List of wars by death toll

Last updated

This list of wars by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by war. These numbers usually include the deaths of military personnel which are the direct results of battle or other military wartime actions, as well as the wartime/war-related deaths of soldiers, which are the results of war-induced epidemics, famines, atrocities, genocide, etc.



Ancient wars

(Note 1)
Conquests of Cyrus the Great 100,000+100,000549 BC–530 BCPersian Empire vs. various statesMiddle EastNumber given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded by writers during this time period, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Greco–Persian Wars 73,800+73,800499 BC–449 BCGreece vs. Persian EmpireGreece
Samnite Wars 33,500+33,500343 BC–290 BCRoman Republic vs. SamnitesItalyNumber given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded by Roman writers during this time period, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Wars of Alexander the Great 142,000+142,000336 BC–323 BCMacedonian Empire vs. various statesMiddle East / North Africa / Central Asia / IndiaNumber given is the sum of all deaths in battle during these wars recorded by Greek writers, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Punic Wars 1,250,000–1,850,0001,520,691264 BC–146 BCRoman Republic vs. Carthaginian EmpireWestern Europe / North Africa
First Punic War 400,000+400,000264 BC–241 BCRoman Republic vs. Carthaginian EmpireSouthern Europe / North Africa– Part of the Punic Wars
Second Punic War 770,000+770,000218 BC–201 BCRoman Republic vs. Carthaginian EmpireWestern Europe / North Africa [1] – Part of the Punic Wars
Third Punic War 150,000–250,000193,649149 BC–146 BCRoman Republic vs. Carthaginian EmpireTunisia– Part of the Punic Wars
Kalinga War 150,000–200,000
[ citation needed ]
173,205262 BC–261 BCMaurya Empire vs. State of KalingaIndia
Qin's Wars of Unification 700,000+[ citation needed ]700,000230 BC–221 BCQin state vs. Han, Zhou, Yan, Wei, Chu, Qi StatesChina– Part of Warring States Period
Cimbrian War 410,000–650,000516,236113 BC–101 BCRoman Empire vs. Cimbri and TeutonesWestern Europe– Part of the Germanic Wars
Gallic Wars 1,000,000+1,000,00058 BC–50 BCRoman Republic vs. Gallic tribesFrance
Iceni Revolt 150,000+ [2] 150,00060–61Roman Empire vs. Celtic tribesEnglandYear is uncertain – Part of the Roman Conquest of Britain
Jewish–Roman Wars 350,000–2,000,000836,66066–136Roman Empire vs. JewsMiddle East/North Africa
First Jewish–Roman War 270,000–1,358,400605,61466–73Roman Empire vs. JewsMiddle East– Part of Jewish–Roman Wars
Kitos War 440,000+440,000115–117Roman Empire vs. JewsSouthern Europe / North Africa– Also known as the Second Jewish–Roman War
– Part of Jewish–Roman Wars
Bar Kokhba Revolt 580,000+580,000132–136Roman Empire vs. JewsMiddle East– Also known as the Third Jewish–Roman War
– Part of Jewish–Roman Wars
Gothic War (269) 320,000+320,000269Roman Empire vs. GothsEuropeClaudius II defeated the Goths, of whom 320,000 were slain. This number is from the Historia Augusta. – Part of the Germanic Wars
Probus's German War 400,000+400,000277Roman Empire vs. GermansEuropeEmperor Probus informed the Senate that he had killed 400,000 Germans. From the Historia Augusta. – Part of the Germanic Wars
Gothic War (376–382) 40,000+40,000376–382Roman Empire vs. GothsEastern Europe– Part of the Germanic Wars
Three Kingdoms War 36,000,000–40,000,00037,947,332184–280Wei vs. Shu Vs. WuChina [3] [4] – Academically, the period of the Three Kingdoms refers to the period between the foundation of the state of  Wei  in 220 and the  conquest  of the state of  Wu  by the  Jin dynasty  in 280. The earlier, "unofficial" part of the period, from 184 to 220, was marked by chaotic infighting between warlords in various parts of China.

