Province of New Jersey

Last updated
Province of New Jersey

1664–1673
1702–1783
Colonial-Red-Ensign.svg
StatusProprietary Colony of England (1664–1673)
Royal Colony of England (1702–1707)
Royal Colony of Great Britain (1707–1783)
Capital Elizabethtown (1664–1673)
Perth Amboy and Burlington (1702–1783)
Common languagesEnglish, Dutch
Government Constitutional monarchy
Legislature Council
General Assembly
History 
 Established
1664
 Disestablished
1783
Currency New Jersey pound
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Statenvlag.svg New Netherland
New Jersey Flag of New Jersey.svg
Today part ofFlag of the United States.svg  United States
History of
New Jersey
Flag of New Jersey.svg
Colonial period
American Revolution
Nineteenth century
Twentieth century
Twenty-first century
Timeline of New Jersey

The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies of Colonial America and became New Jersey, a state of United States in 1783. The province had originally been settled by Europeans as part of New Netherland, but came under English rule after the surrender of Fort Amsterdam in 1664, becoming a proprietary colony. The English then renamed the province after the Isle of Jersey in the English Channel. The Dutch Republic reasserted control for a brief period in 1673–1674. After that it consisted of two political divisions, East Jersey and West Jersey, until they were united as a royal colony in 1702. The original boundaries of the province were slightly larger than the current state, extending into a part of the present state of New York, until the border was finalized in 1773. [1]

Middle Colonies English, from 1707 British, possessions in North America up to 1773

The Middle Colonies were a subset of the thirteen colonies in British America, located between the New England Colonies and the Southern Colonies. Along with the Chesapeake Colonies, this area now roughly makes up the Mid-Atlantic states.

New Jersey State of the United States of America

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, particularly along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by the Delaware Bay and Delaware. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, and the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states; its biggest city is Newark. New Jersey lies completely within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U.S. state by median household income as of 2017.

New Netherland 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the East Coast of North America

New Netherland was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of America. The claimed territories extended from the Delmarva Peninsula to southwestern Cape Cod, while the more limited settled areas are now part of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut, with small outposts in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island.

Contents

Map showing the borders of West New Jersey (left) and East New Jersey (right) Wpdms east west new jersey.png
Map showing the borders of West New Jersey (left) and East New Jersey (right)

Background

The relative location of New Netherland and New Sweden in eastern North America. Nieuw Nederland and Nya Sverige.svg
The relative location of New Netherland and New Sweden in eastern North America.

The Province of New Jersey was originally settled in the 1610s as part of the colony of New Netherland. The surrender of Fort Amsterdam in September 1664 gave control over the entire Mid-Atlantic region to the English as part the Second Anglo-Dutch War. The English justified the seizure by claiming that John Cabot (c. 1450 – c. 1508), an Italian under the sponsorship of the English King Henry VII, had been the first to discover the place, though it was probably to assert control over the profitable North Atlantic trade. Director-General of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant, (unable to rouse a military defense) relinquished control of the colony and was able in the articles of transfer to secure guarantees for property rights, laws of inheritance, and freedom of religion. After the surrender Richard Nicolls took the position as deputy-governor of New Amsterdam and the rest of New Netherland, including those settlements on the west side of the North River (Hudson River) known as Bergen, and those along the Delaware River that had been New Sweden.

Fort Amsterdam former fort in New York

Fort Amsterdam was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan. It was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of New York from 1625 or 1626, until being torn down in 1790 after the American Revolution.

Kingdom of England historic sovereign kingdom on the British Isles (927–1649; 1660–1707)

The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Second Anglo-Dutch War conflict fought between England and the United Provinces

The Second Anglo-Dutch War, or the Second Dutch War was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry. After initial English successes, the war ended in a Dutch victory. It was the second of a series of naval wars fought between the English and the Dutch in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Proprietary government

See also: Lords Proprietor (1665–1703) and Governors under the Proprietors (1665–1674)

In March 1664, King Charles II granted his brother, James, the Duke of York, a Royal colony that covered New Netherlands and present-day Maine. [2] This charter also included parts of present-day Massachusetts, which conflicted with that colony's charter. The charter allowed James traditional propriety rights and imposed few restrictions upon his powers. In general terms, the charter was equivalent to a conveyance of land conferring on him the right of possession, control, and government, subject only to the limitation that the government must be consistent with the laws of England. The Duke of York never visited his colony and exercised little direct control of it. He elected to administer his government through governors, councils, and other officers appointed by himself. No provision was made for an elected assembly.

