Mid-Atlantic (United States)

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Mid-Atlantic
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2015 Independence Hall - Philadelphia 01.JPG
Assateague Wetlands.jpg
Philadelphia skyline from South Street Bridge January 2020 (rotate 2 degrees perspective correction crop 4-1).jpg
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Left-right from top: Manhattan skyline, Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Assateague wetlands, Panorama of Philadelphia, Catskill Mountains, Pittsburgh skyline, Panorama of Washington, D.C.
The Mid-Atlantic States.png
States in dark red are traditionally included in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast regions, while states in pink are traditionally included in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast regions.
Coordinates: 41°N77°W / 41°N 77°W / 41; -77 Coordinates: 41°N77°W / 41°N 77°W / 41; -77
Composition
Metropolitan areas
Largest city New York
Area
  Total191,308.5 sq mi (495,487 km2)
Population
 (2008 est.) [1]
  Total57,303,316
  Density300/sq mi (120/km2)
GDP
[2]
  Total$2.962 trillion (2007)

The Middle Atlantic states, commonly shortened to Mid-Atlantic states, is a region of the United States generally located in the overlap between the Northeastern and Southeastern States. Its exact definition differs upon source, but the region usually includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Washington, D.C., Virginia, and West Virginia. When discussing climate, Connecticut is sometimes included in the region, since its climate is closer to that of the Middle Atlantic states than the rest of the New England states. [3] The Mid-Atlantic has played an important role in the development of American culture, commerce, trade and industry. [4]

Contents

In the late 19th century, it was called "the typically American" region by Frederick Jackson Turner. Religious pluralism existed, particularly in Maryland, which was the only Catholic-majority colony of the original Thirteen Colonies. Euro-Americans of Mid-Atlantic society have their ancestral origin from its settlement by Dutch, Swedes, English Catholics, and Quakers through to the period of British rule, and beyond to the current day. After the American Revolution, the Mid-Atlantic region hosted each of the historic capitals of the United States, including the current federal capital, Washington, D.C.

In the early part of the 19th century, New York and Pennsylvania overtook Virginia as the most populous states and the New England states as the country's most important trading and industrial centers. Large numbers of German, Irish, Italian, Jewish, Polish and other immigrants transformed the region, especially coastal cities such as New York City, Newark, Philadelphia and Baltimore, but also interior cities such as Pittsburgh, Rochester, Albany and Buffalo.

New York, with its skyscrapers, subways, and the Headquarters of the United Nations, emerged in the 20th century as an icon of modernity and American economic and cultural power. By the 21st century, the coastal areas of the Mid-Atlantic were thoroughly urbanized.

The Northeast Corridor and Interstate 95 link an almost contiguous sprawl of suburbs and large and small cities, forming the Mid-Atlantic portion of the Northeast megalopolis, one of the world's most important concentrations of finance, media, communications, education, medicine and technology.

The Mid-Atlantic is a relatively affluent region of the nation, having 43 of the 100 highest-income counties in the nation based on median household income and 33 of the top 100 based on per capita income. Most of the Mid-Atlantic states rank among the 15 highest-income states in the nation by median household income and per capita income.

The Mid-Atlantic is home to some of the most prestigious universities in the nation and world including Columbia University, Cornell University, Johns Hopkins University, the University of Pennsylvania, and Princeton University, which rank among the top 20 universities in the United States and the top 25 universities in the world. [5] [6]

Defining the Mid-Atlantic

There are differing interpretations as to the composition of the Mid-Atlantic, with sources including in the region a number of states from New York to South Carolina. [7] A United States Geological Survey publication describes the Mid-Atlantic Region as all of Maryland, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, along with the parts of New Jersey, New York, and North Carolina that drain into the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays and the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds. [8] Sometimes, the nucleus is considered to be the area centered on the Washington metropolitan area, including Maryland, Virginia, Delaware and West Virginia. [9]