See: End of the Han Dynasty

Yellow Turban Rebellion 3,000,000–7,000,0004,582,576184–205Peasants vs. Eastern Han ChinaChina– Part of Three Kingdoms War
Wars of the Sixteen Kingdoms 150,000+
[ citation needed ]
150,000304–439Northern Chinese StatesNorthern ChinaNumber given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded in this time period in battles between armies of the Sixteen Kingdoms, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Hunnic Invasions 165,000+
[ citation needed ]
165,000395–453Roman Empire vs. Hunnic tribesEuropeNumber given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded by Roman writers during this time period, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.

Note 1: The geometric mean is the middle of the quoted range, taken by multiplying together the endpoints and then taking the square root.

Medieval wars

Note: the identity of a single "war" cannot be reliably given in some cases, and some "wars" can be taken to last over more than a human lifetime, e.g. "Reconquista" (711–1492, 781 years) "Muslim conquests in India" (12th to 16th c., 500 years) "Crusades" (ten or more campaigns during the period 1095–1291, 196 years), "Mongol conquests" (1206–1368, 162 years), "early Muslim conquests" (622–750, 128 years), "Hundred Years' War" (1337–1453, 115 years).

<i>Reconquista</i> Medieval Christian extended conquest of Muslim areas in the Iberian Peninsula

The Reconquista was the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492. The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest, and the Americas—the "New World"—ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires.

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most commonly known Crusades are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is also applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns. These were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early Crusades the word did not exist, only becoming the leading descriptive term around 1760.

Early Muslim conquests Historical process in 7th-8th centuries CE

The early Muslim conquests, also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century. He established a new unified polity in the Arabian Peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion.

mean[ clarification needed ]
Moorish Wars 5,000,000+5,000,000534–548Moors vs. Byzantine EmpireNorth Africa
Arab–Byzantine Wars 130,000+130,000629–1050Byzantine Empire and allies vs. Islamic Empire and AlliesMiddle East / North Africa / Southern EuropeNumber given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded by writers during this time period, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Reconquista 7,000,000+7,000,000711–1492Spanish and Portuguese states vs. Muslim statesIberian Peninsula [5]
An Lushan Rebellion 13,000,000–36,000,00021,633,308755–763Tang Dynasty China and Islamic Empire vs. Yan stateChina / Vietnam [6] – Also known as the An–Shi Rebellion
Goryeo–Khitan Wars 90,000+90,000993–1019Liao Empire vs. Goryeo KingdomKorea [7]
Crusades 1,000,000–3,000,0001,732,0511095–1291Originally Byzantine Empire vs. Seljuq Empire, but evolved into Christians vs. Muslims.Europe / Middle East ("Holy Land") [8]
Albigensian Crusade 200,000–1,000,000447,2141208–1229Papal States and France vs. Cathartic StatesFrance [9] [10] – Also known as the Cathar Crusade

– Part of the Crusades

Mongol conquests 30,000,000–40,000,00034,641,0161206–1368Mongol Empire vs. Several Eurasian statesEurasia [11] [12] [13] – Excludes the (up to) 200,000,000 deaths from the Black Death migration that arguably may have been associated with the Mongol expansion
Wars of Scottish Independence 60,000-150,00094,8681296–1357Scotland vs. EnglandScotland / England
Hundred Years' War 2,300,000–3,300,0002,754,9951337–1453House of Valois vs. House of PlantagenetWestern Europe [14]
Conquests of Timur 8,000,000–20,000,00012,649,1111370–1405Timurid Empire vs. several middle eastern statesEurasia [15] [16]
Conquests of Mehmed II 'the Conqueror' 873,000+873,0001451–1481Ottoman Empire vs. Various south European statesEastern Europe [17] May be over or underestimated
Wars of the Roses 35,000–50,00041,8331455–1487House of Lancaster, House of Tudor, and allies vs. House of York and alliesEngland / Wales [18] [ better source needed ] [19]


