Exclusive economic zone

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Sea areas in international rights Zonmar-en.svg
Sea areas in international rights

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a sovereign state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind. [1] It stretches from the baseline out to 200  nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters. [2]

Contents

The World's exclusive economic zones, shown in dark blue Territorial waters - World.svg
The World's exclusive economic zones, shown in dark blue

Definition

EEZs in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean Map of the Territorial Waters of the Atlantic and Indian Ocean.png
EEZs in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean
EEZs in the Pacific Ocean Map of the Territorial Waters of the Pacific Ocean.png
EEZs in the Pacific Ocean

Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nmi (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nmi (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary. [3] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state. [4]

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nmi (370 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea). [5] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nmi (650 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.

Origin

The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi or 5.6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of 28 September 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947). [6]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.

Disputes

The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.

Potential disputes

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute. [29]

Resolved disputes

Transboundary stocks

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control. [33] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling. [34]

By country

Algeria

Algeria in 17 April 2018 establishes an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off its coasts by Presidential Decree No. 18-96 of 2 Rajab 1439 corresponding to 20 March 2018. [35] [36] The permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations in 27 July 2018 declares his disagreement with the EEZ announced by Algeria and that the Government of Spain hereby indicates its willingness to enter into negotiations with the Government of Algeria with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable agreement on the outer limits of their respective exclusive economic zones [37] , The same was done by the Italian mission in 28 November 2018. [38] The two countries indicated that the Algerian measure had been taken unilaterally and without consulting them.

25 November 2018 The Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent an oral note in response to the Spanish protest, explains that the Algerian Government does not recognize the largely exorbitant coordinates contained in Royal Decree 236/2013, which overlap with the coordinates of Presidential Decree n° 18–96 establishing an exclusive economic zone off the coast of Algeria. The Algerian Government wishes to emphasize that the unilateral delimitation carried out by Spain is not in conformity with the letter of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and has not taken into consideration the configuration, the specific characteristics and the special circumstances of the Mediterranean Sea, in particular for the case of the two countries whose coasts are located face to face, as well as the objective rules and relevant principles of international law to govern the equitable delimitation of the maritime areas between Algeria and Spain, in accordance with article 74 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Algeria expressed its willingness to negotiate for a just solution [39]

20 June 2019 a communication from Algeria addressed to the Italian embassy [40] and the Spain embassy in Algiers [41] to show their eligibility in her exclusive economic zone.

Argentina

Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims. Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 3,849,756 km2 Territorial waters - Argentina.svg
Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims. Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 3,849,756 km²

Australia

Australia's exclusive economic zones including Antarctic claim Territorial waters - Australia.svg
Australia's exclusive economic zones including Antarctic claim

Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state. [42] [43] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ. [44] [45] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory, [46] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres. [45]

EEZArea (km2) [45]
Heard and McDonald Islands 410,722
Flag of Christmas Island.svg  Christmas Island 463,371
Flag of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.svg  Cocos Islands 325,021
Flag of Norfolk Island.svg  Norfolk Island 428,618
Macquarie Island 471,837
Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands6,048,681
Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000 [note 1]
Total10,148,250

Brazil

Brazil's exclusive economic zones Territorial waters - Brazil.svg
Brazil's exclusive economic zones

Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands. It is called the Blue Amazon.

EEZArea (km2) [47]
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 2,570,917
Bandeira de Fernando de Noronha.png Fernando de Noronha 363 362
St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413 636
Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468 599
Total3,830,955

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin. [48]

Canada

Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters Canada Exclusive Economic Zone.PNG
Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi), is slightly smaller than its territorial waters. [49] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.