Charles II of England King of England, Ireland and Scotland

Charles II was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death.

James II of England 17th-century King of England and Ireland, and of Scotland (as James VII)

James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, his reign is now remembered primarily for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it also involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown.

Crown colony, dependent territory or royal colony were dependent territories under the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that were controlled by the British Government. As such they are examples of dependencies that are under colonial rule. Crown colonies were renamed "British Dependent Territories" in 1981, and since 2002, Crown colonies have been known officially as British Overseas Territories.

Later in 1664, the Duke of York gave the part of his new possessions between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to Sir George Carteret in exchange for settlement of a debt. [3] The territory was named after the Island of Jersey, Carteret's ancestral home. [4] The other section of New Jersey was sold to Lord Berkeley of Stratton, who was a close friend of the Duke. As a result, Carteret and Berkeley became the two English Lords Proprietors of New Jersey. [5] [6] The two proprietors of New Jersey attempted to attract more settlers to move to the province by granting sections of lands to settlers and by passing the Concession and Agreement, a 1665 document that granted religious freedom to all inhabitants of New Jersey; [7] under the British government, there was no such religious freedom as the Church of England was the state church. In return for the land, the settlers were supposed to pay annual fees known as quit-rents.

Hudson River river in New York State, draining into the Atlantic at New York City

The Hudson River is a 315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New York Bay between New York City and Jersey City. It eventually drains into the Atlantic Ocean at New York Harbor. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Further north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties. The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as the city of Troy.

Delaware River major river on the East coast of the United States of America

The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. It drains an area of 14,119 square miles (36,570 km2) in five U.S. states: Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. Rising in two branches in New York state's Catskill Mountains, the river flows 419 miles (674 km) into Delaware Bay where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near Cape May in New Jersey and Cape Henlopen in Delaware. Not including Delaware Bay, the river's length including its two branches is 388 miles (624 km). The Delaware River is one of nineteen "Great Waters" recognized by the America's Great Waters Coalition.

George Carteret British Royalist politician and colonial proprietor of New Jersey

Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret, 1st Baronet, son of Elias de Carteret, was a royalist statesman in Jersey and England, who served in the Clarendon Ministry as Treasurer of the Navy. He was also one of the original Lords Proprietor of the former British colony of Carolina and New Jersey. Carteret, New Jersey, as well as Carteret County, North Carolina, both in the United States, are named after him. He acquired the manor of Haynes, Bedfordshire in about 1667.

In 1665, Philip Carteret became the first Governor of New Jersey, appointed by the two proprietors. He selected Elizabeth as the capital of New Jersey. Immediately, Carteret issued several additional grants of land to landowners. Towns were started and charters granted to Bergen (1668) Woodbridge (1669), Piscataway (1666), Shrewsbury, Middletown (1693) and Newark (1666).

Elizabeth, New Jersey City in Union County, New Jersey, U.S.

Elizabeth is both the largest city and the county seat of Union County, in New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 124,969, retaining its ranking as New Jersey's fourth most populous city, behind Paterson. The population increased by 4,401 (3.7%) from the 120,568 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 10,566 (+9.6%) from the 110,002 counted in the 1990 Census. For 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 130,215, an increase of 4.2% from the 2010 enumeration, ranking the city the 212th-most-populous in the nation.

Piscataway, New Jersey Township in New Jersey

Piscataway is a township in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 56,044, reflecting an increase of 5,562 (+11.0%) from the 50,482 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 3,393 (+7.2%) from the 47,089 counted in 1990.