Modern wars with greater than 25,000 deaths by death toll

Italian Wars 300,000–400,000346,4101494–1559Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and some Italian States vs. France, Ottoman Empire, and some Italian statesSouthern Europe [20] – Also known as the Great Wars of Italy
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire 24,300,000+24,300,0001519–1632Spanish Colonial Empire vs. Aztec EmpireMexico [20] – Part of the European colonization of the Americas, includes the cocoliztli plagues
Spanish conquest of Yucatán 1,460,000+1,460,0001519–1595Spanish Colonial Empire vs. Mayan StatesNorth America [20] – Part of the European colonisation of the Americas, includes deaths due to European disease
Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire 8,400,000+8,400,0001533–1572Spanish Colonial Empire vs. Inca EmpirePeru [20] – Part of the European colonization of the Americas, includes deaths due to European diseases
Campaigns of Suleiman the Magnificent 200,000+200,0001521–1566Ottoman Empire vs. several Balkan, African, and Arabian StatesEastern Europe / Middle East / North Africa [21]
German Peasants' War 100,000+100,0001524–1525German Peasants vs. Swabian LeagueGermany [22] – Also known as the Great Peasants War
French Wars of Religion 2,000,000–4,000,0002,828,4271562–1598Protestants vs. France vs. CatholicsFrance [23] – Also known as the Huguenot Wars
Eighty Years' War 600,000–700,000648,0741568–1648Dutch Republic, England, Scotland, and France vs. Spanish EmpireWorldwide [20] – Also known as the Dutch War of Independence
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) 138,285+138,2851585–1604Spanish Empire and allies vs. Kingdom of England and alliesEurope / AmericasEnglish
88,285 [24]
Japanese invasions of Korea 1,000,000+1,000,0001592–1598Kingdom of Great Joseon and Ming China vs. JapanKorea [25]
Transition from Ming to Qing 25,000,000+25,000,0001616–1683Qing China vs. Ming China vs. Shun dynasty China (Li Zicheng) vs. Xi dynasty China (Zhang Xianzhong vs. Kingdom of Shu (She-An Rebellion) vs. Evenk-Daur federation (Bombogor )China [26] – Also known as the Ming–Qing transition
Thirty Years' War 3,000,000–11,500,0005,873,6701618–1648Pro-Habsburg states vs. Anti-Habsburg statesEurope [27]
Franco-Spanish War (1635–59) 200,000+200,0001635–1659France and Allies vs. Spain and AlliesWestern Europe [21] [28]
Wars of the Three Kingdoms 876,000+876,0001639–1651Royalists vs. Covenanters vs.Union of the Irish vs. Scottish Protestants vs. ParliamentariansBritish Isles [29] [30] [31] – Also known as the British Civil Wars
English Civil War 356,000–735,000511,5271642–1651Royalists vs. ParliamentariansEngland [32] – Part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Mughal–Maratha Wars 5,000,000+5,600,0001658-1707Maratha empire vs. Mughal EmpireIndia-Bangladesh [33] [34]
Franco-Dutch War 220,000+220,0001672–1678France and allies vs. Dutch Republic and alliesWestern Europe [21] – Also known as the Dutch War
Great Turkish War 120,000+120,0001683–1699Ottoman Empire vs. European Holy LeagueEastern Europe [21] – Also known as the War of the Holy League
Great Northern War 350,000+350,0001700–1721Russia and allies vs. Swedish EmpireEastern EuropeSweden, the Swedish Baltic provinces, and Finland, together, with a population of only 2.5 million, lost some 350,000 dead during the war from all causes. [35]
War of the Spanish Succession 400,000–1,251,000707,3901701–1714Grand Alliance vs. Bourbon AllianceEurope / Americas [21]
Maratha expeditions in Bengal 400,000+400,0001741–1751Maratha Empire vs. Nawab of bengalIndia [36] [37]
Seven Years' War 868,000–1,400,0001,102,3611756–1763Great Britain and allies vs. France and AlliesWorldwide [38] [39]