West Virginia and Virginia are atypical of this region in a few ways. They are the only states to lie primarily within the Southern American dialect region, [10] and the major religious tradition in both states is Evangelical Christian, 30% in Virginia and 39% in West Virginia. [11] Although a few of West Virginia's eastern panhandle counties are considered part of the Washington, D.C. MSA, the major portion of the state is rural, and there are no major or even large cities. [12]

History

Shipping containers at the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal, part of the Port of New York and New Jersey Line3174 - Shipping Containers at the terminal at Port Elizabeth, New Jersey - NOAA.jpg
Shipping containers at the Port Newark–Elizabeth Marine Terminal, part of the Port of New York and New Jersey

Shipping and trade have been important to the Mid-Atlantic economy since the beginning of the colonial era.

The explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to see the region in 1524. Henry Hudson later extensively explored that region in 1611 and claimed it for the Dutch, who then created a fur-trading post in Albany in 1614. Jamestown, Virginia was the first permanent English colony in North America, it was established seven years earlier in 1607.

From early colonial times, the Mid-Atlantic region was settled by a wider range of European people than in New England or the South. The Dutch New Netherland settlement along the Hudson River in New York and New Jersey, and for a time, New Sweden along the Delaware River in Delaware, divided the two great bulwarks of English settlement from each other. The original English settlements in the region notably provided refuge to religious minorities, Maryland to Roman Catholics, and Pennsylvania to Quakers and Anabaptist Pennsylvania Dutch. In time, all these settlements fell under English colonial control, but the region continued to be a magnet for people of diverse nationalities.

The area that came to be known as the Middle Colonies served as a strategic bridge between the North and South. The New York and New Jersey campaign during the American Revolutionary War saw more battles than any other theater of the conflict. Philadelphia, midway between the northern and southern colonies, was home to the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates who organized the American Revolution. The same city was the birthplace of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the United States Constitution in 1787, while the United States Bill of Rights was drafted and ratified, and the first Supreme Court of the United States sat for the first time, in the first capital under the Constitution at New York.

While early settlers were mostly farmers, traders, and fishermen, the Mid-Atlantic states provided the young United States with heavy industry and served as the "melting pot" of new immigrants from Europe. Cities grew along major ports, shipping routes, and waterways. Such flourishing cities included New York and Newark on opposite sides of the Hudson River, Philadelphia on the Delaware River and Baltimore on the Chesapeake Bay.

Major cities and urban areas

New York NYC wideangle south from Top of the Rock.jpg
New York
Philadelphia Philadelphia skyline August 2007.jpg
Philadelphia
Baltimore Baltimore Harbor from rest.jpg
Baltimore
Washington, D.C. Dcskyln1.jpg
Washington, D.C.

Metropolitan areas

Largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas by Population in the Mid-Atlantic Region
MSA2016 Estimate2010 Census
1 New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 20,153,63419,567,410
2 Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 6,131,9775,636,232
3 Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 6,070,5005,965,343
4 Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD 2,798,8862,710,489
5 Pittsburgh, PA 2,342,2992,356,285
6 Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 1,726,9071,676,822
7 Richmond, VA 1,281,7081,208,101
8 Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY 1,132,8041,135,509
9 Rochester, NY 1,078,8791,079,671
10 Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 881,839870,716
Top Ten Largest Cities by Population in the Mid-Atlantic Region
City2016 Est.
1 New York, NY 8,537,673
2 Philadelphia, PA 1,567,872
3 Washington, D.C. 681,170
4 Baltimore, MD 614,664
5 Virginia Beach, VA 425,602
6 Pittsburgh, PA 303,625
7 Newark, NJ 281,764
8 Jersey City, New Jersey 264,152
9 Buffalo, New York 259,902
10 Norfolk, Virginia 245,115

State capitals

Note: The Mid-Atlantic region is also home to the nation's capital, Washington, D.C..

