol and SIG 550 assault rifle). Professional MP units drive patrol cars similar to those of the civilian police, but also use Piranha and Duro APCs.
The Ukrainian Military Police (VSP) is the military police for the Ukrainian Armed Forces
In the United Kingdom the term Military Police usually refers to the Royal Military Police. The Royal Military Police is the branch of the Adjutant General's Corps, responsible for policing the British Army (both in the United Kingdom and overseas). The term Service Police refers to the three separate police organisations for each of the three branches of the UK's Armed Forces:
In addition, each of the three service police has its own Special Investigation Branch (SIB) to undertake investigation of more serious crime and plain-clothes investigations, and use the joint Service Police Crime Bureau operated by the RNP, RMP and RAFP.
In Australia, Service Police refers to services policing three different agencies:
The Royal Australian Corps of Military Police train their own working dogs for a more Infantry/combat role.
All major crimes committed by or against personnel of the Australian Defence Force are investigated by the Australian Defence Force Investigative Service.
The New Zealand Defence Force Military Police (NZDF MP) is a tri-service Military Police unit formed on 1 December 2014. The three Military Police units from the Navy, Army, and Air Force were amalgamated to form the tri service NZDF MP.
The New Zealand Defence Force Military Police comprises military police personnel from the RNZN Naval Police, Royal New Zealand Military Police, and the RNZAF Police. Personnel still maintain their own single service identity but operate under a single Provost Marshal and investigate offences against the Armed Forces Discipline Act 1971.
The New Zealand Defence Force Military Police operates outside of the normal Navy, Army and Air Force command structure. The current Provost Marshal is a Group Captain who reports directly to the Vice Chief of the NZDF.
For all serious and complex investigations that are outside the scope of regular Military Police personnel a specialised unit known as the Special Investigations Branch (SIB) handles all high-profile investigations. SIB personnel attend courses with the New Zealand Police Criminal Investigation Branch. SIB have a similar role to the Australian Defence Force Investigative Service (ADFIS). SIB are also seconded to the NZ Police CIB.
New Zealand Defence Force Military Police also provide the close protection function for the NZDF. Only personnel from within the unit are able to attend the Tier 1 course and undergo a rigorous selection process. From time to time NZ Police officers from the Diplomatic Protection Squad and the Armed Offenders Squad have been known to also complete the course.
New Zealand Defence Force Military Police also complete NZ Police courses such as Urgent Duty Driving, Disaster Victim Identification, Basic and Intermediate Crash Investigation with the NZ Police Serious Crash Unit, and the Diplomatic Protection Squad training course.
New Zealand Defence Force Military Police are responsible for all detainee handling both in peacetime and in an operational environment such as custody and escort of POWs. Military Police are responsible for maintaining discipline at the Services Correction Establishment (SCE) which is located at Burnham Military Camp. SCE is the NZDF Military Prison and consists of guards who are all serving members of the NZDF MP. The guards are responsible for rehabilitation of service personnel who have been sent to the facility as a result of serious offences committed against the Armed Forces Discipline Act 1971.
All New Zealand Defence Force Military Police are identifiable by the blue and white "MP" patch they wear on their uniform and the blue beret as head dress, the wearing of the Blue beret differs from many commonwealth military police units as traditionally a red beret is worn. NZDF MP wear their respective service dress for each service. During peacetime NZDF MP wear Multiterrain Camouflage Uniform more commonly known as MCU with SRBA vest.
Air force police or sometimes known as "Air police" refers to certain units that are part of a country's air force that perform law enforcement duties such as force protection and air patrols, dealing primarily with the enforcement of aviation law at air force bases. It also indirectly plays a part in ensuring the air sovereignty of a country. It serves similarly to military and paramilitary police forces around the world and are commonly set up as a branch of a nation's military police or even a separate institution altogether. In some countries, the Air force police are also responsible for conducting Provost duties in the scope of a country's air force, such as implementing crime investigation and enforcing discipline/order towards members of the Air force.
The Royal Military Police (RMP) is the corps of the British Army responsible for the policing of army service personnel, and for providing a military police presence both in the UK and while service personnel are deployed overseas on operations and exercises. Members of the RMP are often known as 'Redcaps' because of the scarlet covers on their peaked caps and scarlet coloured berets.
Provost marshal is a title given to a person in charge of a group of Military Police (MP). The title originated with an older term for MPs, provosts, from the Old French prévost. While a provost marshal is now usually a senior commissioned officer, s/he may be a person of any rank, who commands any number of MPs; historically, the title was sometimes applied to civilian officials, especially under conditions of martial law, or when a military force had day-to-day responsibility for some or all aspects of civilian law enforcement. A provost marshal may also oversee security services, imprisonment, fire/emergency services and ambulances.