Sino-Burmese War (1765–69) 70,000+70,0001765–1769Burma vs. Qing ChinaSoutheast Asia– Also known as the Qing invasions of Burma
American Revolutionary War 37,324+37,3241775–1783United States and allies vs. British Empire and German MercenariesWorldwide37,324 battle dead, all sides, all theaters. [21] [40] [41] [42] [43] – Also known as the American War of Independence
French campaign in Egypt and Syria 65,000+65,0001798–1801France vs. Ottoman Empire and Great BritainMiddle East / North Africa [21]
Saint-Domingue expedition 135,000+135,0001802–1803France vs. Haiti and UKHaiti [28]
Napoleonic Wars 3,500,000–7,000,0004,949,7471803–1815Coalition powers vs. French empire and alliesWorldwideSee: Napoleonic Wars casualties
French invasion of Russia 540,000+540,0001812French Empire vs. RussiaRussia [21] – Part of the Napoleonic Wars
Spanish American Wars of Independence 600,000+600,0001808–1833Spain and Portugal vs. American IndependentistsAmericas [44]
Venezuelan War of Independence 228,000+228,0001810–1823Spain vs. Venezuelan statesVenezuela– Part of Spanish American Wars of Independence
Mfecane 1,500,000–2,000,0001,732,0511815–1840Ethnic communities in south AfricaSouthern Africa [45]
Carlist Wars 200,000+200,0001820–1876Carlist Insurgents vs. SpainSpain [44]
French conquest of Algeria 300,000+300,0001829–1847France vs. Ottoman EmpireAlgeriaIncluding 15,000 French [46]
Taiping Rebellion 20,000,000-100,000,00044,721,3591850–1864Qing China vs. Taiping Heavenly KindomChina [47] [48] [49] – Also known as the Taiping Civil War
Crimean War 356,000–410,000382,0471853–1856Ottoman Empire and allies vs. RussiaCrimean Peninsula
Panthay Rebellion 890,000–1,000,000943,3981856–1873Qing China vs. HuiChina– Also known as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion
Indian Rebellion of 1857 800,000–10,000,0002,828,4271857–1858Sepoy Mutineers vs. British East India CompanyIndia [50] – Also known as the Sepoy Mutiny or the Indian First War of Independence
American Civil War 650,000–1,000,000806,2261861–1865United States vs. Confederate StatesUSA [51] [52] [53]
Dungan Revolt 8,000,000–12,000,0009,797,9591862–1877Qing China vs. Hui vs. KashgariaChina– Also known as the Tongzhi Hui Revolt
French intervention in Mexico 49,287+49,2871862–1867Mexican Republicans vs. France and Mexican EmpireMexico [28]
Paraguayan War 300,000–1,200,000600,0001864–1870Triple alliance vs. ParaguaySouth America [54] – Also known as the War of the Triple Alliance
Ten Years' War 241,000+241,0001868–1878Spain vs. CubaCuba [28] – Also known as the Great War
Conquest of the Desert 30,000–35,00032,4041870s–1884Argentina vs. Mapuche peoplePatagonia
Aceh War 97,000–107,000101,8771873–1914Kingdom of the Netherlands vs. Aceh SultanateIndonesia [55] – Also known as the Infidel War
First Sino–Japanese War 48,311+48,3111894–1895Qing China vs. JapanEast Asia
Cuban War of Independence 362,000+362,0001895–1898USA and Cuba vs. SpainCuba [28]
Thousand Days' War 120,000+120,0001899–1902Colombian Conservatives vs. Colombian LiberalsColombia [56]
South African War (Second Boer War) 73,000–90,00081,0561899-1902United Kingdom and allies vs. South African Republic and Orange Free StateSouth Africa [57]
Philippine–American War 234,000+234,0001899–1912Philippines vs. USAPhilippines [58] – Also known as the Philippine War
Mexican Revolution 500,000–2,000,0001,000,0001910–1920Revolutionary Forces vs. Anti-Revolutionary ForcesMexico [59]
Balkan Wars 140,000+140,0001912–1913see Balkan wars Balkan Peninsula [21]
World War I 8,545,800–65,000,00023,568,5591914–1918Allied Powers vs. Central PowersWorldwide [21] – Also known as the Great War
Russian Civil War 5,000,000–9,000,0006,708,2041917–1922Red army and allies vs. White army and alliesRussia [60]