In presidential elections

Parties
Nonpartisan Federalist Democratic-Republican National Republican Democratic Whig Know Nothing Republican Constitutional Union Progressive
Presidential electoral votes in the Mid-Atlantic states since 1789
YearDelawareDistrict of ColumbiaMarylandNew JerseyNew YorkPennsylvaniaVirginiaWest Virginia
1789 Washington No election Washington Washington Gridlocked Washington Washington No election
1792 Washington No election Washington Washington Washington Washington Washington No election
1796 Adams No election Adams Adams Adams Jefferson Jefferson No election
1800 Adams No election Jefferson Adams Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson No election
1804 Pinckney No election Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson No election
1808 Pinckney No election Madison Madison Madison Madison Madison No election
1812 Clinton No election Madison Clinton Clinton Madison Madison No election
1816 King No election Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe No election
1820 Monroe No election Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe No election
1824 Crawford No election Jackson Jackson Adams Jackson Crawford No election
1828 Adams No election Adams Adams Jackson Jackson Jackson No election
1832 Clay No election Clay Jackson Jackson Jackson Jackson No election
1836 Harrison No election Harrison Harrison Van Buren Van Buren Van Buren No election
1840 Harrison No election Harrison Harrison Harrison Harrison Van Buren No election
1844 Clay No election Clay Clay Polk Polk Polk No election
1848 Taylor No election Taylor Taylor Taylor Taylor Cass No election
1852 Pierce No election Pierce Pierce Pierce Pierce Pierce No election
1856 Buchanan No election Fillmore Buchanan Frémont Buchanan Buchanan No election
1860 Breckinridge No election Breckinridge Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Bell No election
1864 McClellan No election Lincoln McClellan Lincoln Lincoln No election Lincoln
1868 Seymour No election Seymour Seymour Seymour Grant No election Grant
1872 Grant No election Hendricks Grant Grant Grant Grant Grant
1876 Tilden No election Tilden Tilden Tilden Hayes Tilden Tilden
1880 Hancock No election Hancock Hancock Garfield Garfield Hancock Hancock
1884 Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Blaine Cleveland Cleveland
1888 Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Harrison Harrison Cleveland Cleveland
1892 Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Harrison Cleveland Cleveland
1896 McKinley No election McKinley McKinley McKinley McKinley Bryan McKinley
1900 McKinley No election McKinley McKinley McKinley McKinley Bryan McKinley
1904 Roosevelt No election Parker Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Parker Roosevelt
1908 Taft No election Bryan Taft Taft Taft Bryan Taft
1912 Wilson No election Wilson Wilson Wilson Roosevelt Wilson Wilson
1916 Hughes No election Wilson Hughes Hughes Hughes Wilson Hughes
1920 Harding No election Harding Harding Harding Harding Cox Harding
1924 Coolidge No election Coolidge Coolidge Coolidge Coolidge Davis Coolidge
1928 Hoover No election Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover
1932 Hoover No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Hoover Roosevelt Roosevelt
1936 Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1940 Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1944 Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1948 Dewey No election Dewey Dewey Dewey Dewey Truman Truman
1952 Eisenhower No election Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Stevenson
1956 Eisenhower No election Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower
1960 Kennedy No election Kennedy Kennedy Kennedy Kennedy Nixon Kennedy
1964 Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson
1968 Nixon Humphrey Humphrey Nixon Humphrey Humphrey Nixon Humphrey
1972 Nixon McGovern Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon
1976 Carter Carter Carter Ford Carter Carter Ford Carter
1980 Reagan Carter Carter Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Carter
1984 Reagan Mondale Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan
1988 Bush Dukakis Bush Bush Dukakis Bush Bush Dukakis
1992 Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Bush Clinton
1996 Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Dole Clinton
2000 Gore Gore Gore Gore Gore Gore Bush Bush
2004 Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Bush Bush
2008 Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama McCain
2012 Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Romney
2016 Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Trump Clinton Trump
2020 Biden Biden Biden Biden Biden Biden Biden Trump
YearDelawareDistrict of ColumbiaMarylandNew JerseyNew YorkPennsylvaniaVirginiaWest Virginia