Shrewsbury, New Jersey Borough in New Jersey, United States

Shrewsbury is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey, USA. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 3,809, reflecting an increase of 219 (+6.1%) from the 3,590 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 494 (+16.0%) from the 3,096 counted in the 1990 Census.

The idea of quitrents became increasingly difficult because many of the settlers refused to pay them. Most of them claimed that they owed nothing to the proprietors because they received land from Richard Nicolls, Governor of New York. This forced Berkeley to sell West Jersey to John Fenwick and Edward Byllynge, two English Quakers. Many more Quakers made their homes in New Jersey, seeking religious freedom from English (Church of England) rule.

Quit rent, quit-rent, or quitrent, is a tax or land tax imposed on occupants of freehold or leased land in lieu of services to a higher landowning authority, usually a government or its assigns.

John Fenwick (1618–1683) was the leader of a group of Quakers who emigrated in 1675 from England to Salem, New Jersey where they established Fenwick's Colony, the first English settlement in West Jersey.

Edward Byllynge was a British colonial administrator and governor of West New Jersey from 1680 to 1687, until his death in England. Byllynge owned a large section of land in New Jersey with the Quakers.

Meanwhile, conflicts began rising in New Jersey. Edmund Andros, governor of New York, attempted to gain authority over East Jersey after the death of Proprietor George Carteret in 1680. However, he was unable to remove the position of governorship from Governor Phillip Carteret and subsequently moved to attack him and brought him to trial in New York. Carteret was later acquitted. In addition, quarrels occurred in between Eastern and Western New Jerseyans, between Native Americans and New Jerseyans and between different religious groups. In the largest of these squabbles, the New York-New Jersey Line War some 210,000 acres (849.8 km²) of land were at stake between New York and New Jersey. The conflict was eventually settled by a royal commission in 1769.

East Jersey and West Jersey

1706 Map of East and West Jersey
surveyed by John Worlidge A new mapp of East and West New Jarsey (sic) - being an exact survey LOC 97683601.jpg
1706 Map of East and West Jersey
surveyed by John Worlidge
See also: Governors of East Jersey (1674–1702) and Governors of West Jersey (1680–1702)

From 1674 to 1702, the Province of New Jersey was divided into East Jersey and West Jersey, each with its own governor. Each had its own constitution: the West Jersey Constitution (1681) and the East Jersey Constitution (1683). [8] [9]

The exact border between West and East Jersey was often disputed. The border between the two sides reached the Atlantic Ocean to the north of present-day Atlantic City. The border line was created by George Keith and can still be seen in the county boundaries between Burlington and Ocean Counties, and between Hunterdon and Somerset Counties. The Keith line runs NNW from the southern part of Little Egg Harbor Township, passing just north of Tuckerton, and reaching upward to a point on the Delaware River which is just north of the Delaware Water Gap. Later, the 1676 Quintipartite Deed helped to lessen the disputes. More accurate surveys and maps were made to resolve property disputes. This resulted in the Thornton line, drawn around 1696, and the Lawrence line, drawn around 1743, which was adopted as the final line for legal purposes. [10]

Dominion of New England

The Dominion of New England was a short-lived administrative union. On May 7, 1688, the Province of New York, the Province of East Jersey, and the Province of West Jersey were added to the Dominion. The capital was located in Boston but, due to its size, New York and the Jerseys were run by the lieutenant governor from New York City. After news of the overthrow of James II by William of Orange in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 reached Boston, the colonists rose up in rebellion, and the dominion was dissolved in 1689.

Royal colony

On April 17, 1702, under the rule of Queen Anne, the two sections of the proprietary colony were united and New Jersey became a royal colony. Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury, became the first governor of the colony as a royal colony. However, he was an ineffective and corrupt ruler, taking bribes and speculating on land. In 1708, Lord Cornbury was recalled to England. New Jersey was then again ruled by the governors of New York, but this infuriated the settlers of New Jersey, accusing those governors of favoritism to New York. Judge Lewis Morris led the case for a separate governor, and was appointed governor by King George II in 1738. [11]

New York–New Jersey Line War

Provincial Congress

First state constitution

New Jersey's first state constitution was adopted on July 2, 1776. [12] The American Revolutionary War was underway and General George Washington recently had been defeated in New York, putting the state in danger of invasion. [12] The 1776 New Jersey State Constitution was drafted in five days and ratified within the next two days to establish a temporary government, thereby preventing New Jersey from collapsing and descending into anarchy. [13] Among other provisions, it granted unmarried women and blacks who met property requirements the right to vote. [12]

Judiciary

The Supreme Court was established in 1704, to sit alternately at Perth Amboy and Burlington, consisting of a Chief Justice, a Second Judge and several Associate Judges.

Chief Justices [14]
IncumbentTenureNotes
Took officeLeft office
Roger Mompesson Oct 17041709
Thomas Gordon 28 Apr 17091709
Roger Mompesson 170914 Feb 1710
David Jamison17101723
William Trent 23 Nov 172325 Dec 1724
Robert Lettis Hooper 2 Jan 17251728
Thomas Farmar17281728
Robert Lettis Hooper 17291738
Robert Hunter Morris 17 Mar 173927 January 1757disputed resignation in 1754, left for England 1757
William Aynsley16 Feb 1757May 1758
Robert Hunter Morris 176127 Jan 1764restored to office
Charles Reade20 Feb 17641764
Frederick Smyth17 Oct 17641766

See also

Related Research Articles

This section of the timeline of United States history concerns events from before the lead up to the American Revolution.

West Jersey English possession in North America between 1674 and 1702

West Jersey and East Jersey were two distinct parts of the Province of New Jersey. The political division existed for 28 years, between 1674 and 1702. Determination of an exact location for a border between West Jersey and East Jersey was often a matter of dispute.

East Jersey English possession in North America between 1674 and 1702

The Province of East Jersey, along with the Province of West Jersey, between 1674 and 1702 in accordance with the Quintipartite Deed were two distinct political divisions of the Province of New Jersey, which became the U.S. state of New Jersey. The two provinces were amalgamated in 1702. East Jersey's capital was located at Perth Amboy. Determination of an exact location for a border between West Jersey and East Jersey was often a matter of dispute.

Edmund Andros British governor of several North American colonies

Sir Edmund Andros was an English colonial administrator in North America. He was the governor of the Dominion of New England during most of its three-year existence. At other times, Andros served as governor of the provinces of New York, East and West Jersey, Virginia, and Maryland.

Province of New York English, from 1707, British, possession in North America between 1664 and 1776

The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony on the northeast coast of North America. As one of the Thirteen Colonies, New York achieved independence and worked with the others to found the United States.

Province of Carolina Colony in North America

The Province of Carolina was an English and later a British colony of North America. Carolina was founded in what is present-day North Carolina. Carolina expanded south and, at its greatest extent, nominally included the present-day states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee and Mississippi, and parts of modern Florida and Louisiana.

The Shire of York (Yorkshire), was the first large governmental unit organized in the English Province of New York soon after English control of the area was established in 1664.

A lord proprietor is a person granted a royal charter for the establishment and government of an English colony in the 17th century. The plural of the term is "lords proprietors" or "lords proprietary".

Philip Carteret; French: Philippe de Carteret; 1639–1682) was the first Governor of New Jersey, from 1665 to 1673 and governor of East New Jersey from 1674 to 1682.

Concession and Agreement was a 1664 document that provided religious freedom in the colony of New Jersey. It was issued as a proclamation for the structure of the government for the colony written in 1664 by the two proprietors, Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. The document promised religious freedom to all inhabitants of New Jersey, and also declared that the proprietors would be in charge of appointing the provincial governors. The first such governor to be appointed was Philip Carteret.

European colonization of New Jersey started soon after the 1609 exploration of its coast and bays by Sir Henry Hudson. Part of the state was settled by Dutch and Swedish as New Netherland and New Sweden. In 1664, the entire area was surrendered to the English, and given its name. With of the Treaty of Westminster in 1674, they formally gained control of the region until the American Revolution.

Originally, the state of New Jersey was a single British colony, the Province of New Jersey. After the English Civil War, Charles II assigned New Jersey as a proprietary colony to be held jointly by Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton. Eventually, the collection of land fees, or quit-rents, from colonists proved inadequate for colonial profitability. Sir George Carteret sold his share of the colony to the Quakers in 1673. Following the sale, the land was divided into East and West Jersey. In 1681, West Jersey adopted a constitution. In 1683, East Jersey adopted one as well. In 1702, the colonies were united again under Anne, Queen of Great Britain, and adopted a constitution in 1776.

New York – New Jersey Line War

The New York – New Jersey Line War was a series of skirmishes and raids that took place for over half a century between 1701 and 1765 at the disputed border between two American colonies, the Province of New York and the Province of New Jersey.

John Berry was a British naval officer in the Royal Navy who served as Deputy Governor of the Proprietary Colony of New Jersey.

The Thornton Line is a boundary line or partition line surveyed in 1696 through the Province of New Jersey during the colonial period, separating the territory into two proprietary colonies: the Province of East Jersey and the Province of West Jersey. New Jersey was divided into two proprietary colonies after the Duke of York's 1664 grant of the colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton, and the sale of rights under the Quintipartite Deed in 1676. The Thornton Line was an attempt to replace the errors of the Keith line (1686) and its amendment the Coxe–Barclay Line (1688) which was disowned by the East Jersey proprietors in 1695. While it appears on Worlidge's map of the two Jersey colonies, it was never formally adopted.

East New Jersey Provincial Council

The East New Jersey Provincial Council or Governor's Council was the upper house of the East New Jersey Legislature under proprietary rule until the surrender of the right of government to The Crown, and Queen Anne's acceptance.

References

  1. The New York – New Jersey Line War (also known as the "N.J. Line War") refers to a series of skirmishes and raids that took place between 1701 and 1765 at the disputed border between two American colonies — the Province of New Jersey and the Province of New York.
  2. "Timeline". New York State Senate. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  3. Turner, Jean-Rae and Richard T. Koles (Aug 27, 2003). Elizabeth: First Capital of New Jersey. Arcadia Publishing. p. 11. ISBN   0738523933.
  4. The province was also called "the Province of New Caesaria or New Jersey". See: Philip Carteret.
  5. Rieff, Henry, "Interpretations of New York-New Jersey Agreements 1834 and 1921" (PDF), Newark Law Review, 1 (2), archived from the original (PDF) on May 6, 2006
  6. "Land Speculation and Proprietary Beginnings of New Jersey" (PDF). The Advocate. New Jersey Land Title Association. XVI (4): 3, 20, 14. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  7. The Concession and Agreement was the first of three fundamental documents that governed the Province of New Jersey. See: New Jersey State Constitution#Previous versions. See also: History of the New Jersey State Constitution. For the other two fundamental documents, see #East Jersey and West Jersey.
  8. Avalon Project. "Province of West New-Jersey, in America, The 25th of the Ninth Month Called November". Yale Law School. Archived from the original on 2007-01-02. Retrieved 2006-12-17.Avalon Project. "The Fundamental Constitutions for the Province of East New Jersey in America, Anno Domini 1683". Yale Law School. Archived from the original on 2006-12-05. Retrieved 2006-12-17.
  9. See: New Jersey State Constitution#Previous versions. See also: History of the New Jersey State Constitution. In addition to these two fundamental documents, a third such document was the Concession and Agreement. See: #Settlement and early history.
  10. Aun, Fred (January 1995). "A Fine Old Line Across New Jersey". Coordinate. 15 (1). Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  11. Streissguth pg 30–36
  12. 1 2 3 See: New Jersey State Constitution#Previous versions.
  13. "The New Jersey Constitution of 1776" . Retrieved 2006-12-17.
  14. Tanner, Edwin. The province of New Jersey, 1664-1738 (Volume 1).

Further reading

Coordinates: 40°48′32″N74°31′12″W / 40.809°N 74.520°W / 40.809; -74.520