Iraqi–Kurdish conflict 138,800–320,100210,7841918–2003Kurdistan/Iraqi Kudistan and allies vs. Iraq and alliesIraq [61] [62]
Kurdish rebellions in Turkey 100,000+100,0001921–presentTurkey vs. Kurdish peopleMiddle East
Second Italo-Senussi War 40,000+40,0001923–1932Italy vs. Senussi OrderLibya
Chinese Civil War 8,000,000–11,692,0009,671,4011927–1949ROC vs. PRCChina [63]
Second Italo-Ethiopian War 278,350+278,3501935–1936Ethiopian Empire vs. ItalyEthiopiaAccording to Italian government statistics, the Italians suffered 1,148 KIA, 125 DOW, and 31 MIA. [64] According to the Ethiopian government, at least 275,000 Ethiopians died in the brief war. [64] [65] – Also known as the Second Italo–Abyssinian War
Spanish Civil War 500,000–1,000,000707,1071936–1939Nationalists vs. RepublicansSpain [28]
Second Sino-Japanese War 20,000,000–25,000,00022,360,6801937–1945Republic of China and allies vs. JapanChina [66] – Part of World War II
World War II 56,125,162–85,000,00069,069,8111939–1945Allied powers vs. Axis PowersWorldwide [21] - Largest and deadliest war in human history
Winter War 153,736–194,837173,0711939–1940Finland vs. Soviet UnionFinland– Part of World War II
Greco-Italian War 27,080+27,0801940–1941Greece vs. ItalySoutheast Europe– Part of World War II
Continuation War 387,333+387,3331941–1944Finland and Germany vs. Soviet UnionNorthern Europe– Part of World War II
Soviet–Japanese War 33,420–95,76856,5741945Soviet Union and Mongolia vs. JapanManchuria– Part of World War II
First Indochina War 400,000+400,0001946–1954France vs. Việt Minh, Lao Assara, and Khmer IssarakSoutheast Asia– Also known as the Indochina War
Greek Civil War 158,000+158,0001946–1949Greek Government army vs. DSEGreece [67] [68] [69] [70]
Malagasy Uprising 11,342–89,00035,0001947–1948France vs. Malagasy Insurgents Madagascar [71] [72]
Kashmir Conflict 80,000–110,00093,8081947– presentIndia vs. PakistanNorth India / Pakistan
La Violencia 192,700–194,700193,6971948–1958Columbia vs. Colombian Liberal PartyColombia
Internal conflict in Myanmar 130,000–250,000180,2781948–presentMyanmar vs. Burmese Insurgent GroupsMyanmar [73]
Arab–Israeli conflict 116,074+116,0741948–presentArab League vs. Israel and USAMiddle East [74]
Indian annexation of Hyderabad 29,212–242,21284,1161948Dominion of India vs. HyperabadIndia– Also known as Operation Polo
Korean War 1,200,000+1,200,0001950–1953South Korea and allies vs. North Korea and alliesKorea [75]
Algerian War 350,000-1,500,000724,5691954–1962Algeria vs. FranceAlgeria [76] – Also known as the Algerian War of Independence
Ethnic conflict in Nagaland 34,000+34,0001954–presentIndia and Myanmar vs. Naga PeopleNortheast India [77]
Vietnam War 800,000–3,800,0001,743,5601955–1975South Vietnam and allies vs. North Vietnam and alliesVietnam [78] [79] [80] – Also known as the Second Indochina War
First Sudanese Civil War 500,000+500,0001955–1972Sudan vs. South Sudanese RebelsSudan
Congo Crisis 100,000+100,0001960–1965DRC, USA, and Belgium vs. Simba and Kwilu RebelsCongo [81]
Angolan War of Independence 82,991–102,99192,4521961–1974Angola vs. Portugal and South AfricaAngola
North Yemen Civil War 100,000–200,000141,4211962–1970Kingdom of Yemen and Saudi Arabia vs. Yemen Arab Republic and United Arab RepublicYemen [82]
West Papua conflict 150,000-400,000244,9491963–presentIndonesia and allies vs. Free PaupaNew Guineamal
Mozambican War of Independence 63,500–88,50074,9651964–1974FRELIMO vs. PortugalMozambique [83]
Insurgency in Northeast India 25,000+25,0001964–presentIndia and allies vs. Insurgent GroupsNortheast India [73]
Colombian conflict 220,000+220,0001964–presentColombia and allies vs. Far Left Paramilitaries and Far Right GuerrillasColombia [84]