The Canadian Forces Military Police provide police, security and operational support services to the Canadian Armed Forces (CF) and the Department of National Defence (DND) worldwide.
The Royal Netherlands Marechaussee is one of two national police forces in the Netherlands, alongside the National Police, and is one of the four branches of the Netherlands Armed Forces. It is a gendarmerie force performing military and civilian police duties.
The Republic of China Military Police is a military police body under the Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of China on Taiwan. Unlike military police in many other countries, the ROCMP is a separate branch of the ROC Armed Forces. ROCMP is responsible for protecting government leaders from assassination or capture, guarding Taiwan's strategic facilities, and counterintelligence against enemy infiltrators, spies, and saboteurs.
A border guard of a country is a national security agency that performs border security. Some of the national border guard agencies also perform coast guard and rescue service duties.
The Military Police Corps is the uniformed law enforcement branch of the United States Army. Investigations are conducted by Military Police Investigators or the United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC), both of which report to the Provost Marshal General.
A guard of honour (GB), also honor guard (US), also ceremonial guard, is a guard, usually military in nature, appointed to receive or guard a head of state or other dignitaries, the fallen in war, or to attend at state ceremonials, especially funerals. In military weddings, especially those of commissioned officers, a guard, composed usually of service members of the same branch, form the Saber arch. In principle any military unit could act as a guard of honour. However, in some countries certain units are specially designated to serve as a guard of honour, as well as other public duties.
The National Gendarmerie (French: Gendarmerie nationale[ʒɑ̃daʁməʁi nɑsjɔnal], along with the National Police, is one of two national police forces of France. It is a branch of the French Armed Forces placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior, with additional duties from the Ministry of Armed Forces. Its responsibilities include policing smaller towns, rural and suburban areas, with subdivisions like the GSPR, while the Police Nationale, a civilian force, is in charge of policing cities. Because of its military status, the Gendarmerie also fulfills a range of military and defence missions including having a cybercrime division. The force has a strength of more than 100,000 personnel, as of 2014.
The United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) investigates felony crimes and serious violations of military law & the United States Code within the US Army. The command is a separate military investigative force with investigative autonomy; CID special agents report through the CID chain of command to the USACIDC Commanding General, who reports directly to the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Secretary of the Army. By position, the USACIDC commanding general is also the Army's Provost Marshal General.
Provosts are military police whose duties are policing solely within the armed forces of a country, as opposed to gendarmerie duties in the civilian population. However, many countries use their gendarmerie for provost duties.
The Sri Lanka Corps of Military Police (SLCMP) is the branch of the Sri Lanka Army responsible for the policing of service personnel and providing a military police presence on service property, operations and exercises. It is made up of three regular regiments and with headquartered at Regiment Center Polhengoda, Colombo. Like other military police around the world, they continue to wear white webbing with barrack dress but white gaiters.
The Romanian Military Police is the military police of the Romanian Armed Forces. It was formed in 1990, immediately after the Romanian Revolution, although the Romanian Gendarmerie performed military police duties between 1850 and 1949.
In many countries, particularly those with a federal system of government, there may be several law enforcement agencies, police or police-like organizations, each serving different levels of government and enforcing different subsets of the applicable law.
In the United Kingdom, the term military police refers to the three branches of the service police. Often, the term 'military police' is considered synonymous with the Army's Royal Military Police, but in fact, has a wider context. There are a number of civilian police forces whose role is to police other parts of the Defence Estate in the UK and overseas, but such forces are not correctly referred to as military police.
Regimental police or regimental provost (RP) are soldiers responsible for regimental discipline enforcement and unit custody in the British Army, other Commonwealth armies and some armed forces structured in the British tradition. They belong to the regiment or corps in which they enforce discipline rather than the Royal Military Police or its equivalent.
The Corps of Royal New Zealand Military Police (RNZMP) provides military police services to the New Zealand Army, performing a variety of roles including criminal investigations. It consists of one major unit, the 1st Military Police Company, although members of the corps can also be posted to other units within the New Zealand Army. The corps is a combat support element responsible for the policing, investigation, custodial, security and battlefield circulation control support to New Zealand Defence Force land elements. Personnel within the corps include commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers of both the Regular Force and Territorial Force.
Puspomad or Army Military Police Command, which all of its personnel are part of the Military Police Corps (CPM) is one of the military general technical functions of the Indonesian Army which has the role for administering administrative assistance and as embodiment and guidance through the operation of Military Police functions. Its duties is basically to execute law enforcement towards the military which includes investigation activities and other policing duties within the scope of the army.
The Puspom TNI or Joint Military Police Command of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI) is one of the central executive agencies within the TNI which has the role of administering administrative assistance to the army, navy, and air force as embodiment and guidance through the operation of Military Police functions. Puspom TNI oversees the three military police organizations which are the Army Military Police, Naval Military Police, and Air Force Military Police.
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