Culture

Sports

The Mid-Atlantic is home to 31 professional sports franchises in major leagues:

NFL NHL MLB NBA MLS WNBA
New York/New Jersey Giants
Jets
Devils
Islanders
Rangers
Mets
Yankees
Knicks
Nets
NYC FC
Red Bulls
Liberty
Washington Washington Football Team Capitals Nationals Wizards United Mystics
Philadelphia Eagles Flyers Phillies 76ers Union
Pittsburgh Steelers Penguins Pirates
Baltimore Ravens Orioles
Buffalo Bills Sabres

Notable golf tournaments in the Mid-Atlantic include the Barclays, Quicken Loans National and Atlantic City LPGA Classic. The US Open, held in New York, is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, whereas Washington Open is part of the ATP World Tour 500 series.

Notable motorsports tracks include Watkins Glen International, Dover International Speedway and Pocono Raceway, which have hosted Formula One, IndyCar, NASCAR, World Sportscar Championship and IMSA races. Also, the Englishtown and Reading drag strips such have hosted NHRA national events. Pimlico Race Course at Baltimore and Belmont Park at New York host the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes horse races, which are part of the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing.

See also

Related Research Articles

Delaware State in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States

Delaware is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes its name from the nearby Delaware River named after Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor.

Maryland State of the United States of America

Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state's largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, and the Chesapeake Bay State. It is named after the English Queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary, who was the wife of King Charles I.

Thirteen Colonies British-American colonies which became the United States

The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of colonies of Great Britain on the Atlantic coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries which declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America. The Thirteen Colonies had very similar political, constitutional, and legal systems, and were dominated by Protestant English-speakers. The New England colonies, as well as the colonies of Maryland and Pennsylvania, were founded primarily for religious beliefs, while the other colonies were founded for business and economic expansion. All thirteen were part of Britain's possessions in the New World, which also included colonies in Canada, Florida, and the Caribbean.

Delaware River Major river on the East Coast of the United States

The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. It drains an area of 13,539 square miles (35,070 km2) in four U.S. states: Delaware, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania. Rising in two branches in New York state's Catskill Mountains, the river flows 419 miles (674 km) into Delaware Bay where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near Cape May in New Jersey and Cape Henlopen in Delaware. Not including Delaware Bay, the river's length including its two branches is 388 miles (624 km). The Delaware River is one of nineteen "Great Waters" recognized by the America's Great Waters Coalition.

Delmarva Peninsula Large peninsula on the East Coast of the US

The Delmarva Peninsula, or simply Delmarva, is a large peninsula on the East Coast of the United States, occupied by the vast majority of the state of Delaware and parts of the Eastern Shore regions of Maryland and Virginia. The peninsula is 170 miles (274 km) long. In width, it ranges from 70 miles (113 km) near its center, to 12 miles (19 km) at the isthmus on its northern edge, to less near its southern tip of Cape Charles. It is bordered by the Chesapeake Bay on the west, and the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east.

East Coast of the United States Coastline in the United States

The East Coast of the United States, also known as the Eastern Seaboard, the Atlantic Coast, and the Atlantic Seaboard, is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean. Regionally, the term refers to the coastal states and area east of the Appalachian Mountains that have shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean, from north to south, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida.

Colonial history of the United States Aspect of history

The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of America from the early 16th century until the incorporation of the colonies into the United States of America. In the late 16th century, England, France, Castile, and the Dutch Republic launched major colonization programs in America. The death rate was very high among those who arrived first, and some early attempts disappeared altogether, such as the English Lost Colony of Roanoke. Nevertheless, successful colonies were established within several decades.

Middle Colonies

The Middle Colonies were a subset of the Thirteen Colonies in British America, located between the New England Colonies and the Southern Colonies. Along with the Chesapeake Colonies, this area now roughly makes up the Mid-Atlantic states.

Delaware Valley Metropolitan area in the United States

The Delaware Valley is the valley through which the Delaware River flows. By extension, this toponym is commonly used to refer to Greater Philadelphia or the Philadelphia metropolitan area. The Delaware Valley is coterminous with a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) and broader combined statistical area (CSA), and is composed of counties located in Southeastern Pennsylvania, South Jersey, Delaware, and the Eastern Shore of Maryland. As of the 2010 Census, the MSA has a population of over 6 million, while the CSA has a population of over 7.1 million.

Northeastern United States One of the four census regions of the United States of America

The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States. The Northeast is one of the four regions defined by the United States Census Bureau for the collection and analysis of statistics.

Ohio Country Historical region in North America

The Ohio Country was a name used in the mid- to late 18th century for a region of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and north of the upper Ohio and Allegheny Rivers extending to Lake Erie. The area encompassed roughly all of present-day states of Ohio, northwestern West Virginia, Western Pennsylvania, and a wedge of southeastern Indiana.

Eastern United States

The Eastern United States, commonly referred to as the American East or simply the East, is the region of the United States lying to the east of the Mississippi River. In some cases the term may refer to a smaller area.

South Jersey

South Jersey comprises the southern portion of the U.S. state of New Jersey, between the lower Delaware River and the Atlantic Ocean. The designation of southern New Jersey with a distinct toponym is a colloquial one rather than an administrative one, reflecting not only geographical but also perceived cultural differences from the northern part of the state, with no official definition. Though definitions of South Jersey may vary, most of South Jersey is generally considered to be part of the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area.

Susquehannock

Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by the English, were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries ranging from its upper reaches in the southern part of what is now New York, through eastern and central Pennsylvania west of the Poconos and the upper Delaware River, with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the west bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay.

The history of Delaware as a political entity dates back to the early colonization of North America by European-American settlers. It is made up of three counties established since 1638, before the time of William Penn. Each had its own settlement history. Their early inhabitants tended to identify more closely with the county than the colony or state. Large parts of southern and western Delaware were thought to have been in Maryland until 1767. All of the state has existed in the wide economic and political circle of Philadelphia.

The Mid-Atlantic Region is one of eight United States regions that currently sends teams to the Little League World Series, the largest youth baseball tournament in the world. The Mid-Atlantic Region's participation in the LLWS dates back to 1957, when it was known as the East Region. However, when the LLWS doubled in size from 8 to 16 teams in 2001, with the number of US teams expanding from 4 to 8, the East Region was split into the New England and Mid-Atlantic Regions.

A Flying Camp was a military formation employed by the Continental Army in the second half of 1776, during the American Revolutionary War.

References

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  2. "News Release: GDP by State" (PDF). Bureau of Economic Analysis. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-05-07. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
  3. "Middle Atlantic states - region, United States". Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  4. "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica . 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
  5. "National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  6. "Best Global Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  7. "Merriam-Webster". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2017-08-30.
  8. Earl A. Greene et al. "Ground-Water Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination in the Mid-Atlantic Region". USGS Fact Sheet FS 2004-3067. 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2013. Note: Although the locator map appears to exclude part of northwestern Pennsylvania, other more detailed maps in this article include all of the state. Often when discussing climate, southern Connecticut is included with the Middle Atlantic.
  9. "Word Net Definition". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
  10. Labov, William, Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg, Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change, Mouton de Gruyter, 2005 Southern Regional Map
  11. "Religious Landscape Study". Religions.pewforum.org. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  12. "U.S. Census 2000 Report" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  13. Earl A. Greene et al. "Ground-Water Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination in the Mid-Atlantic Region". USGS Fact Sheet FS 2004-3067. 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2013.Note: Although the locator map appears to exclude part of northwestern Pennsylvania, other more detailed maps in this article include all of the state.

Bibliography