Geography of Taiwan

Last updated

Geography of Taiwan
Taiwan NASA Terra MODIS 2022-07-21.jpg
Taiwan is mostly mountainous in the east, with gently sloping plains in the west. The Penghu Islands appear in the Taiwan Strait to the west of the main island.
Taiwan (orthographic projection; southeast Asia centered).svg
Region East Asia
Area Ranked 138
  Total36,197 km2 (13,976 sq mi)
Coastline1,566.3 km (973.3 mi)
Highest point Yu Shan, 3,952 m (12,966 ft)
Climate Tropical marine [1]
Natural resourcesSmall deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, asbestos, arable land [1]
Environmental issues Air pollution, water pollution from industrial emissions and raw sewage, contamination of drinking water, trade in endangered species, low-level radioactive waste disposal [1]
Exclusive economic zone83,231 km2 (32,136 sq mi)
Climate change in Taiwan has caused temperatures in Taiwan to rise by 1.4 degrees Celsius the last 100 years. [25] The sea around Taiwan is to rise at twice the rate of the global sea level rise. [26] The government pledged to reduce emissions by 20% in 2030 and 50% in 2050, compared to 2005 levels.

Flora and fauna

Before extensive human settlement, the vegetation on Taiwan ranged from tropical rainforest in the lowlands through temperate forests, boreal forest and alpine plants with increasing altitude. [27] Most of the plains and low-lying hills of the west and north of the island have been cleared for agricultural use since the arrival of the Chinese immigrants during the 17th and 18th century. However the mountain forests are very diverse, with several endemic species such as Formosan cypress (Chamaecyparis formosensis) and Taiwan fir (Abies kawakamii), while the camphor laurel ( Cinnamomum camphora ) was once also widespread at lower altitudes.

Formosan serow Chang Zong Shan Yang .jpg
Formosan serow

Taiwan is a center of bird endemism (see List of endemic birds of Taiwan).

Prior to the country's industrialization, the mountainous areas held several endemic animal species and subspecies, such as the Swinhoe's pheasant (Lophura swinhoii), Taiwan blue magpie (Urocissa caerulea), the Formosan sika deer (Cervus nippon taiwanensis or Cervus nippon taiouanus) and the Formosan landlocked salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus). A few of these are now extinct, and many others have been designated endangered species.

Taiwan has 65 species of fireflies, the third highest density after Jamaica and Costa Rica. Fireflies are protected and their numbers are increasing but in the long term they are threatened by climate change. [28]

Taiwan had relatively few carnivores, 11 species in total, of which the Formosan clouded leopard is likely extinct and the otter restricted to Kinmen island. [29] The largest carnivore is the Formosan black bear (Selanarctos thibetanus formosanus), a rare and endangered species. [30]

Nine national parks in Taiwan showcase the diverse terrain, flora and fauna of the archipelago. Kenting National Park on the southern tip of Taiwan contains uplifted coral reefs, moist tropical forest and marine ecosystems. Yushan National Park has alpine terrain, mountain ecology, forest types that vary with altitude, and remains of ancient road. Yangmingshan National Park has volcanic geology, hot springs, waterfalls, and forest. Taroko National Park has marble canyon, cliff, and fold mountains. Shei-Pa National Park has alpine ecosystems, geological terrain, and valley streams. Kinmen National Park has lakes, wetlands, coastal topography, flora and fauna-shaped island. Dongsha Atoll National Park has the Pratas reef atolls for integrity, a unique marine ecology, biodiversity, and is a key habitat for the marine resources of the South China Sea and Taiwan Strait. [31]

Natural resources

Taiwan fir (Abies kawakamii) Abies kawakamii Chi-You.jpg
Taiwan fir ( Abies kawakamii )

Natural resources on the islands include small deposits of gold, copper, [32] coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos. [1] The island is 55% forest and woodland (mostly on the mountains) and 24% arable land (mostly on the plains), with 15% going to other purposes. 5% is permanent pasture and 1% is permanent crops.

Because of the intensive exploitation throughout Taiwan's pre-modern and modern history, the island's mineral resources (e.g. coal, gold, marble), as well as wild animal reserves (e.g. deer), have been virtually exhausted. Moreover, much of Taiwan's forestry resources, especially firs were harvested during Japanese rule for the construction of shrines and have only recovered slightly since then. To this day, forests do not contribute to significant timber production mainly because of concerns about production costs and environmental regulations.


The few natural resources with significant economic value remaining in Taiwan are essentially agriculture-associated. Sugarcane and rice have been cultivated in western Taiwan since the 17th century. Camphor extraction and sugar refining played an important role in Taiwan's exports from the late 19th century through the first half of the 20th century. [33] The importance of these industries subsequently declined mainly due to the reduction of international demand rather than exhaustion of related natural resources. [34]

Domestic agriculture (rice being the dominant kind of crop) and fisheries retain some importance, but they have been greatly challenged by foreign imports since Taiwan's accession to the World Trade Organization in 2002. Consequently, upon the decline of subsistence, Taiwan's agriculture now relies heavily on the marketing and export of specialty crops, such as bananas, guavas, lychees, bell fruits, and high-mountain tea. [35]

Energy resources

Wind turbines in Taichung Wind power-Kaumei.jpg
Wind turbines in Taichung

Taiwan has significant coal deposits and some insignificant petroleum and natural gas deposits. As of 2010, oil accounts for 49.0% of the total energy consumption. Coal comes next with 32.1%, followed by nuclear energy with 8.3%, natural gas (indigenous and liquefied) with 10.2%, and energy from renewable sources with 0.5%. Taiwan has six nuclear reactors and two under construction. [36] Nearly all oil and gas for transportation and power needs must be imported, making Taiwan particularly sensitive to fluctuations in energy prices. Taiwan is rich in wind energy resources, with wind farms both onshore and offshore, though limited land area favors offshore wind resources. [37] By promoting renewable energy, Taiwan's government hopes to also aid the nascent renewable energy manufacturing industry, and develop it into an export market.[ citation needed ]

Human geography

Population density map of Taiwan Taiwan population density map.svg
Population density map of Taiwan

Taiwan has a population of over 23 million, the vast majority of whom live in the lowlands near the western coast of the island. [5] The island is highly urbanized, with nearly 9 million people living in the Taipei–Keelung–Taoyuan metropolitan area at the northern end, and over 2 million each in the urban areas of Kaohsiung and Taichung. [38]

Taiwanese indigenous peoples comprise approximately 2% of the population, and now mostly live in the mountainous eastern part of the island. [39] [40] Most scholars believe their ancestors arrived in Taiwan by sea between 4000 and 3000 BC, most likely from southeastern China. [41]

Han Chinese make up over 95% of the population. [42] Immigrants from southern Fujian began to farm the area around modern Tainan and Kaohsiung from the 17th century, later spreading across the western and northern plains and absorbing the indigenous population of those areas. Hakka people from eastern Guangdong arrived later and settled the foothills further inland, but the rugged uplands of the eastern half of the island remained the exclusive preserve of the indigenous peoples until the early 20th century. [43] A further 1.2 million people from throughout China entered Taiwan at the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949. [44]

Environmental issues

Motor scooters are a very common means of transportation in Taiwan and contribute to urban air pollution. Scooters in taipei.jpg
Motor scooters are a very common means of transportation in Taiwan and contribute to urban air pollution.

Some areas in Taiwan with high population density and many factories are affected by heavy pollution. The most notable areas are the southern suburbs of Taipei and the western stretch from Tainan to Lin Yuan, south of Kaohsiung. By the late 20th century, Taipei suffered from extensive vehicle and factory air pollution, but after the government required mandatory use of unleaded petrol and established the Environmental Protection Administration in 1987 to regulate air quality, the air quality of Taiwan has improved dramatically. [45] Motor scooters, especially older or cheaper two-stroke versions, which are ubiquitous in Taiwan, contribute disproportionately to urban air pollution. [46] [47] The Taichung Power Plant also contributes significantly to air pollution, producing more CO2 than the country of Switzerland. [48]

Other environmental issues include water pollution from industrial emissions and raw sewage, contamination of drinking water supplies, trade in endangered species, and low-level radioactive waste disposal. [1] Though regulation of sulfate aerosol emissions from petroleum combustion is becoming stringent, acid rain remains a threat to the health of residents and forests. Atmospheric scientists in Taiwan estimate that more than half of the pollutants causing Taiwan's acid rain are carried from China by monsoon winds. [49]

Taiwan historically had a serious problem with the illegal dumping of household and industrial waste which became so severe that Taiwan was known as "garbage island." This high level of pollution led to civil and government action, by 2022 the recycling rate was one of the highest in the world at 55%. Community activism was key to this change along with innovations such as garbage trucks which play music. [50]

Illegal extraction by Chinese sand dredging vessels has caused significant damage to the marine environment of Taiwan's outlying areas. The Taiwan Banks are a particularly hard hit target. [51]


    Related Research Articles

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Taiwan</span> Country in East Asia

    Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia, at the junction of the East and South China Seas in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, with the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The territories controlled by the ROC consist of 168 islands, with a combined area of 36,193 square kilometres (13,974 sq mi). The main island of Taiwan, also known as Formosa, has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 sq mi), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two-thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanised population is concentrated. The capital, Taipei, forms along with New Taipei City and Keelung the largest metropolitan area of Taiwan. Other major cities include Taoyuan, Taichung, Tainan, and Kaohsiung. With around 23.9 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated countries in the world.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Taiwan independence movement</span> Political movement advocating the independence of the island of Taiwan

    The Taiwan independence movement is a political movement which advocates the formal declaration of an independent and sovereign Taiwanese state, as opposed to Chinese unification or the status quo in Cross-Strait relations.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Taiwan Strait</span> Strait between Mainland China and Taiwan

    The Taiwan Strait is a 180-kilometer -wide strait separating the island of Taiwan and continental Asia. The strait is part of the South China Sea and connects to the East China Sea to the north. The narrowest part is 130 km wide.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Kinmen</span> County of the Republic of China (Taiwan)

    Kinmen, alternatively known as Quemoy, is a group of islands governed as a county by the Republic of China (Taiwan), off the southeastern coast of mainland China. It lies roughly 10 km (6.2 mi) east of the city of Xiamen in Fujian, from which it is separated by Xiamen Bay. Kinmen is located 187 km (116 mi) west from the shoreline of the island of Taiwan across the Taiwan Strait.

    The Republic of China (Taiwan) is divided into multi-layered statutory subdivisions. Due to the complex political status of Taiwan, there is a significant difference in the de jure system set out in the original constitution and the de facto system in use today.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Matsu Islands</span> County in Fukien, Republic of China

    The Matsu Islands, officially Lienchiang County, are an archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the East China Sea governed by the Republic of China (ROC) based in Taiwan, with its location sitting alongside southeastern coast of mainland China. It is the smallest county in the ROC-controlled territories by area and population, as well as one of two counties that were part of the nominal Fujian Province.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Penghu</span> Island group and county of Taiwan

    The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait, located approximately 50 km (31 mi) west from the main island of Taiwan, covering an area of 141 square kilometers (54 sq mi). The archipelago collectively forms Penghu County of Taiwan and is the smallest county of Taiwan. The largest city is Magong, located on the largest island, which is also named Magong.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Hualien County</span> County in Republic of China

    Hualien County is a county on the east coast of Taiwan. It is the largest county by area, yet due to its mountainous terrain, has one of the lowest populations in the country. The county seat and largest city is Hualien City.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Taiwan (1945–present)</span> History of Taiwan since 1945

    As a result of the surrender and occupation of Japan at the end of World War II, the island of Taiwan was placed under the governance of the Republic of China (ROC), ruled by the Kuomintang (KMT), on 25 October 1945. Following the February 28 massacre in 1947, martial law was declared in 1949 by the Governor of Taiwan Province, Chen Cheng, and the ROC Ministry of National Defense. Following the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the ROC government retreated from the mainland as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. The KMT retreated to Taiwan and declared Taipei the temporary capital of the ROC. For many years, the ROC and PRC each continued to claim in the diplomatic arena to be the sole legitimate government of "China". In 1971, the United Nations expelled the ROC and replaced it with the PRC.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Yu Shan</span> Highest mountain in Taiwan

    Yu Shan or Yushan, also known as Mount Jade, Jade Mountain, or Mount Yu, and known as Mount Niitaka during Japanese rule, is the highest mountain in Taiwan at 3,952 m (12,966 ft) above sea level, giving Taiwan the 4th-highest maximum elevation of any island in the world. It is the highest point in the western Pacific region outside of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Yushan and its surrounding mountains belong to the Yushan Range. The area was once in the ocean; it rose to its current height because of the Eurasian Plate's movement over the Philippine Sea Plate.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">First Taiwan Strait Crisis</span> 1950s military conflict between PRC and ROC

    The First Taiwan Strait Crisis was a brief armed conflict between the Communist People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Nationalist Republic of China (ROC) in Taiwan. The conflict focused on several groups of islands in the Taiwan Strait that were held by the ROC but were located only a few miles from mainland China. The crisis began when the PRC shelled the ROC-held island of Kinmen (Quemoy). Later, the PRC seized the Yijiangshan Islands from the ROC. Under pressure by the PRC, the ROC then abandoned the Tachen Islands, which were evacuated by the navies of the ROC and the US.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Second Taiwan Strait Crisis</span> 1958 period of conflict and heightened tension between mainland China and Taiwan

    The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC). In this conflict, the PRC shelled the islands of Kinmen (Quemoy) and the Matsu Islands along the east coast of mainland China to "liberate" Taiwan from the Chinese Nationalist Party, also known as the Kuomintang (KMT); and to probe the extent of the United States defense of Taiwan's territory. A naval battle also took place around Dongding Island when the ROC Navy repelled an attempted amphibious landing by the PRC Navy.

    The Dachen Islands, Tachen Islands or Tachens (simplified Chinese: 大陈诸岛; traditional Chinese: 大陳諸島; pinyin: Dàchén Zhū Dǎo; Wade–Giles: Ta4ch'en2 Chu1 Tao3) are a group of islands off the coast of Taizhou, Zhejiang, China, in the East China Sea. They are administered by the Jiaojiang District of Taizhou. Before the First Taiwan Strait Crisis in 1955, the islands were administered by the Republic of China (ROC).

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Fuchien Province, Republic of China</span> Province in Republic of China

    Fuchien Province(listen), also romanized as Fujian and rendered as Fukien, is a nominal province of the Republic of China without formal administrative function. It includes three small archipelagos off the coast of the Fujian Province of the People's Republic of China, namely the Matsu Islands, which make up Lienchiang County, and the Wuqiu Islands and Kinmen Islands, which make up Kinmen County. The seat of the provincial government is Jincheng Township of Kinmen County serves as its de facto capital.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Tamsui River</span> River in Taiwan

    The Tamsui River (alternatively Danshui River, Chinese: 淡水河; pinyin: Dànshǔi Hé; Wade–Giles: Tan4-shui3 Ho2; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tām-chúi-hô; lit. 'Freshwater River') is third longest river in Taiwan after Zhuoshui River and Gaoping River, with a total length of 158.7 km (98.6 mi), flowing through Hsinchu County, Taoyuan, Taipei and New Taipei City. It is located in northern part of the island.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Taiwan</span> Overview of and topical guide to Taiwan

    The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Taiwan:

    Articles related to Taiwan include:

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">1987 Lieyu massacre</span> Mass killing of Vietnam War refugees by the ROC (Taiwanese) military

    The 1987 Lieyu massacre occurred on 7 March 1987, at Donggang Bay, Lieyu Island, Kinmen, Fujian, Republic of China. ROC military officially denied the massacre, and defined it as an incident of “mistaken killings” (誤殺事件), hence named as the March 7 Incident (三七事件) or Donggang Incident (東崗事件). There may have been more than nineteen deaths, including several families of ethnical Chinese Vietnamese.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Water supply and sanitation in Taiwan</span>

    Water supply and sanitation in Taiwan is characterized by uneven distribution of precipitation and a dense population.



    1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Taiwan". The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
    2. "Land and Climate". Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of China. Statistical Bureau, Republic of China (Taiwan). 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
    3. "Law on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf of the Republic of China (中華民國專屬經濟海域及大陸礁層法)" . Retrieved 21 May 2007.
    4. "Chapter 3: History" (PDF). The Republic of China Yearbook 2011. Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan). 2011. p. 46. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2012..
    5. 1 2 "1.1 Number of Villages, Neighborhoods, Households and Resident Population". Monthly Bulletin of Interior Statistics. Ministry of the Interior, Republic of China (Taiwan). November 2012. Archived from the original (XLS) on 29 March 2014.
    6. 1 2 Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 40.
    7. Chang, K.C. (1989). translated by W. Tsao, ed. by B. Gordon. "The Neolithic Taiwan Strait" (PDF). Kaogu. 6: 541–550, 569. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
    8. National Taiwan Normal University, Geography Department. "Geography of Taiwan: A Summary". Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2007.
    9. 台灣海峽——平潭島東端的牛山島 (in Traditional Chinese). 13 May 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2020. 仔細研究地圖發現大陸與台灣兩地最接近的地方至少也有125海里,這個地點就是福建省平潭縣海壇島(即平潭島)東端的——牛山島。
    10. Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 46.
    11. Williams, Jack Francis; Chang, David (2008). Taiwan's Environmental Struggle: Toward a Green Silicon Island. Routledge. p. 3. ISBN   978-0-415-44723-2.
    12. "The Geology of Taiwan". Department of Geology, National Taiwan Normal University. Archived from the original on 22 February 2008.
    13. "Geology of Taiwan". Department of Geology, University of Arizona.
    14. "GSHAP Region 8: Eastern Asia". Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
    15. Theodorou, Christine; Lee, Andrew (3 March 2010). "6.4-magnitude quake hits southern Taiwan". Retrieved 4 March 2010.
    16. Yang, Ssu-jui; Huang, Frances (18 February 2016). "Body of last victim of apartment collapse in Tainan found". Focus Taiwan.
    17. Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 43.
    18. Reported by Taiwan's National Geographic Information System Steering Committee (NGISSC Archived 21 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine )
    19. "Tallest Islands of the World – World Island Info web site". Retrieved 1 August 2010.
    20. Exec. Yuan (2014), pp. 2, 43.
    21. 1 2 3 Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 45.
    22. 1 2 Shan, Shelley; Mo, Yan-chih (9 August 2013). "Taipei bakes on hottest day in 117 years". Taipei Times. p. 1. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
    23. Huang, Chiao-wen; Liu, Kay (15 September 2014). "Taiwan's electricity supplies hit tightest point of the year". Focus Taiwan. Central News Agency. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
    24. Shan, Shelley (16 September 2014). "Nation sees record high temperatures". Taipei Times. p. 3. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
    25. "Climate of Taiwan". Travel Tips - USA Today. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
    26. "Taiwan faces watery future: Greenpeace - Taipei Times". 25 August 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
    27. Tsukada, Matsuo (1966). "Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate of Taiwan (Formosa)". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . 55 (3): 543–548. Bibcode:1966PNAS...55..543T. doi: 10.1073/pnas.55.3.543 . PMC   224184 . PMID   16591341.
    28. Davidson, Helen. "'An ecological miracle': Taiwan's fireflies are flirting in the dark again". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
    29. "Otter Conservation in Kinmen". Kinmen County Government. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
    30. Chiang, Po-Jen; Kurtis Jai-Chyi Pei; Michael R. Vaughan; Ching-Feng Li (2012). "Niche relationships of carnivores in a subtropical primary forest in southern Taiwan" (PDF). Zoological Studies. 51: 500–511.
    31. National Parks of Taiwan Archived 16 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine , Construction and Planning Agency, Ministry of the Interior, ROC (Taiwan).
    32. Taiwan Panorama (17 July 2008). "Chinkuashih's Gold Ecological Park brings history to life". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan). Taiwan Today. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
    33. Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 304.
    34. Huang, Sophia Wu (1993). "Structural Change in Taiwan's Agricultural Economy". Economic Development and Cultural Change. 42 (1): 43–65. doi:10.1086/452064. ISSN   0013-0079. JSTOR   1154612. S2CID   153836478.
    35. Exec. Yuan (2014), pp. 160–168.
    36. Energy Statistics Handbook Archived 25 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine , Bureau of Energy, Ministry of Economic Affairs, 2010.
    37. "Taiwan's Energy Policy and Supply-Demand Situation". Bureau of Energy, Ministry of Economic Affairs. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012.
    38. "Taiwan: metropolitan areas". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
    39. Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 49.
    40. Thomson, John (1898), English: Through China with a camera , retrieved 5 December 2017, see: Appendix- The Aboriginal Dialects of Formosa, page 275 – 284
    41. Jiao, Tianlong (2007). The Neolithic of southeast China: cultural transformation and regional interaction on the coast. Cambria Press. pp. 91–94. ISBN   978-1-934043-16-5.
    42. Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 36.
    43. Knapp, Ronald G. (1999). "The shaping of Taiwan's landscapes". In Rubinstein, Murray A. (ed.). Taiwan: a new history. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 1–26. ISBN   978-0-7656-1494-0.
    44. Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 48.
    45. "Taiwan: Environmental Issues". Country Analysis Brief – Taiwan. United States Department of Energy. October 2003. Archived from the original on 7 October 2006. Retrieved 8 March 2006. The government credits the APC system with helping to reduce the number of days when the country's pollution standard index score exceeded 100 from 7% of days in 1994 to 3% of days in 2001.
    46. "Taiwan Country Analysis Brief". United States Department of Energy. August 2005. Archived from the original on 2 February 2007. Taipei has the most obvious air pollution, primarily caused by the motorbikes and scooters used by millions of the city's residents.
    47. Tso, Chunto (July 2003). "A Viable Niche Market–Fuel Cell Scooters in Taiwan" (PDF). International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 28 (7): 757–762. doi:10.1016/S0360-3199(02)00245-8. In Taiwan's cities, the main source of air pollution is the waste gas exhausted by scooters, especially by the great number of two-stroke engine scooters.
    48. "The largest coal-fired power plants in the world". Retrieved 11 July 2022.
    49. Chiu, Yu-Tzu (26 January 2005). "Forests in Taiwan jeopardized by acid rain: EPA". Taipei Times.
    50. Davidson, Helen; Hui Lin, Chi. "Classical trash: how Taiwan's musical bin lorries transformed 'garbage island'". Retrieved 26 December 2022.
    51. Chen, Kelvin. "Taiwan's outlying marine ecology severely damaged by Chinese sand dredging". Taiwan News. Retrieved 7 February 2022.

    Works cited