Chile

Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim Territorial waters - Chile.svg
Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

RegionEEZ Area (km2) [50] Land areaTotal
Mainland1,975,760755 7572,731,517
Desventuradas449 8365449 841
Easter720 412164720 576
Juan Fernandez502 524100502 624
Total3,648,532755 9214,404,453

China

People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:
China's EEZ
877,019 km
EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan
EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others
3,000,000 km Total:3,877,019 China Exclusive Economic Zones.png
People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:
  China's EEZ
877,019 km
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others
3,000,000 km Total:3,877,019

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Cyprus

Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia. (Labels in Hebrew.) hgbvl hymy SHl ySHrAl.svg
Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia. (Labels in Hebrew.)

The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country. [51] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus. [52] [53]

Denmark

The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark Territorial waters - Denmark.svg
The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.

RegionEEZ & TW Area (km2) [54] Land areaTotal
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 105 98942 506149 083
Flag of the Faroe Islands.svg  Faroe Islands 260 9951 399262 394
Flag of Greenland.svg  Greenland 2,184,2542,166,0864,350,340
Total2,551,2382,210,5794,761,817

France

Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim Territorial waters - France.svg
Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim

Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,513,920 mi2). [55] The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of Earth.

Greece

Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law. [56]

According to published maps, the Israel government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company. [57] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders". [58]

India

India's exclusive economic zones Territorial waters - India.svg
India's exclusive economic zones
EEZArea (km2)
Mainland India and Lakshadweep 1,641,514 km2
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 663,629 km2
Total2,305,143 km2

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles. [59]

Indonesia

Indonesia's exclusive economic zone Indonesia-Exclusive-Economic-Zone.png
Indonesia's exclusive economic zone

Indonesia has the 6th largest exclusive economic zone in the world. The total size is 6,159,032 km2 (2,378,016 sq mi). It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its shores. This is due to the 13,466 islands of the Indonesian archipelago. [60] It has the 3rd largest coastline of 54,720 km (34,000 mi). The five main islands are: Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Western New Guinea. There are two major island groups (Nusa Tenggara and the Maluku Islands) and sixty smaller island groups.

Israel

In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.

Japan

Japan's exclusive economic zones:
Japan's EEZ
Joint regime with Republic of Korea
EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others Japan Exclusive Economic Zones.png
Japan's exclusive economic zones:
  Japan's EEZ
  Joint regime with Republic of Korea
  EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others

Japan has the 8th largest exclusive economic zone of 4,479,674 km2 (1,729,612 sq mi). [61] It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its shores.

EEZArea (km2)
Minami-Tori-shima 428,875
Nanpō Islands 862,782
Pacific Ocean (Japan)1,162,334
Ryukyu Islands 1,394,676
Sea of Japan 630,721
Daito Islands 44
Senkaku Islands 7
Sea of Okhotsk 235
Total [62] 4,479,674

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project [63] [64] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.

Mexico

Exclusive economic zone of Mexico Territorial waters - Mexico.svg
Exclusive economic zone of Mexico

Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world. [65] This puts Mexico's total territory as 5,153,735 km2.

New Zealand

Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded) Territorial waters - New Zealand.svg
Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded)

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2 (1,576,742 sq mi), [66] [67] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2. [68] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

North Korea

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea Exclusive economic zone of North Korea.png
The exclusive economic zone of North Korea

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and the Sea of Japan. [69] The EEZ was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders. [70] The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope. [71]

In the West Sea, the EEZ remains unspecified in the Korean Bay because China has not determined its own EEZ in the area. [72] The border between the North Korean and South Korean EEZs in the West Sea cannot be determined because of potential overlap and disputes over certain islands. [73]

In the Sea of Japan, the North Korean EEZ can be approximated to be trapezoidal-shaped. [74] The border between North Korea and Russia's respective EEZs is the only such border that has been determined in East Asia. [75] Here, the EEZ does not cause many problems, even with regards to South Korea, because the sea is not thought to be rich in resources. [74]

Norway

Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island Territorial waters - Norway.svg
Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen. [76]

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea. [77]