Nigerian Civil War 1,000,000-3,000,0001,732,0511967–1970Nigeria vs. BiafraNigeria– Also known as the Biafran War
Moro Conflict 120,000+120,0001969–2019Philippines vs. Jihadist Groups vs. BangsamoroPhilippines [85]
CPP-NPA-NDF rebellion 30,000–43,00035,9171969–presentPhilippines vs. Communist Party of the PhilippinesPhilippines [86]
Bangladesh Liberation War 3,000,000+3,000,0001971Bangladesh vs. PakistanBangladesh [87] – Also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence
Ethiopian Civil War 500,000–1,500,000866,0251974–1991Derg, PEDR, and Cuba vs. Anti-Communist rebel groupsEthiopia
Angolan Civil War 504,158+504,1581975–2002MPLA vs. UNITAAngola
Lebanese Civil War 120,000–150,000134,1641975–1990various groupsLebanon
Insurgency in Laos 100,000+100,0001975–2007Laos and Vietnam vs. "Secret army" and Hmong peopleLaos [88]
War in Afghanistan 1,240,000–2,000,0001,574,8021978–presentsee War in Afghanistan Afghanistan [89]
Kurdish–Turkish conflict 45,000+45,0001978–presentTurkey vs. KCKMiddle East [90] – Part of the Kurdish rebellions in Turkey
Soviet–Afghan War 600,000–2,000,0001,095,4451979–1989Soviet Union and Afghanistan vs. Insurgent groupsAfghanistan [91] [92] [93] – Part of War in Afghanistan
Iran–Iraq War 289,220–1,100,000564,0411980–1988Iran and allies vs. Iraq and alliesMiddle East
Internal conflict in Peru 70,000+70,0001980–presentPeru vs. PCP-SL and MRTAPeru [94]
Ugandan Bush War 100,000–500,000223,6071981–1986ULNF and Tanzania vs. National Resistance ArmyUganda [95] [96] – Also known as the Luwero War
Second Sudanese Civil War 1,000,000–2,000,0001,414,2141983–2005Sudan vs. South Sudanese rebelsSudan
Sri Lankan Civil War 80,000–100,00089,4431983–2009Sri Lanka vs. Tamil TigersSri Lanka [97]
Somali Civil War 300,000–500,000387,2981986–presentVarying Somali governments vs. insurgent groupsSomalia [98] [99]
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency 100,000–500,000223,6071987–presentLord's Resistance Army vs. Central African statesCentral Africa [100]
Nagorno-Karabakh War 38,000+38,0001988–1994Artsakh and Armenia vs. Azerbaijan and alliesCaucasus region– Also known as the Artsakh Liberation War
Gulf War 25,456–40,45632,0911990–1991Iraq vs. Coalition ForcesIraq– Also known as the First Iraq War
Algerian Civil War 44,000–200,00093,8081991–2002Algeria vs. FIS loyalists vs. GIAAlgeria [101]
Bosnian War 97,214–104,732100,9031991–1995Bosnia and Herzegovinian governments and allies vs. Republika Srpska and alliesBosnia
1991 Iraqi coup d'état attempt 85,000–235,000141,3331991Iraq vs various rebelsIraq [102] [103] [104] – Also known as the Sha'aban Intifada
Sierra Leone Civil War 50,000-300,000122,4741991-2002see Sierra Leone Civil War Sierra Leone
Burundian Civil War 300,000+300,0001993–2005Burundi vs. Hutu rebels vs. Tutsi rebelsBurundi [105]
Rwandan genocide 800,000800,000April – July 1994Hutu people vs. Tutsi RebelsRwanda [106]
First Congo War 250,000–800,000447,2141996–1997Zaire and allies vs. AFDL and alliesCongo
Second Congo War 2,500,000–5,400,0003,674,2351998–2003See Second Congo War Central Africa [107] [108] [109] [75] – Also known as the Great War of Africa
Ituri conflict 60,000+60,0001999–2003Lendu Tribe vs. Hemu Tribe and alliesCongo [110] – Part of the Second Congo War
War on Terror 272,000–1,260,000585,4232001–presentAnti-Terrorist Forces vs. Terrorist groupsWorldwide [111] [112] [113] [114] – Also known as the Global War on Terrorism
War in Afghanistan (2001–present) 47,246–61,60353,9492001–presentsee War in Afghanistan (2001–present) Afghanistan [112] – Part of the War on Terror and War in Afghanistan
Iraq War 176,913–1,120,000445,1322003–2011See Iraq War Iraq [113] [114] [112] – Also known as the Second Gulf War

