Tristan da Cunha

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Tristan da Cunha

Motto: "Our faith is our strength"
Anthem: "God Save the Queen"

Territorial song: "The Cutty Wren"
Tristan Map.png
Map of Tristan da Cunha group
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Location circle.svg
Location of Tristan da Cunha archipelago (circled) in the South Atlantic Ocean
Capital
and largest settlement
Edinburgh of the Seven Seas
37°4′S12°19′W / 37.067°S 12.317°W / -37.067; -12.317
Official languages English
Demonym(s) Tristanian
Part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Leaders
  Monarch
Elizabeth II
  Governor
Lisa Honan
Sean Burns
James Glass [1]
Establishment
 First inhabited
1810
 Dependency of Cape Colony (to UK)
14 August 1816 [2]
 Dependency of St Helena
12 January 1938
1 September 2009
Area
 Total
207 km2 (80 sq mi)
 Main island
98 km2
Population
 9 October 2018 estimate
250 [3]
 March 2016 census
293 [4]
 Density
1.4/km2 (3.6/sq mi)
Currency Pound sterling (£) (GBP)
Time zone UTC (GMT)
Driving side left
Calling code +290
+44 20
ISO 3166 code SH-TA
Internet TLD nonea
  1. .sh or .uk can be used.

    Postcode: TDCU 1ZZ

Tristan da Cunha ( /ˌtrɪstəndəˈkn(j)ə/ ), colloquially Tristan, is both a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean and the main island of that group. It is the most remote inhabited archipelago in the world, lying approximately 1,511 miles (2,432 km) off the coast of Cape Town in South Africa, 1,343 miles (2,161 km) from Saint Helena and 2,166 miles (3,486 km) off the coast from the Falkland Islands. [5] [6] The territory consists of the main island, Tristan da Cunha, which has a diameter of roughly 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) and an area of 98 square kilometres (38 sq mi), the smaller, uninhabited Nightingale Islands, and the wildlife reserves of Inaccessible Island and Gough Island. As of October 2018, the main island has 250 permanent inhabitants who all carry British Overseas Territories citizenship. [3] The other islands are uninhabited, except for the personnel of a weather station on Gough Island.

Volcano A rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Island Any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water

An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines.

Atlantic Ocean Ocean between Europe, Africa and the Americas

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".

Contents

Tristan da Cunha is part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. [7] This includes Saint Helena and also near-equatorial Ascension Island, which lies some 1,741 miles (2,802 km) to the north of Tristan. There is no airstrip of any kind on the main island, meaning that the only way of travelling in and out of Tristan is by boat, a six-day trip from South Africa.

British Overseas Territories territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom but not part of it

The British Overseas Territories (BOTs) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom. They are remnants of the British Empire that have not been granted independence or have voted to remain British territories. These territories do not form part of the United Kingdom and, with the exception of Gibraltar, are not part of the European Union. Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of military or scientific personnel. They all share the British monarch as head of state.

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha British overseas territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha is a British Overseas Territory located in the South Atlantic and consisting of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension Island and the archipelago of Tristan da Cunha.

Ascension Island island in the South Atlantic Ocean

Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island, 7°56' south of the Equator in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is about 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) from the coast of Africa and 2,250 kilometres (1,400 mi) from the coast of Brazil. It is governed as part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, of which the main island, Saint Helena, is around 1,300 kilometres (800 mi) to the southeast. The territory also includes the sparsely-populated Tristan da Cunha archipelago, some 3,730 kilometres (2,300 mi) to the south, about halfway to the Antarctic Circle.

History

Discovery

The islands were first recorded as sighted in 1506 by Portuguese explorer Tristão da Cunha, though rough seas prevented a landing. He named the main island after himself, Ilha de Tristão da Cunha. It was later anglicised from its earliest mention on British Admiralty charts to Tristan da Cunha Island. Some sources state that the Portuguese made the first landing in 1520, when the Lás Rafael captained by Ruy Vaz Pereira called at Tristan for water. [8] The first undisputed landing was made on 7 February 1643 by the crew of the Dutch East India Company ship Heemstede, captained by Claes Gerritsz Bierenbroodspot. The Dutch stopped at the island four more times in the next 25 years, and in 1656 created the first rough charts of the archipelago. [9]

Portugal Republic in Southwestern Europe

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Tristão da Cunha Portuguese explorer and diplomat

Tristão da Cunha was a Portuguese explorer and naval commander. In 1514, he served as ambassador from king Manuel I of Portugal to Pope Leo X, leading a luxurious embassy presenting in Rome the new conquests of Portugal. He later became a member of the Portuguese privy council.

Admiralty chart

Admiralty charts are nautical charts issued by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (UKHO) and subject to Crown Copyright. Over 3,500 Standard Nautical Charts (SNCs) and 14,000 Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs) are available with the Admiralty portfolio offering the widest official coverage of international shipping routes and ports, in varying detail.

The first full survey of the archipelago was made by crew of the French corvette Heure du Berger in 1767. The first scientific exploration was conducted by French naturalist Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit-Thouars, who stayed on the island for three days in January 1793, during a French mercantile expedition from Brest, France to Mauritius. Thouars made botanical collections and reported traces of human habitation, including fireplaces and overgrown gardens, probably left by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. [9]

Geophysical survey is the systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies. Detection and analysis of the geophysical signals forms the core of Geophysical signal processing. The magnetic and gravitational fields emanating from the Earth's interior hold essential information concerning seismic activities and the internal structure. Hence, detection and analysis of the electric and Magnetic fields is very crucial. As the Electromagnetic and gravitational waves are multi-dimensional signals, all the 1-D transformation techniques can be extended for the analysis of these signals as well. Hence this article also discusses multi-dimensional signal processing techniques.

Corvette Small warship

A corvette is a small warship. It is traditionally the smallest class of vessel considered to be a proper warship. The warship class above the corvette is that of the frigate, while the class below was historically that of the sloop-of-war. The modern types of ship below a corvette are coastal patrol craft, missile boat and fast attack craft. In modern terms, a corvette is typically between 500 tons and 2,000 tons although recent designs may approach 3,000 tons, which might instead be considered a small frigate.

Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit-Thouars French botanist

Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit-Thouars was an eminent French botanist known for his work collecting and describing orchids from the three islands of Madagascar, Mauritius and Réunion.

On his voyage out from Europe to East Africa and India in command of the Imperial Asiatic Company of Trieste and Antwerp ship, Joseph et Therese, William Bolts sighted Tristan da Cunha, put a landing party ashore on 2 February 1777 and hoisted the Imperial flag, naming it and its neighboring islets the Isles de Brabant. [10] In fact, no settlement or facilities were ever set up there by the company. After the British Government announced in September 1786 that it would proceed with the settlement of New South Wales, Alexander Dalrymple, presumably goaded by Bolts’s actions, published a pamphlet under the title, A Serious Admonition to the Publick on the Intended Thief Colony at Botany Bay, with an alternative proposal of his own for settlements on Tristan da Cunha, St. Paul and Amsterdam islands in the Southern Ocean. [11] Captain John Blankett, R.N., also suggested independently to his superiors in August 1786 that convicts be used to establish an English settlement on Tristan. [12] In consequence, the Admiralty received orders from Government in October 1789 to examine the island as part of a general survey of the South Atlantic and the coasts of southern Africa. [13] That did not happen, but an investigation of Tristan, Amsterdam and St. Paul was undertaken in December 1792 and January 1793 by George Macartney, Britain’s first ambassador to China: during his voyage to China he established that none of the islands was suitable for settlement. [14]

Austrian East India Company is a catchall term referring to a series of Austrian trading companies based in Ostend and Trieste. The Imperial Asiatic Company of Trieste and Antwerp and Asiatic Company of Trieste or the Trieste Company were founded by William Bolts in 1775 and wound up in 1785.

William Bolts (1738–1808) was a Amsterdam-born merchant active in India. He began his career as an employee of the British East India Company, and subsequently became an independent merchant. He is best known today for his 1772 book, Considerations on India Affairs, which detailed the exploitation and despoliation of Bengal by the East India Company which began shortly after the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The observations and experiences he recorded offer a unique resource for scholars inquiring into the nature of early British rule in Bengal. Throughout his life, Bolts continued to propose and execute various trading ventures on his own behalf and in conjunction with various commercial and governmental partners. The ventures of individual traders like Bolts did much to spur governments and large corporations into the expansion of their own interests and empires.

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In December 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

19th century

The first permanent settler was Jonathan Lambert of Salem, Massachusetts, United States, who moved to the island in December 1810 with two other men, and later a third. [15] Lambert publicly declared the islands his property and named them the Islands of Refreshment. Three of the four men died in 1812; however, the survivor among the original three permanent settlers, Thomas Currie (or Tommaso Corri) remained as a farmer on the island. [16]

Salem, Massachusetts City in Massachusetts, United States

Salem is a historic coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States, located in the North Shore region. Settled in 1626, and built on a peninsula of land, Salem was one of the most significant seaports in early American history.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

Islands of Refreshment micronation, 1811-16

Islands of Refreshment was the name given to Tristan da Cunha by its self-proclaimed ruler, Jonathan Lambert, in 1811.

On 14 August 1816, the United Kingdom annexed the islands, making them a dependency of the Cape Colony in South Africa. This was explained as a measure to prevent the islands' use as a base for any attempt to free Napoleon Bonaparte from his prison on Saint Helena. [17] The occupation also prevented the United States from using Tristan da Cunha as a base for naval cruisers, as it had during the War of 1812. [15] Possession was abandoned in November 1817, although some members of the garrison stayed and formed the nucleus of a permanent population.

On the fifteenth of July, the snow-clad mountains of Tristan da Cunha appeared, lighted by a brilliant morning-sun, and towering to a height estimated at between nine and ten thousand feet." [17]

Edmund Roberts, Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat, 1837

The islands were occupied by a garrison of British Marines, and a civilian population gradually grew. Berwick stopped there on 25 March 1824 and reported that it had a population of twenty-two men and three women. Whalers set up bases on the islands for operations in the Southern Atlantic. However, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, together with the gradual transition from sailing ships to coal-fired steam ships, increased the isolation of the islands, which were no longer needed as a stopping port for lengthy sail voyages, or for shelter for journeys from Europe to East Asia. [15] A parson arrived in February 1851, the Bishop of Cape Town visited in March 1856 and the island was included within the diocese of Cape Town. [18]

In 1867, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and second son of Queen Victoria, visited the islands. The main settlement, Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, was named in honour of his visit. [19] On 15 October 1873, the Royal Navy scientific survey vessel HMS Challenger docked at Tristan to conduct geographic and zoological surveys on Tristan, Inaccessible Island and the Nightingale Islands. [20] In his log, Captain George Nares recorded a total of fifteen families and eighty-six individuals living on the island. [21] Tristan became a dependency of the British Crown in October 1875.

20th century

After years of hardship since the 1880s and an especially difficult winter in 1906, the British government offered to evacuate the island in 1907. The Tristanians held a meeting and decided to refuse, despite the crown's warning that it could not promise further help in the future. [8] No ships called at the islands from 1909 until 1919, when HMS Yarmouth finally stopped to inform the islanders of the outcome of World War I. [22] The Shackleton–Rowett Expedition stopped in Tristan for five days in May 1922, collecting geological and botanical samples before returning to Cape Town. [8] Of the few ships that visited in the coming years were the RMS Asturias, a Royal Mail Steam Packet Company passenger liner, in 1927, and the ocean liners RMS Empress of France in 1928, [23] RMS Duchess of Atholl in 1929, [24] and RMS Empress of Australia in 1935. [25] [26] In 1936, The Daily Telegraph of London reported the population of the island was 167 people, with 185 cattle and 42 horses. [27] [ self-published source ]

From December 1937 to March 1938, a Norwegian party made a dedicated scientific expedition to Tristan da Cunha, and sociologist Peter A. Munch extensively documented island culture—he would later revisit the island in 1964–65. [28] The island was also visited in 1938 by W. Robert Foran, reporting for the National Geographic Society; [29] his account, Tristan da Cunha, Isles of Contentment, was published in November 1938. [30] On 12 January 1938 by letters patent, Britain declared the islands a dependency of Saint Helena, creating the British Crown Colony of Saint Helena and Dependencies, which also included Ascension Island. [31]

Gough and Inaccessible Islands, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Gough and Inaccessible Islands-113067.jpg
Gough and Inaccessible Islands, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

During the Second World War, Tristan was commissioned by the Royal Navy as the stone frigate HMS Atlantic Isle and used as a secret signals intelligence station to monitor Nazi U-boats (which were required to maintain radio contact) and shipping movements in the South Atlantic Ocean. This weather and radio station led to extensive new infrastructure being built on the island, including a school, a hospital, and a cash-based general store. After the war, development continued, as the island's first canning factory expanding the availability of paid employment in 1949. [32] Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the Queen's consort, visited the islands in 1957 as part of a world tour on board the royal yacht HMY Britannia. [33]

On 10 October 1961, the eruption of Queen Mary's Peak forced the evacuation of the entire population of 264 individuals. [34] [35] Evacuees took to the water in open boats and sailed to uninhabited Nightingale Island, where they were picked up by a Dutch passenger ship that took them via Cape Town to Britain. The islanders arrived in the UK to a big press reception, and were settled in an old Royal Air Force camp near Calshot, Hampshire. [35] The following year a Royal Society expedition reported that Edinburgh of the Seven Seas had survived the eruption. Most families returned in 1963. [36]

Gough Island was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995, then named "Gough Island Wildlife Reserve". [37] The Site was extended in 2004 to include the neighbouring Inaccessible Island and renamed Gough and Inaccessible Islands, with its marine zone extended from 3 to 12 nautical miles. The Gough and Inaccessible Islands were declared as separate Ramsar sites—wetland sites designated to be of international importance—on 20 November 2008. [38] [39]

21st century

Tristan da Cunha in 2012 Tristan da Cunha, British overseas territory-20March2012.jpg
Tristan da Cunha in 2012

On 23 May 2001, the islands were hit by an extratropical cyclone that generated winds up to 190 kilometres per hour (120 mph). A number of structures were severely damaged, and numerous cattle were killed, prompting emergency aid provided by the British government. [40] In 2005, the islands were given a United Kingdom post code (TDCU 1ZZ), to make it easier for the residents to order goods online.

On 13 February 2008, a fire destroyed the island's four power generators and fish canning factory, severely disrupting the economy. On 14 March 2008, new generators were installed and power restored, and a new factory opened in July 2009. While the replacement factory was built, M/V Kelso came to the island as a factory ship. [41] [42] The St. Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009 reorganized Tristan da Cunha as a constituent of the new British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, giving Tristan and Ascension equal status with Saint Helena. [7]

On 16 March 2011, the freighter MS Oliva ran aground on Nightingale Island, spilling tons of heavy fuel oil into the ocean. The resulting oil slick threatened the island's population of rockhopper penguins. [43] Nightingale Island has no fresh water, so the penguins were transported to Tristan da Cunha for cleaning. [44]

A total solar eclipse will pass over the island on 5 December 2048. The island is calculated to be on the centre line of the umbra's path for nearly three and a half minutes of totality. [45]

Geography

Gough Island, Tristan da Cunha Gough island top view.png
Gough Island, Tristan da Cunha

Tristan da Cunha is thought to have been formed by a long-lived centre of upwelling mantle called the Tristan hotspot. Tristan da Cunha is the main island of the Tristan da Cunha archipelago, which consists of the following islands:

Inaccessible Island and the Nightingale Islands are 35 kilometres (22 mi) SW by W and SSW away from the main island, respectively, whereas Gough Island is 395 kilometres (245 mi) SSE.

Tristan da Cunha on 6 February 2013, as seen from the International Space Station Tristanfromspace.jpg
Tristan da Cunha on 6 February 2013, as seen from the International Space Station

The main island is generally mountainous. The only flat area is on the north-west coast, which is the location of the only settlement, Edinburgh of the Seven Seas. The highest point is the summit of a volcano called Queen Mary's Peak at an elevation of 2,062 metres (6,765 ft), high enough to develop snow cover in winter. The other islands of the group are uninhabited, except for a weather station with a staff of six on Gough Island, which has been operated by South Africa since 1956 and has been at its present location at Transvaal Bay on the southeast coast since 1963. [48] [49]

Climate

The archipelago has a wet oceanic climate under the Köppen system, with mild temperatures and very limited sunshine but consistent moderate-to-heavy rainfall due to the persistent westerly winds. Under the Trewartha classification, Tristan da Cunha has a humid subtropical climate due to the lack of cold weather. The number of rainy days is comparable to the Aleutian Islands at a much higher latitude in the northern hemisphere, while sunshine hours are comparable to Juneau, Alaska, 20° farther from the equator. Frost is unknown below elevations of 500 metres (1,600 ft), and summer temperatures are similarly mild, never reaching 25 °C (77 °F). Sandy Point on the east coast is reputed to be the warmest and driest place on the island, being in the lee of the prevailing winds. [50]

Climate data for Tristan da Cunha
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)23.7
(74.7)
24.4
(75.9)
24.4
(75.9)
22.4
(72.3)
20.3
(68.5)
18.7
(65.7)
17.8
(64.0)
17.3
(63.1)
17.1
(62.8)
18.4
(65.1)
22.4
(72.3)
21.8
(71.2)
24.4
(75.9)
Average high °C (°F)20.4
(68.7)
21.2
(70.2)
20.5
(68.9)
18.9
(66.0)
16.9
(62.4)
15.3
(59.5)
14.4
(57.9)
14.2
(57.6)
14.3
(57.7)
15.4
(59.7)
17.0
(62.6)
18.9
(66.0)
17.3
(63.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)17.9
(64.2)
18.8
(65.8)
17.9
(64.2)
15.4
(59.7)
14.6
(58.3)
13.1
(55.6)
12.2
(54.0)
11.9
(53.4)
12.0
(53.6)
13.0
(55.4)
14.6
(58.3)
16.5
(61.7)
14.8
(58.6)
Average low °C (°F)15.4
(59.7)
16.2
(61.2)
15.3
(59.5)
11.9
(53.4)
12.3
(54.1)
10.9
(51.6)
10.0
(50.0)
9.6
(49.3)
9.7
(49.5)
10.6
(51.1)
12.2
(54.0)
14.1
(57.4)
12.4
(54.3)
Record low °C (°F)10.9
(51.6)
11.8
(53.2)
10.3
(50.5)
9.5
(49.1)
7.4
(45.3)
6.3
(43.3)
4.8
(40.6)
4.6
(40.3)
5.1
(41.2)
6.4
(43.5)
8.3
(46.9)
9.7
(49.5)
4.6
(40.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches)93
(3.7)
113
(4.4)
121
(4.8)
129
(5.1)
155
(6.1)
160
(6.3)
160
(6.3)
175
(6.9)
169
(6.7)
151
(5.9)
128
(5.0)
127
(5.0)
1,681
(66.2)
Average rainy days181717202323252624221819252
Average relative humidity (%)79777578787979797879798078
Mean monthly sunshine hours 139.5144.0145.7129.0108.599.0105.4105.4120.0133.3138.0130.21,498
Percent possible sunshine 31353838353434323333322934
Source #1: Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System [51]
Source #2: Climate and Temperature [52] [53]

Flora and fauna

Subantarctic fur seals at Gough and Inaccessible Islands. Gough and Inaccessible Islands-113061.jpg
Subantarctic fur seals at Gough and Inaccessible Islands.

Many of the flora and fauna of the archipelago have a broad circumpolar distribution in the South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans. For example, the plant species Nertera depressa was first collected in Tristan da Cunha, [54] but has since been recorded as far away as New Zealand. [55]

Tristan is primarily known for its wildlife. The island has been identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International because there are 13 known species of breeding seabirds on the island and two species of resident land birds. The seabirds include northern rockhopper penguins, Atlantic yellow-nosed albatrosses, sooty albatrosses, Atlantic petrels, great-winged petrels, soft-plumaged petrels, broad-billed prions, grey petrels, great shearwaters, sooty shearwaters, Tristan skuas, Antarctic terns and brown noddies. [56] Tristan and Gough Islands are the only known breeding sites in the world for the Atlantic petrel. Inaccessible Island is also the only known breeding ground of the spectacled petrel. [57] The Tristan albatross is known to breed only on Gough and Inaccessible Islands: all nest on Gough, except for one or two pairs which nest on Inaccessible Island. [58]

The endemic Tristan thrush, also known as the "starchy", occurs on all of the northern islands and each has its own subspecies, with Tristan birds being slightly smaller and duller than those on Nightingale and Inaccessible. The endemic Inaccessible Island rail, the smallest extant flightless bird in the world, is found only on Inaccessible Island. In 1956, eight Gough moorhens were released at Sandy Point on Tristan, and have subsequently colonised the island. [59] No birds of prey breed on Tristan da Cunha, but the Amur falcon occasionally passes through the area on its migrations, thus putting it on the island's bird list.

Various species of whales and dolphins can be seen around Tristan from time to time with increasing sighting rates, although recovery of baleen whales, especially the southern right whale, were severely hindered by illegal whaling by the Soviet Union in the aftermath of the 1960 volcanic eruption. [60] The subantarctic fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis can also be found in the Tristan archipelago, mostly on Gough Island. [61]

Economy

Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, Tristan da Cunha Edinburgh-Tristan.jpg
Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, Tristan da Cunha

The island has a unique social and economic structure in which all resident families farm and all land is communally owned. Outsiders are prohibited from buying land or settling on Tristan. Besides subsistence agriculture, major industries are commercial fishing and government. Major export industries are the Tristan rock lobster ( Jasus ) fishery, the sale of the island's postage stamps and coins, and limited tourism. [62] Like most British Overseas Territories, it is not part of the European Union, but is rather a member of the EU's Overseas Countries and Territories Association. [63]

The Bank of Saint Helena was established on Saint Helena and Ascension Island in 2004. This bank does not have a physical presence on Tristan da Cunha, but residents of Tristan are entitled to its services. [64] Although Tristan da Cunha is part of the same overseas territory as Saint Helena, it does not use the local Saint Helena pound, instead, using the United Kingdom issue of the pound sterling. [65]

The island is located in the South Atlantic Anomaly, an area of the Earth with an abnormally weak magnetic field. On 14 November 2008 a geomagnetic observatory was inaugurated on the island as part of a joint venture between the Danish Meteorological Institute and DTU Space. [66]

Transport

Map of Edinburgh of the Seven Seas Edinburgh of the Seven Seas map.svg
Map of Edinburgh of the Seven Seas

The remote location of the islands makes transport to the outside world difficult. Tristan da Cunha has no airstrip and is not generally accessible to air travel, though the wider territory is served by Saint Helena Airport [67] [68] and RAF Ascension Island. [69] Fishing boats from South Africa service the islands eight or nine times per year. The RMS Saint Helena used to connect the main island to St. Helena and South Africa once each year during its January voyage, but has done so only a few times in the last years, in 2006, in 2011, [5] and most recently in 2018. [70] The harbour at Edinburgh of the Seven Seas is called Calshot Harbour, named after the place in Hampshire where the islanders temporarily stayed during the volcanic eruption. [71]

Communications

Telecommunication

Although Tristan da Cunha shares the +290 code with St. Helena, residents have access to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office Telecommunications Network, provided by Global Crossing. [72] This uses a London 020 numbering range, meaning that numbers are accessed via the UK telephone numbering plan. [73] Internet access was available in Tristan da Cunha from 1998 to 2006, but its high cost made it almost unaffordable for the local population, who primarily used it only to send email. [74] The connection was also extremely unreliable, connecting through a 64 kbit/s satellite phone connection provided by Inmarsat. Since 2006, a very-small-aperture terminal has provided 3072 kbit/s of publicly accessible bandwidth via an internet cafe. [75] There is not yet any mobile telephone coverage on the islands. [76]

Amateur radio

DX-peditions are sometimes conducted in the island group by amateur radio operators. One was ZD9ZS in September–October 2014. [77] [78] [79]

Government

Coat of arms of Tristan da Cunha.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Tristan da Cunha

There are no political parties or trade unions on Tristan. Executive authority is vested in the Queen, who is represented in the territory by the Governor of Saint Helena. [80] As the Governor resides permanently in Saint Helena, an Administrator is appointed to represent the Governor in the islands. The Administrator is a career civil servant in the Foreign Office, selected by London, who acts as the local head of government and takes advice from the Tristan da Cunha Island Council. Since 1998, each Administrator has served a three-year term (which begins in September, upon arrival of the supply ship from Cape Town). Sean Burns began a second term as Administrator in November 2016. [81]

The Administrator and Island Council work from the Government Building, which is the only two-storey building on the island. The building is sometimes referred to as "Whitehall" or the "H'admin Building" and contains the Administrator's Office, Treasury Department, Administration Offices, and the Council Chamber where Island Council meetings are held. Policing is undertaken by one full-time police inspector and three special constables. Tristan da Cunha has some legislation of its own, but the law of Saint Helena applies generally to the extent that it is not inconsistent with local law, insofar as it is suitable for local circumstances and subject to such modifications as local circumstances make necessary. [82]

Chief Islander

The Island Council is made up of eight elected and three appointed members, who serve a three-year term which begins in February or March. A separate but simultaneous vote is held to select the Chief Islander, who is the community’s political leader. James Glass was elected to the position in March 2019, returning after sixteen years to commence a record-breaking fourth term in the role.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1856 71 [83]     
1880 109 [84] +1.80%
1892 50 [85] −6.29%
1897 64 [84] +5.06%
1901 74 [84] +3.70%
1909 95 [84] +3.17%
1934 167 [86] +2.28%
1961 268 [83] +1.77%
1969 271 [87] +0.14%
1987 296 [83] [88] +0.49%
1999 286 [89] [90] −0.29%
2000 280 [89] −2.10%
2008 269 [88] −0.50%
2016 293 [88] [4] +1.07%
2018 250 [3] −7.63%

Tristan da Cunha recorded a population of 251 in the September 2018 census. [91] The only settlement is Edinburgh of the Seven Seas (known locally as "The Settlement"). The only religion is Christianity, with the only denominations being Anglican and Roman Catholic. The current residents are thought to have descended from fifteen outside ancestors, eight male and seven female, who arrived on the island at various dates between 1816 and 1908. The men were European, and the women were mixed race and African. Now all of the population has mixed ancestry. In addition, a male contributor of eastern European/Russian descent arrived in the early 1900s. [92] In 1963, when families returned after the evacuation due to the 1961 volcanic eruption, the 200 settlers included four Tristan da Cunha women who brought with them new English husbands. [93]

Housing in Tristan da Cunha Tristan da Cunha4.jpg
Housing in Tristan da Cunha

The female descendants have been traced by genetic study to five female founders, believed to be mixed-race (African, Asian and European descent) and from Saint Helena. The historical data recounted that there were two pairs of sisters, but the MtDNA evidence showed only one pair of sisters. [94]

The early male founders originated from Scotland, England, the Netherlands, the United States and Italy, and belonged to 3 Y-haplogroups: I (M170), R-SRY10831.2 and R (M207) (xSRY10831.2) [95] and share nine surnames: Collins, Glass, Green, Hagan, Lavarello, Repetto, Rogers, Squibb and Swain. [n 1] [3] In addition, a new haplotype was found that is associated with men of eastern Europe and Russia. It entered the population in the early 1900s, at a time when the island was visited by Russian sailing ships. There is "evidence for the contribution of a hidden ancestor who left his genes but not his name on the island." [96] Another four instances of non-paternity were found among male descendants, but researchers believed their fathers were probably among the island population. [96]

There are eighty families on the island. [97] Tristan da Cunha's isolation has led to development of an unusual, patois-like dialect of English described by the writer Simon Winchester as "a sonorous amalgam of Home Counties lockjaw and 19th century idiom, Afrikaans slang and Italian." [98] Bill Bryson documents some examples of the island's dialect in his book, The Mother Tongue.

Education

Education is fairly rudimentary; children leave school at age 16, and although they can take GCSEs a year later, few do. [99] [100] The school on the island is St. Mary's School, which serves children from ages 4 to 16. It opened in 1975 and has five classrooms, a kitchen, a stage, a computer room, and a craft and science room. [101]

The Tristan Song Project was a collaboration between St. Mary's School and amateur composers in Britain, led by music teacher Tony Triggs. It began in 2010 and involved St Mary's pupils writing poems and Tony Triggs providing musical settings by himself and his pupils. [102] A desktop publication entitled Rockhopper Penguins and Other Songs (2010) embraced most of the songs completed that year and funded a consignment of guitars to the school. [103] In February 2013, the Tristan Post Office issued a set of four Song Project stamps featuring island musical instruments and lyrics from Song Project songs about Tristan's volcano and wildlife. In 2014, the project broadened its scope and continues as the International Song Project.

Health

Healthcare is funded by the government, undertaken at most times by one resident doctor. Surgery or facilities for complex childbirth are therefore limited, and emergencies can necessitate communicating with passing fishing vessels so the injured person can be ferried to Cape Town. [104] As of late 2007, IBM and Beacon Equity Partners, co-operating with Medweb, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and the island's government on "Project Tristan", has supplied the island's doctor with access to long distance tele-medical help, making it possible to send EKG and X-ray pictures to doctors in other countries for instant consultation. [105]

There are instances of health problems attributed to endogamy, including glaucoma. In addition, there is a very high (42%) incidence of asthma among the population and research by Noe Zamel of the University of Toronto has led to discoveries about the genetic nature of the disease. [106] Three of the original settlers of the island were asthma sufferers. [107]

Culture

Media

Local television began in 1984 using taped programming on Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday evenings. [108] Live television did not arrive on the island until 2001, with the introduction of the British Forces Broadcasting Service, which now provides BBC1, BBC2, ITV and BFBS Extra, relayed to islanders via local transmitters. BFBS Radio 2 is the locally available radio station. An official website is provided by the island government and the Tristan da Cunha Association, which maintains it from the UK. [109] A community newsletter, Village Voice, is produced each week.

Holidays

The island holds an annual break from government and factory work which begins before Christmas and lasts for three weeks. The beginning of the holiday, called Break-Up Day, is usually marked with parties and celebrations. [110]

Notable people

The Inaccessible Island rail (Atlantisia rogersi) (1927), the world's smallest flightless bird, which is found only on Inaccessible Island Inaccessible Island Rail (Atlantisia rogersi).jpg
The Inaccessible Island rail (Atlantisia rogersi) (1927), the world's smallest flightless bird, which is found only on Inaccessible Island

Film

Literature

Non-fiction

See also

Notes and references

Notes
  1. These names are thought to have been immigrants who were Scottish; Dutch; English; Irish; Italian (prob. Ligurian); Italian (prob. Ligurian); Scottish; English; and English, respectively. Briefly there was a resident by surname Patterson on the island. Weaver, Barry (2003). "Tristan da Cunha". College of Atmospheric & Geographic Sciences, University of Oklahoma. Archived from the original on 10 June 2007.
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Further reading

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Coordinates: 37°15′S12°25′W / 37.250°S 12.417°W / -37.250; -12.417

Related Research Articles

This article is about the demographics of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, a British overseas territory in the south Atlantic Ocean.

Tristan da Cunha is part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha and has a history going back to the beginning of the 16th century. It was settled by men from military garrisons and ships, who married native women from Saint Helena and the Cape Colony. Its people are multi-racial, descended from European male founders and mixed-race and African women founders.

Gough Island Island in the South Atlantic

Gough Island, also known historically as Gonçalo Álvares after the Portuguese explorer, is a rugged volcanic island in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a dependency of Tristan da Cunha and part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. It is about 400 km (250 mi) south-east of the Tristan da Cunha archipelago, 2,400 km (1,500 mi) north-east from South Georgia Island, 2,700 km (1,700 mi) west from Cape Town, and over 3,200 km (2,000 mi) from the nearest point of South America.

Inaccessible Island

Inaccessible Island is an extinct volcano, last active six million years ago, with Cairn Peak reaching 449 m (1,473 ft). The island is 12.65 km2 (4.88 sq mi) in area, rising out of the South Atlantic Ocean 31 km (19 mi) south-west of Tristan da Cunha. Inaccessible Island is fringed with sheer sea cliffs but is accessible via a few boulder beaches. Generations of sailors were wary of the difficult landings and inhospitable terrain. Inaccessible Island has been without permanent inhabitants since 1873.

Nightingale Island island in the South Atlantic

Nightingale Island is an active volcanic island in the South Atlantic Ocean, 3 square kilometres (1.2 sq mi) in area, part of the Tristan da Cunha group of islands. They are administered by the United Kingdom as part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

Nightingale Islands geographical object

The Nightingale Islands are a group of three islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, part of the Tristan da Cunha territory. They consist of Nightingale Island, Middle Island and Stoltenhoff Island. The islands are administered by the United Kingdom as part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. The Nightingale Islands are uninhabited.

Middle Island, Tristan da Cunha island

Middle Island is a small, uninhabited island in the South Atlantic Ocean, part of the Nightingale Islands. They are governed as part of Tristan da Cunha, an archipelago that is part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. The island is part of the Nightingale Islands group Important Bird Area (IBA), identified as such by BirdLife International as a breeding site for seabirds and endemic landbirds. It is also known as Alex Island.

Stoltenhoff Island island

Stoltenhoff Island is a small uninhabited island in the South Atlantic Ocean, part of the Nightingale Islands. It is the smallest of the Nightingale Islands, and is to the north west of Nightingale Island itself. They are governed as part of Tristan da Cunha, an archipelago and part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. The island is part of the Nightingale Islands group Important Bird Area (IBA), identified as such by BirdLife International as a breeding site for seabirds and endemic landbirds.

Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha as well the other uninhabited islands nearby are a haven for wildlife in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. The islands are or were home to much endemic flora and fauna, especially invertebrates, and many endemic fish species found in the reef ecosystems off the islands. The islands have been identified by BirdLife International as Important Bird Areas for both their endemic landbirds and breeding seabirds.

Outline of Saint Helena Overview of and topical guide to Saint Helena

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Saint Helena:

Outline of Tristan da Cunha Overview of and topical guide to Tristan da Cunha

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tristan da Cunha:

Northern rockhopper penguin species of bird

Recent studies show the northern rockhopper penguin, Moseley's rockhopper penguin, or Moseley's penguin distinct from the southern rockhopper penguin.

LGBT rights in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) rights in the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha have gradually evolved over the years. Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is banned in the entire territory through the Constitution Order 2009 and same-sex marriage has been legal on the islands since 2017.

Geography of Tristan da Cunha

Tristan da Cunha is an archipelago of five islands in the southern Atlantic Ocean, the largest of which is the island of Tristan da Cunha itself and the second-largest the remote bird haven Gough Island. It forms part of a wider territory called Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha which includes Saint Helena and Ascension Island.

Politics of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

The politics of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha operate under the jurisdiction of the government of the United Kingdom. The three parts of the territory—Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha—effectively form an asymmetric federacy and collectively constitute one of United Kingdom's fourteen overseas territories.

Conrad Glass Tristan da Cunha police officer

Conrad "Connie" Glass is a Tristanian police officer and a former Chief Islander. He lives on Tristan da Cunha and is the first islander to have written a book about the territory — Rockhopper Copper (2005).

Same-sex marriage in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, one of the 14 British Overseas Territories, gradually became legal in 2017. An ordinance legalising same-sex marriage in Ascension Island took effect on 1 January 2017, Tristan da Cunha followed suit on 4 August, and Saint Helena on 20 December.