RegionEEZ & TW Area (km2)Land areaTotal
Mainland1,273,482323 8021,597,284
Svalbard 402 57461 002463 576
Jan Mayen 273 118373273 491
Bouvet Island 436 00449436 053
Total2,385,178385 2262,770,404

Philippines

The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue Ph Territorial Map.png
The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue

The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi). [78]

Poland

The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 (11,789 sq mi) within the Baltic Sea. [79]

Portugal

Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN Portugal EEZ.PNG
Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN

Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009, [81] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf, [82] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. [83]

Russia

Russia's exclusive economic zone Territorial waters - Russia.svg
Russia's exclusive economic zone

Somalia

Somalia's exclusive economic zone Territorial Waters of Somalia.svg
Somalia's exclusive economic zone

South Africa

South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone Maritime zones of South Africa.svg
South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2. [85]

South Korea

South Korean exclusive economic zone:
Korean EEZ
EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea and Japan
Joint regime with Japan Koreez.PNG
South Korean exclusive economic zone:
  Korean EEZ
  EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea and Japan
  Joint regime with Japan

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United Kingdom

The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue. Territorial waters - United Kingdom.svg
The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.
British Isles EEZ Rockall EEZ topographic map-en.svg
British Isles EEZ

The United Kingdom has the fifth largest exclusive economic zone of 6,805,586 km2 (2,627,651 sq mi) square km. It comprises the EEZs surrounding the United Kingdom, [87] the Crown dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory .

The EEZ associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos Archipelago, also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory, is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the archipelago as a part of its territory.

The EEZ areas of the UK proper, Crown dependencies and British overseas territories (in decreasing size) [85]
TerritoryEEZ Area (km2)EEZ Area (sq mi)Notes
Flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.svg  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532559,667 disputed with Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
Flag of the Pitcairn Islands.svg  Pitcairn Islands 836,108322,823
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 773,676298,718includes the Flag of the Isle of Man.svg  Isle of Man and Flag of Scotland.svg Rockall
Flag of Tristan da Cunha.svg  Tristan da Cunha archipelago754,720291,400
Flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg  British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568246,552 disputed with Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius
Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg  Falkland Islands 550,872212,693 disputed with Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda 450,370173,890
Flag of Saint Helena.svg  Saint Helena 444,916171,783
The Flag of Ascension Island.svg  Ascension 441,658170,525
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg  Turks and Caicos Islands 154,06859,486
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands 119,13745,999
Flag of Anguilla.svg  Anguilla 92,17835,590
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands 80,11730,933
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Channel Islands 11,6584,501includes Flag of Guernsey.svg  Guernsey and Flag of Jersey.svg  Jersey
Flag of Montserrat.svg  Montserrat 7,5822,927
Flag of Gibraltar.svg  Gibraltar 426164 disputed with Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Akrotiri and Dhekelia 00No EEZ area. The relevant EEZ areas around Cyprus Island belong to the Flag of Cyprus.svg  Republic of Cyprus [88] and Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg  Northern Cyprus [89] respectively
Total6,805,5862,627,651

A part of the overseas territory of Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

United States

Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas Territorial waters - United States.svg
Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The EEZ (including territorial sea) areas of the territories of the U.S. (in decreasing size) [90]
TerritoryEEZ Area (km2)EEZ Area (sq mi)Notes
Flag of Alaska.svg  Alaska 3,770,0211,455,613a non-contiguous state in the northwest extremity of the North American continent
Flag of Hawaii.svg  HawaiiNorthwestern Islands 1,579,538609,863including Flag of the Midway Islands (local).svg  Midway Atoll, these islands form the Leeward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain
Flag of the United States.svg U.S. East Coast 915,763353,578the mainland coastal states of the Eastern United States
Flag of Hawaii.svg  HawaiiSoutheastern Islands 895,346345,695these islands form the Windward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain
Flag of the United States.svg U.S. West Coast 825,549318,746the mainland coastal states of the Western United States
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg  Northern Mariana Islands 749,268289,294an organized unincorporated Commonwealth of the U.S.
Flag of the United States.svg Mainland Gulf Coast 707,832273,295the mainland coastal states of the Southern United States
Flag of Johnston Atoll (local).svg  Johnston Atoll 442,635170,902a National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
Flag of the United States.svg Howland and Baker Islands 434,921167,924including Flag of the United States.svg  Howland Island and Flag of the United States.svg  Baker Island, both territories are National Wildlife Refuges in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
Flag of Wake Island.svg  Wake Island 407,241157,237a National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
Flag of American Samoa.svg  American Samoa 404,391156,136the only inhabited unorganized unincorporated territory of the U.S.
Flag of Palmyra Atoll (local).svg  Palmyra Atoll and Flag of the United States.svg  Kingman Reef 352,300136,000both territories are National Wildlife Refuges in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
Flag of the United States.svg  Jarvis Island 316,665122,265a National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
Flag of Guam.svg  Guam 221,50485,523an organized unincorporated territory of the U.S.
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico 177,68568,605an organized unincorporated Commonwealth of the U.S.
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  U.S. Virgin Islands 33,74413,029an organized unincorporated territory of the U.S.
Flag of Navassa Island (local).svg  Navassa Island N/A [note 2] N/A [note 2] a National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
Total11,351,0004,383,000

Vietnam

Territorial claims in the South China Sea. Vietnam's EEZ has a blue line. South China Sea claims map.jpg
Territorial claims in the South China Sea. Vietnam's EEZ has a blue line.

Vietnam has an exclusive economic zone of 417,663 km2 (161,261 sq mi). It includes the Paracel Islands and the Spratly Islands. It has disputes mainly with the People's Republic of China due to the nine-dash line.

Rankings by area

This list includes dependent territories (including uninhabited territories) within their sovereign states, but does not include various claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes territorial land and internal waters.

RankCountryEEZ km2 [85] Shelf km2EEZ+TIA km2
1Flag of France.svg  France 11,691,000579,42212,366,417
2Flag of the United States.svg  United States 11,351,0002,193,52621,814,306
3Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 8,505,3482,194,00816,197,464
4Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 7,566,6733,817,84324,664,915
5Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 6,805,586872,8917,048,486
6Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 6,159,0322,039,3818,063,601
7Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 5,599,0772,644,79515,607,077
8Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 4,479,388214,9764,857,318
9Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand 4,083,744277,6104,352,424
10Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 3,830,955774,56312,345,832
11Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 3,681,989252,9474,431,381
12Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati 3,441,8107,5233,442,536
13Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 3,269,386419,1025,141,968
14Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Federated States of Micronesia 2,996,41919,4032,997,121
15Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark 2,551,238495,6574,761,811
16Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 2,402,288191,2562,865,128
17Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 2,385,178434,0202,770,404
18Flag of India.svg  India 2,305,143402,9965,592,406
19Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands 1,990,53018,4111,990,711
Flag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands (NZ)1,960,0271,2131,960,264
20Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 1,727,40828,0001,819,498
21Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 1,590,780272,9211,890,780
22Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands 1,589,47736,2821,618,373
23Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1,535,538156,3372,756,575
24Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles 1,336,55939,0631,337,014
25Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 1,284,99729,0611,287,037
26Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 1,282,97847,7051,301,250
27Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar 1,225,259101,5051,812,300
28Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1,159,063856,3463,939,463 [94]
29Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 1,077,23141,0341,333,600
30Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1,039,23377,9201,545,225
31Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 923,32234,538923,622
32Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 906,45482,0002,191,670
33Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 877,019231,34010,473,980
34Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia 825,05255,8951,462,709
35Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 808,15853,6911,949,906
36Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde 800,5615,591804,594
37Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 751,345108,015854,345
38Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu 749,7903,575749,816
39Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu 663,25111,483675,440
40Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga 659,5588,517660,305
41Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas 654,715106,323668,658
42Flag of Palau.svg  Palau 603,9782,837604,437
43Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique 578,98694,2121,380,576
44Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 575,230115,1571,287,780
45Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 574,72519,585625,825
46Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 564,74886,6981,388,864
47Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen 552,66959,2291,080,637
48Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 541,915116,834843,251
49Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 533,18059,071842,680
50Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar 532,775220,3321,209,353
51Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 532,61932,453598,229
52Flag of Angola.svg  Angola 518,43348,0921,765,133
53Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 505,57281,451637,529
54Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 475,469342,522575,469
55Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 471,50798,5001,387,950
56Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 417,663365,198748,875
57Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 410,310139,935480,583
58Flag of Libya.svg  Libya 351,58964,7632,111,129
59Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 350,75161,525460,637
60Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 335,64653,404411,163
61Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 334,671323,412665,474
62Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru 308,48041308,501
63Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea 303,5097,820331,560
64Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 299,397230,063812,517
65Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 290,00051,3831,117,911
66Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 263,45161,5911,265,451
67Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 261,65456,0931,045,216
68Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 258,1379,802269,128
69Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 255,89810,738304,569
70Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia 249,73417,715361,103
71Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras 249,54268,718362,034
72Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania 241,88825,6111,186,975
73Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 235,34922,502473,888
74Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 228,633107,2492,378,323
75Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 217,31342,2851,141,081
76Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone 215,61128,625287,351
77Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon 202,79035,020470,458
78Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 186,898426187,328
79Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Côte d'Ivoire 176,25410,175498,717
80Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 168,718118,6931,797,468
81Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania 165,33831,6621,190,858
82Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros 163,7521,526165,987
83Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 160,885154,604602,255
84Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 158,86123,092355,583
85Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 154,01177,246192,345
86Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 147,31879,142750,818
87Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 142,16675,327318,381
88Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 137,76550,578352,734
89Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe 131,3971,902132,361
90Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa 127,9502,087130,781
91Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 127,77253,631291,592
92Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 126,7606,683154,510
93Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 126,3539,9852,508,094
94Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 123,88170,874254,254
95Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau 123,72539,339159,850
96Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 116,94211,073697,309
97Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 114,17014,422223,059
98Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea 113,888 [95] [96] 50,337 [97] [98] 234,428 [99]
99Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda 110,0894,128110,531
100Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 101,85767,126265,467
101Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 98,7074,042107,958
102Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 90,96216,852112,003
103Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 87,17185,109425,590
104Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 86,39266,438230,390
105Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 83,23143,016119,419
106Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea 77,72861,817195,328
107Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 74,19925,28479,329
108Flag of East Timor.svg  East Timor 70,32625,64885,200
109Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan 68,14819,8271,954,216
110Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia 62,51562,515243,550
111Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea 59,42644,755305,283
112Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 59,03250,277115,626
113Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 58,21857,474141,818
114Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 57,48557,485414,599
115Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 54,8235,30155,139
116Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 36,99236,99282,219
117Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,3021,56136,691
118Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 35,35113,17858,317
119Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 34,30710,426145,186
120Flag of Benin.svg  Benin 33,2212,721145,843
121Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 31,59031,59043,176
122Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Republic of the Congo 31,0177,982373,017
123Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 29,79729,797342,482
124Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica 28,98565929,736
125Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 28,45227,77293,011
126Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada 27,4262,23727,770
127Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 26,3523,74548,424
128Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 23,62719,303262,018
129Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia 23,1125,58134,407
130Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 21,9463,24391,646
131Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 19,5161,06729,968
132Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 16,54711,420491,989
133Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia 15,61754416,156
134Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 13,6916,97942,439
135Flag of Togo.svg  Togo 12,0451,26568,830
136Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 11,02611,02628,844
137Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 10,5031,085195,683
138Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 10,22510,22510,975
139Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 10,0908,50915,855
140Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,97465310,235
141Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 7,7453,89621,557
142Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti 7,4593,18730,659
143Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 7,0317,03172,331
144Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 3,4473,44733,975
145Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,6061,5932,346,464
146Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 1,0671,0671,772
147Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 771771439,088
148Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco 2882290
149Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine 2562566,276
150Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 22022020,493
151Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan 1665989,508
152Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 505051,259
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 2,724,900
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 1,564,100
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad 1,284,000
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger 1,267,000
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali 1,240,192
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia 1,104,300
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia 1,098,581
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia 752,612
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 652,090
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic 622,984
Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan 619,745
Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana 582,000
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan 488,100
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 447,400
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay 406,752
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 390,757
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso 274,222
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 241,038
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos 236,800
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 207,600
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan 199,951
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal 147,181
Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan 143,100
Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi 118,484
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 93,028
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 86,600
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 83,871
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 78,867
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 77,474
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 49,035
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 41,284
Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan 38,394
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova 33,846
Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho 30,355
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 29,743
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi 27,834
Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda 26,338
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia 25,713
Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini 17,364
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo [a] 10,887
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 2,586
Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 468
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 160
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino 61
Flag of the Vatican City.svg   Vatican City 0.44
TotalFlag of the United Nations.svg  United Nations 137,273,11025,153,541274,239,014

See also

Notes

  1. The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.
  2. 1 2 The source does not provide any data for Navassa Island [91] [92] even though the U.S. government did claim an EEZ area for this disputed territory. [93]
a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia . The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory . The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement . Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states . In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.

Related Research Articles

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The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, which took place between 1973 and 1982. The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources. The Convention, concluded in 1982, replaced the quad-treaty 1958 Convention on the High Seas. UNCLOS came into force in 1994, a year after Guyana became the 60th nation to ratify the treaty. As of June 2016, 167 countries and the European Union have joined in the Convention. It is uncertain as to what extent the Convention codifies customary international law.

East China Sea A marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean between the south of Korea, the south of Kyushu, Japan, the Ryukyu islands and mainland China

The East China Sea is a marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean, located directly east of East China, covering an area of roughly 1,249,000 square kilometers (482,000 sq mi). Its northern extension between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula is the Yellow Sea, separated by an imaginary line between the eastern tip of Qidong, Jiangsu at the Yangtze River estuary and the southwestern tip of South Korea's Jeju Island.

Territorial waters Coastal waters that are part of a nation-states sovereign territory

The term territorial waters is sometimes used informally to refer to any area of water over which a state has jurisdiction, including internal waters, the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and potentially the continental shelf. In a narrower sense, the term is used as a synonym for the territorial sea.

Law of the sea International law concerning maritime environments

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Aegean dispute

The Aegean dispute is a set of interrelated controversies between Greece and Turkey over sovereignty and related rights in the region of the Aegean Sea. This set of conflicts has strongly affected Greek-Turkish relations since the 1970s. It has twice led to crises coming close to the outbreak of military hostilities, in 1987 and in early 1996. The issues in the Aegean fall into several categories:

James Shoal

James Shoal, also called Beting Serupai in Malaysia and Zengmu Reef in Greater China, is a small bank in the South China Sea, with a depth of 22 metres (72 ft), located about 45 nautical miles off the Borneo coast of Malaysia. It is claimed by Malaysia, the People's Republic of China, and the Republic of China (Taiwan). The shoal and its surrounds are administered by Malaysia.

Argentine Sea The sea within the continental shelf off the Argentine mainland

The Argentine Sea is the name given to the sea within the continental shelf off the Argentine mainland. It lacks international recognition but is symbolically important to Argentina for consolidating the country's national unity behind the concept of Argentina Grande, an area that extends out to include the British South Atlantic islands and a section of the Antarctic continent.

Territorial claims in the Arctic

The Arctic consists of land, internal waters, territorial seas, exclusive economic zones (EEZs) and high seas above the Arctic Circle. All land, internal waters, territorial seas and EEZs in the Arctic are under the jurisdiction of one of the eight Arctic coastal states: Canada, Norway, Russia, Denmark, Iceland, Sweden, Finland and the United States. International law regulates this area as with other portions of the Earth.

Exclusive economic zone of Portugal maritime boundary

Portugal has the 5th largest exclusive economic zone (EEZ) within Europe, 3rd largest of the EU and the 20th largest EEZ in the world, at 1,727,408 km2.

Australia–Indonesia border international maritime border

The Australia–Indonesia border is a maritime boundary running west from the two countries' tripoint maritime boundary with Papua New Guinea in the western entrance to the Torres Straits, through the Arafura Sea and Timor Sea, and terminating in the Indian Ocean. The boundary is, however, broken by the Timor Gap, where Australian and East Timorese territorial waters meet and where the two countries have overlapping claims to the seabed.

Canada–France Maritime Boundary Case 1992 dispute between Canada and France about the Exclusive Economic Zone

The Canada–France Maritime Boundary Case was a 1992 dispute between Canada and France that was decided by an arbitral tribunal created by the parties to resolve the dispute. The case established the extent of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the French territory of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

Cyprus–Turkey maritime zones dispute

The Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus) and Turkey have been engaged in a dispute over the extent of their exclusive economic zones, ostensibly sparked by oil and gas exploration in the area. Turkey objects to Cypriot drilling in waters that Cyprus has asserted a claim to under international maritime law. The present maritime zones dispute touches on the perennial Cyprus and Aegean disputes; Turkey is the only member state of the United Nations that does not recognise Cyprus, and is one of the few not signatory to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which Cyprus has signed and ratified.

East China Sea EEZ disputes

There are disputes between China, Japan, and South Korea over the extent of their respective exclusive economic zones (EEZs) in the East China Sea.

Rockall Bank dispute

Several states have claimed interests over the sea bed adjoining Rockall. Denmark, Iceland, Ireland and the United Kingdom have all made submissions to the commission set up under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

The 2018 Cyprus gas dispute is a diplomatic dispute involving the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Republic of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean, which began on February 6, 2018. The dispute followed remarks made by Turkey's foreign minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu, rejecting a 2003 Cypriot-Egyptian maritime border demarcation deal and announcing the Turkish government's intention to carry out gas exploration in the region. Tensions in the region further escalated on February 9, when the Turkish Navy blocked a drill ship operated by Italian oil company Eni S.p.A, licensed by the government of the Republic of Cyprus, from exploring gas reserves off the island.

Exclusive economic zone of Japan

Japan has the eighth largest Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the world. The total area of Japan is about 377,975.24 km². Japan's EEZ area is vast and the territorial waters and EEZ together is about 4.48 million km².

Exclusive economic zone of Australia

Australia's exclusive economic zone (EEZ) was declared on 1 August 1994 and extends from 12 to 200 nautical miles from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state. To the 12 nautical-mile boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third-largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres (3,146,060 sq mi), which exceeds its land territory.

Exclusive economic zone of North Korea maritime boundary

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. The exclusive economic zone (EEZ) was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders. The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.

The borders of Indonesia include land and maritime borders with Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and Timor Leste, as well as shared maritime boundaries with Australia, India, Palau, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Libya–Turkey maritime deal

Turkey and the Government of National Accord have signed a Maritime Boundary Treaty in order to establish an Exclusive economic zone in the Mediterranean Sea, which means that they can claim rights to ocean bed resources. According to the list of maritime boundary treaties, this is the first agreement ever to be signed between the two countries, hence it introduces a new dynamic to the eastern region of the Mediterranean Sea. However, fears are expressed that the agreement may fuel an "energy showdown" in this region, because it is highly contentious.

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  89. EEZ area of Northern Cyprus
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  92. EEZ area of Jamaica
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  94. Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentina reaches 6,581,500 km².
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