– Part of the War on Terror See: Casualties of the Iraq War

War in Darfur 178,258–461,520286,8272003–presentSRF and allies vs. Sudan and allies vs. UNAMIDSudan [115]
Kivu Conflict 100,000+100,0002004–presentsee Kivu Conflict Congo– Part of the Second Congo War
War in North-West Pakistan 45,852–78,94660,1652004–presentPakistan, USA, and UK vs. Terrorist groupsPakistan [112] – Also known as the War in Waziristan

– Part of the War on Terror and War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

Houthi insurgency in Yemen 25,000+25,0002004–presentSee Houthi insurgency in Yemen Yemen [116] – Also known as the Sa'dah War
Mexican Drug War 106,800+106,8002006–presentMexico vs. Drug cartelsMexico [117] [118] – Also known as the Mexican War on Drugs
Boko Haram insurgency 51,567+51,5672009–presentMultinational Joint Task Force vs. Boko HaramNigeria2,400,000 internally displaced
Syrian Civil War 560,000+560,0002011–presentSyrian Arab Republic vs. Republic of Syria vs. ISIL vs. Syrian Democratic ForcesSyriaSee: Casualties of the Syrian civil war
Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017) 75,000+75,0002014–2017Iraq and allies vs. ISILIraq

Modern wars with fewer than 25,000 deaths by death toll

The Dominican Restoration War was a guerrilla war between 1863 and 1865 in the Dominican Republic between nationalists and Spain, who had recolonized the country 17 years after its independence. The war against the Spaniards ended in July 1865 with Dominican independence restored but with the country devastated and disorganized, and most of the peasantry in arms.

Six-Day War 1967 war between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, and Syria

The Six-Day War, also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria.

Yaqui Wars armed conflicts between indigenous peoples and white people in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, from 1821 Spain, between 1533 and 1929

The Yaqui Wars, were a series of armed conflicts between New Spain, and the later Mexican Republic, against the Yaqui Indians. The period began in 1533 and lasted until 1929. The Yaqui Wars, along with the Caste War against the Maya, were the last conflicts of the centuries long Mexican Indian Wars. Over the course of nearly 400 years, the Spanish and the Mexicans repeatedly launched military campaigns into Yaqui territory which resulted in several serious battles and some infamous massacres.

Charts and graphs

Bubble chart of wars by deaths over 2 million. Wars by Death Toll Chart.jpg
Bubble chart of wars by deaths over 2 million.

See also

The timeline of wars has been split up in the following periods:


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The Pakistan Armed Forces are the military forces of Pakistan. They are the sixth largest in the world in terms of active military personnel and the largest among Muslim countries. The armed forces comprise four main service branches – Army, Navy, Air Force and paramilitary forces and the Strategic Plans Division Force. Chain of command of the military is organised under the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (JCSC) alongside chiefs of staff of the army, navy, and air force. All of the branches work together during operations and joint missions under the Joint Staff Headquarters.

Soviet–Afghan War War between the Soviet Union and Afghan insurgents, 1979-89

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989. Insurgent groups known collectively as the mujahideen, as well as smaller Maoist groups, fought a guerrilla war against the Soviet Army and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan government, mostly in the rural countryside. The mujahideen groups were backed primarily by the United States, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan, making it a Cold War proxy war. Between 562,000 and 2,000,000 civilians were killed and millions of Afghans fled the country as refugees, mostly to Pakistan and Iran.

This article lists the United States's military dead, wounded, and missing person totals for wars and major deployments.

Casualties of the Iraq War Iraq war casualties

Estimates of the casualties from the conflict in Iraq have come in several forms, and those estimates of different types of Iraq War casualties vary greatly.

Coalition casualties in Afghanistan

As of 5 August 2018, there have been 3,458 coalition deaths in Afghanistan as part of ongoing coalition operations since the invasion in 2001. In this total, the American figure is for deaths "In and Around Afghanistan" which, as defined by the United States Department of Defense, includes some deaths in Pakistan and Uzbekistan and the deaths of 17 CIA operatives.

Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir

The insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir or the Kashmiri Insurgency is a conflict between various Kashmiri separatists and the Government of India. There are some groups that support the complete independence of Kashmir, while others seek Kashmir's accession to Pakistan. The conflict in Jammu and Kashmir has strong Islamist elements among the insurgents, with many of the "ultras" identifying with Jihadist movements and supported by such.

Taliban insurgency insurgency during the War in Afghanistan

The Taliban insurgency began shortly after the group's fall from power following the 2001 War in Afghanistan. The Taliban forces are fighting against the Afghan government, formerly led by President Hamid Karzai, now led by President Ashraf Ghani, and against the US-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). The insurgency has spread to some degree over the Durand Line border to neighboring Pakistan, in particular the Waziristan region and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Taliban conduct low-intensity warfare against Afghan National Security Forces and their NATO trainers. Regional countries, particularly Pakistan and Iran, are often accused of funding and supporting the insurgent groups.

During the war in Afghanistan (2001–present), over 31,000 civilian deaths due to war-related violence have been documented; 29,900 civilians have been wounded. Over 111,000 Afghans, including civilians, soldiers and militants, are estimated to have been killed in the conflict. The Cost of War project estimated that the number who have died through indirect causes related to the war may be as high as 360,000 additional people based on a ratio of indirect to direct deaths in contemporary conflicts. These numbers do not include those who have died in Pakistan.

Timeline of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The following items form a partial timeline of the War in Afghanistan. For events prior to October 7, 2001, see 2001 in Afghanistan

War on Terror International military campaign that started after the 11 September 2001

The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks against the United States. The naming of the campaign uses a metaphor of war to refer to a variety of actions that do not constitute a specific war as traditionally defined. U.S. president George W. Bush first used the term "war on terrorism" on 16 September 2001, and then "war on terror" a few days later in a formal speech to Congress. In the latter speech, George Bush stated, "Our enemy is a radical network of terrorists and every government that supports them." The term was originally used with a particular focus on countries associated with al-Qaeda. The term was immediately criticised by such people as Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and more nuanced terms subsequently came to be used by the Bush administration to publicly define the international campaign led by the U.S.; it was never used as a formal designation of U.S. operations in internal government documentation.

War in Afghanistan (2001–present) war in Afghanistan since 2001

The War in Afghanistan, code named Operation Enduring Freedom (2001–14) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present), followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of 7 October 2001, when the U.S. and allies successfully drove out the Taliban from power in order to dismantle al-Qaeda and to deny it a safe base of operations in Afghanistan. Since the initial objectives were completed, a coalition of over 40 countries formed a security mission in the country. The war has since mostly involved U.S. and allied Afghan government troops battling Taliban insurgents. The War in Afghanistan is the longest war in U.S. history, having overtaken the U.S. participation in the Vietnam War in 2010.

War in Ingushetia

The War in Ingushetia began in 2007 as an escalation of an insurgency in Ingushetia connected to the separatist conflict in Chechnya. The conflict has been described as a civil war by local human rights activists and opposition politicians; others have referred to it as an uprising. By mid-2009 Ingushetia had surpassed Chechnya as the most violent of the North Caucasus republics. However, by 2015 the insurgency in the Republic had greatly weakened, and the casualty toll declined substantially in the intervening years.

As of July 27, 2018, there have been 2,372 U.S. military deaths in the War in Afghanistan. 1,856 of these deaths have been the result of hostile action. 20,320 American servicemembers have also been wounded in action during the war. In addition, there were 1,720 U.S. civilian contractor fatalities.

Casualties of the Iraqi insurgency (2011–present) refers to deaths and injuries in Iraq after the withdrawal of US forces at the end of the Iraq War on 18 December 2011, as fighting continued between the Iraqi government and anti-government forces in the Iraqi insurgency (2011–2013) and later escalated into the Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017) and subsequent Iraqi insurgency (2017–present).

The concurrent RENAMO insurgency is an ongoing guerrilla campaign by militants of the RENAMO party in Mozambique. The insurgency is widely considered to be an aftershock of the Mozambican Civil War; it resulted in renewed tensions between RENAMO and Mozambique's ruling FRELIMO coalition over charges of state corruption and the disputed results of 2014 general elections.


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Steven Pinker Psychologist, linguist, author

Steven Arthur Pinker is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author. He is Johnstone Family Professor in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University, and is known for his advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind.