Solid South

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Arkansas voted Democratic in all 23 presidential elections from 1876 through 1964; other states were not quite as solid but generally supported Democrats for president. DemocraticSolidSouth 1876-1964.png
Arkansas voted Democratic in all 23 presidential elections from 1876 through 1964; other states were not quite as solid but generally supported Democrats for president.

The Solid South or Southern bloc was the electoral voting bloc of the states of the Southern United States for issues that were regarded as particularly important to the interests of Democrats in those states. The Southern bloc existed especially between the end of Reconstruction in 1877 and the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964. During this period, the Democratic Party controlled state legislatures; most local and state officeholders in the South were Democrats, as were federal politicians elected from these states. Southern Democrats disenfranchised blacks in every state of the former Confederacy at the turn of the 20th century. This resulted essentially in a one-party system, in which a candidate's victory in Democratic primary elections was tantamount to election to the office itself. White primaries were another means that the Democrats used to consolidate their political power, excluding blacks from voting in primaries. [1]

Southern United States Cultural region of the United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. It is located between the Atlantic Ocean and the Western United States, with the Midwestern United States and Northeastern United States to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south.

Democratic Party (United States) Major political party in the United States

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main rival, the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party.

Reconstruction era Era of military occupation in the Southern United States after the American Civil War (1865–1877)

The Reconstruction era was the period in American history which lasted from 1863 to 1877. It was a significant chapter in the history of American civil rights.

Contents

The "Solid South" is a loose term referring to the states that made up the voting bloc at any point in time. The Southern region as defined by U.S. Census comprises sixteen states plus Washington, D.C.—Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas. This definition of the Southern region does not necessarily correspond precisely to the states in the definition of the Solid South. For example, Maryland was rarely considered part of the Solid South, whereas Missouri, though classified as a Midwestern state by the U.S. Census, often was. A former slave state, Missouri became dominated by the Democratic Party after the Reconstruction era.

Delaware State in the United States

Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the South-Atlantic or Southern region. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, north by Pennsylvania, and east by New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean. The state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor.

Florida U.S. state in the United States

Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital.

Georgia (U.S. state) State in the United States

Georgia is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Georgia is the 24th largest in area and 8th-most populous of the 50 United States. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, and to the west by Alabama. Atlanta, a "beta(+)" global city, is both the state's capital and largest city. The Atlanta metropolitan area, with an estimated population of 5,949,951 in 2018, is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in the United States and contains about 60% of the entire state population.

After the 1960s and passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, ensuring federal enforcement of constitutional rights in registration and voting, African Americans in the region were able to register and vote, rejoining the political system for the first time since the turn of the 20th century. While nearly six million African Americans had left the region by then in the Great Migration to other areas of the country, they and most of those who remained became affiliated with the Democratic Party. Its national leaders had supported the civil rights movement. Around the same time, white conservatives began to shift to the Republican Party, and by 2000 most had aligned with that. African Americans have elected numerous candidates of their choice, generally Democrats, from districts where their votes have been concentrated.

Voting Rights Act of 1965 Piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting. It was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson during the height of the civil rights movement on August 6, 1965, and Congress later amended the Act five times to expand its protections. Designed to enforce the voting rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, the Act secured the right to vote for racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, the Act is considered to be the most effective piece of federal civil rights legislation ever enacted in the country.

Great Migration (African American) Six million African Americans left Southern US to urban Northeast, Midwest, and West between 1916 and 1970.

The Great Migration, sometimes known as the Great Northward Migration or the Black Migration, was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970. It was caused primarily by the poor economic conditions as well as the prevalent racial segregation and discrimination in the Southern states where Jim Crow laws were upheld.

History

United States during the Civil War. Blue represents Union states, including those admitted during the war; light blue represents border states; red represents Confederate states. Unshaded areas were not states before or during the Civil War USA Map 1864 including Civil War Divisions.png
United States during the Civil War. Blue represents Union states, including those admitted during the war; light blue represents border states; red represents Confederate states. Unshaded areas were not states before or during the Civil War

At the start of the American Civil War, there were 34 states in the United States, 15 of which were slave states. Slavery was also legal in the District of Columbia. Eleven of these slave states seceded from the United States to form the Confederacy: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina. The slave states that stayed in the Union were Maryland, Missouri, Delaware, and Kentucky, and they were referred to as the border states. In 1861, West Virginia was created out of Virginia, and admitted in 1863 and considered a border state. By the time the Emancipation Proclamation was made in 1863 Tennessee was already under Union control. Accordingly the Proclamation applied only to the 10 remaining Confederate states. Several of the border states abolished slavery before the end of the Civil War—Maryland in 1864, [2] Missouri in 1865, [3] one of the Confederate states, Tennessee in 1865, [4] West Virginia in 1865, [5] and the District of Columbia in 1862. However, slavery persisted in Delaware, [6] Kentucky, [7] and 10 of the 11 former Confederate states, until the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery throughout the United States on December 18, 1865.

American Civil War Internal war in the U.S. over slavery

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights in order to uphold slavery.

Confederate States of America De facto federal republic in North America from 1861 to 1865

The Confederate States of America —commonly referred to as the Confederacy—was an unrecognized republic in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves. Convinced that the institution of slavery was threatened by the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories, the Confederacy declared its secession in rebellion to the United States, with the loyal states becoming known as the Union during the ensuing American Civil War. Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens described its ideology as being centrally based "upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition".

South Carolina State in the United States

South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River.

Democratic dominance of the South originated in the struggle of white Southerners during and after Reconstruction (1865–1877) to reestablish white supremacy and disenfranchise blacks. The U.S. government under the Republican Party had defeated the Confederacy, abolished slavery, and enfranchised blacks. In several states, black voters were a majority or close to it. Republicans supported by blacks controlled state governments in these states. Thus the Democratic Party became the vehicle for the white supremacist "Redeemers". The Ku Klux Klan, as well as other insurgent paramilitary groups such as the White League and Red Shirts from 1874, acted as "the military arm of the Democratic party" to disrupt Republican organizing, and intimidate and suppress black voters. [8]

White supremacy or white supremacism is the racist belief that white people are superior to people of other races and therefore should be dominant over them. White supremacy has roots in scientific racism, and it often relies on pseudoscientific arguments. Like most similar movements such as neo-Nazism, white supremacists typically oppose members of other races as well as Jews.

Ku Klux Klan American white supremacy group

The Ku Klux Klan, commonly called the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist hate group, whose primary target are African Americans. The Klan has existed in three distinct eras at different points in time during the history of the United States. Each has advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white nationalism, anti-immigration and—especially in later iterations—Nordicism and anti-Catholicism. Historically, the First Klan used terrorism – both physical assault and murder – against politically active blacks and their allies in the South in the late 1860s, until it was suppressed around 1872. All three movements have called for the "purification" of American society and all are considered right-wing extremist organizations. In each era, membership was secret and estimates of the total were highly exaggerated by both friends and enemies.

Paramilitary Militarised force or other organization

A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but is not formally part of a country's armed forces.

By 1876, "Redeemer" Democrats had taken control of all state governments in the South. From then until the 1960s, state and local government in the South was almost entirely monopolized by Democrats. The Democrats elected all but a handful of U.S. Representatives and Senators, and Democratic presidential candidates regularly swept the region – from 1880 through 1944, winning a cumulative total of 182 of 187 states. The Democrats reinforced the loyalty of white voters by emphasizing the suffering of the South during the war at the hands of "Yankee invaders" under Republican leadership, and the noble service of their white forefathers in "the Lost Cause". This rhetoric was effective with many Southerners. However, this propaganda was totally ineffective in areas that had been loyal to the Union during the war, such as eastern Tennessee. Eastern Tennessee welcomed U.S. troops as liberators, and voted Republican after the war, even to the present. [9]

Lost Cause of the Confederacy An American historical negationist ideology that holds that the cause of the Confederacy during the American Civil War was a just and heroic one

The Lost Cause of the Confederacy, or simply the Lost Cause, is an American pseudo-historical, negationist ideology that holds that the cause of the Confederacy during the American Civil War was a just and heroic one. The ideology endorses the supposed virtues of the antebellum South, viewing the war as a struggle primarily to save what they view as the beneficent and ethical Southern way of life, or "states' rights" in the face of overwhelming "Northern aggression". At the same time, the Lost Cause minimizes or denies outright the central role of slavery in the buildup to and outbreak of the war.

The "Solid South" from 1880-1912. Solid South 1880 to 1912.jpg
The "Solid South" from 1880–1912.

Even after white Democrats regained control of state legislatures, some blacks were elected to local offices and state legislatures in the South. Black U.S. Representatives were elected from the South as late as the 1890s, usually from overwhelmingly black areas. Also in the 1890s, the Populists developed a following in the South, among poor whites resentful of the Democratic party establishment. Populists formed alliances with Republicans (including blacks) and challenged the Democratic bosses, even defeating them in some cases. [10]

To prevent such coalitions in the future and to end the violence associated with suppressing the black vote during elections, Southern Democrats acted to disfranchise both blacks and poor whites. From 1890 to 1910, beginning with Mississippi, Southern states adopted new constitutions and other laws including various devices to restrict voter registration, disfranchising virtually all black and many poor white residents. [11] These devices applied to all citizens; in practice they disfranchised most blacks and also "would remove [from voter registration rolls] the less educated, less organized, more impoverished whites as well – and that would ensure one-party Democratic rules through most of the 20th century in the South". [12] [13] All the Southern states adopted provisions that restricted voter registration and suffrage, including new requirements for poll taxes, longer residency, and subjective literacy tests. Some also used the device of grandfather clauses, exempting voters who had a grandfather voting by a particular year (usually before the Civil War, when blacks could not vote.) [14]

White Democrats also opposed Republican economic policies such as the high tariff and the gold standard, both of which were seen as benefiting Northern industrial interests at the expense of the agrarian South in the 19th century. Nevertheless, holding all political power was at the heart of their resistance. From 1876 through 1944, the national Democratic party opposed any calls for civil rights for blacks. In Congress Southern Democrats blocked such efforts whenever Republicans targeted the issue. [15]

White Democrats passed "Jim Crow" laws which reinforced white supremacy through racial segregation. [16] The Fourteenth Amendment provided for apportionment of representation in Congress to be reduced if a state disenfranchised part of its population. However, this clause was never applied to Southern states that disenfranchised blacks. No blacks were elected to any office in the South for decades after the turn of the century; and they were also excluded from juries and other participation in civil life. [11]

Democratic candidates won by large margins in the Southern states in every presidential election from the 1876 to 1948 except for 1928, when the Democratic candidate was Al Smith, a Catholic New Yorker; and even in that election, the divided South provided Smith with nearly three-fourths of his electoral votes. Scholar Richard Valelly credited Woodrow Wilson's 1912 election to the disfranchisement of blacks in the South, and also noted far-reaching effects in Congress, where the Democratic South gained "about 25 extra seats in Congress for each decade between 1903 and 1953". [lower-alpha 1] [11]

In the Deep South (South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas), Democratic dominance was overwhelming, with 80%–90% of the vote, and only a tiny number of Republican state legislators or local officials. Mississippi and South Carolina were the most extreme cases – between 1900 and 1944, only in 1928 when the three subcoastal Mississippi counties of Pearl River, Stone and George went for Hoover did the Democrats lose even one of these two states' counties in any presidential election. [17] In the remaining states, the German-American Texas counties of Gillespie and Kendall, and a number of counties in Appalachian parts of Arkansas, Alabama and Georgia would vote Republican in presidential elections through this period. [18] In the Upper South (Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia), Republicans retained a significant presence mainly in these remote Appalachian regions which supported the Union during the Civil War, [18] even winning occasional governorships and often drawing over 40% in presidential votes.

By the 1920s, as memories of the Civil War faded, the Solid South cracked slightly. For instance, a Republican was elected U.S. Representative from Texas in 1920, serving until 1932. The Republican national landslides in 1920 and 1928 had some effects. In the 1920 elections, Tennessee elected a Republican governor, elected Republicans to five of the state's ten U.S. House seats and became the first former Confederate state to vote for the Republican candidate for U.S. President since Reconstruction. However, with the Democratic national landslide of 1932, the South again became solidly Democrat.

In the 1930s, black voters outside the South largely switched to the Democrats, and other groups with an interest in civil rights (notably Jews, Catholics, and academic intellectuals) became more powerful in the party. This led to the national Democrats adopting a civil rights plank in 1948. A faction of Deep South Democrats bolted the party, and ran their own "Dixiecrat" presidential ticket, which carried four states: South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. [19] Even before then, a number of conservative Southern Democrats felt chagrin at the national party's growing friendliness to organized labor during the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration, and began splitting their tickets as early as the 1930s.

Southern demography also began to change. From 1910 through 1970, about 6.5 million black Southerners moved to urban areas in other parts of the country in the Great Migration, and demographics began to change Southern states in other ways. Florida began to expand rapidly, with retirees and other migrants from other regions becoming a majority of the population. Many of these new residents brought their Republican voting habits with them, diluting traditional Southern hostility to the Republicans. The Republican Party began to make gains in the South, building on other cultural conflicts as well. By the mid-1960s, changes had come in many of the southern states. Former Dixiecrat Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina changed parties in 1964; Texas elected a Republican Senator in 1961; Florida and Arkansas elected Republican governors in 1966. In the upper South, where Republicans had always been a small presence, Republicans gained a few House and Senate seats.

Republican President Richard Nixon adopted a "Southern Strategy" for the 1972 election: continue enforcement of the civil rights legislation of the 1960s, but be quiet about it, so that offended Southern whites would continue to blame the Democrats, while talking up the Democrats' increasing association with liberal views. He was aided by centrist Democrats' attacks on the eventual nominee as a radical. This strategy was wildly successful – Nixon carried every southern state by huge margins.

The South was still overwhelmingly Democratic at the state level, with majorities in all state legislatures, and most U.S. Representatives as well. Over the next thirty years, this gradually changed. Veteran Democratic officeholders retired or died, and older voters who were still rigidly Democratic also died off. There were also increasing numbers of migrants from other areas, especially in Florida, Texas, and North Carolina. Via the "Republican Revolution" in the 1994 elections, Republicans captured a majority of Southern House seats for the first time.

Today, the South is considered a Republican stronghold at the state and federal levels, with Republicans holding majorities in every Southern state after the 2014 elections. Political experts have often cited a Southernization of politics following the fall of the "Solid South".

Oklahoma

Oklahoma was not a state during Reconstruction, being admitted to the Union only in 1907. Since that time, its voting patterns has been similar to those of other Southern states, so it may be considered part of the Solid South.[ citation needed ]

West Virginia

For West Virginia "reconstruction, in a sense, began in 1861". [20] Unlike the other border states West Virginia did not send the majority of its soldiers to the Union. [21] The prospect of those returning ex-Confederates prompted the Wheeling state government to implement laws that restricted their right of suffrage, practicing law and teaching, access to the legal system, and subjected them to "war trespass" lawsuits. [22] The lifting of these restrictions in 1871 resulted in the election of John J. Jacob, a Democrat, to the governorship. It also led to the rejection of the war-time constitution by public vote and a new constitution written under the leadership of ex-Confederates such as Samuel Price, Allen T. Caperton and Charles James Faulkner. In 1876 the state Democratic ticket of eight candidates were all elected, seven of whom were Confederate veterans. [23] For nearly a generation West Virginia was part of the Solid South. [24] [25]

However, Republicans returned to power in 1896, controlling the governorship for eight of the next nine terms, and electing 82 of 106 U.S. Representatives. In 1932, as the nation swung to the Democrats, West Virginia became solidly Democratic. It was perhaps the most reliably Democratic state in the nation between 1932 and 1996, being one of just two states (along with Minnesota) to vote for a Republican president as few as 3 times in that interval. Moreover, unlike Minnesota (or other nearly as reliably Democratic states like Massachusetts and Rhode Island), it usually had a unanimous (or nearly unanimous) congressional delegation and only elected two Republicans as Governor (albeit for a combined 20 years between them). West Virginia voters shifted toward the Republican Party from 1996 onward, as the Democratic Party became more strongly identified with environmental policies anathema to the state's coal industry and with socially liberal policies, and it can now be called a solidly red state. [26] [27]

Presidential voting

Missouri goes for Republican Theodore Roosevelt in the 1904 election. (Cartoon by John T. McCutcheon.) McCutcheonMysteriousStrange.jpg
Missouri goes for Republican Theodore Roosevelt in the 1904 election. (Cartoon by John T. McCutcheon.)

The 1896 election resulted in the first break in the Solid South. Florida politician Marion L. Dawson, writing in the North American Review, observed: "The victorious party not only held in line those States which are usually relied upon to give Republican majorities ... More significant still, it invaded the Solid South, and bore off West Virginia, Maryland, and Kentucky; caused North Carolina to tremble in the balance and reduced Democratic majorities in the following States: Alabama, 39,000; Arkansas, 29,000; Florida, 6,000; Georgia, 49,000; Louisiana, 33,000; South Carolina, 6,000; and Texas, 29,000. These facts, taken together with the great landslide of 1894 and 1895, which swept Missouri and Tennessee, Maryland and Kentucky over into the country of the enemy, have caused Southern statesmen to seriously consider whether the so-called Solid South is not now a thing of past history". [28]

In the 1904 election, Missouri supported Republican Theodore Roosevelt, while Maryland awarded its electors to Democrat Alton Parker, despite Roosevelt's winning by 51 votes. [29]

By the 1916 election, disfranchisement of blacks and many poor whites was complete, and voter rolls had dropped dramatically in the South. Closing out Republican supporters gave a bump to Southerner Woodrow Wilson, who took all the electors across the South, as the Republican Party was stifled without support by African Americans. [11]

The 1920 election was a referendum on President Wilson's League of Nations. Pro-isolation sentiment in the South benefited Republican Warren G. Harding, who won Tennessee and Missouri. In 1924, Republican Calvin Coolidge won Kentucky and Missouri and in 1928, Herbert Hoover, perhaps benefiting from bias against his Democratic opponent Al Smith (who was a Roman Catholic and opposed Prohibition), won not only Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee, but also Florida, North Carolina, Texas, and Virginia. Hoover also came just 2.5% short of carrying Alabama, a Deep South state. Maryland changed to the Republicans in the 1920s and would not vote Democratic again until the 1932 landslide of Franklin Delano Roosevelt over Hoover.

The South appeared "solid" again during the period of Roosevelt's political dominance, as his welfare programs and military buildup invested considerable money in the South, benefiting many of its citizens, including during the Dust Bowl.

Democratic President Harry S. Truman's support of the civil rights movement, combined with the adoption of a civil rights plank in the 1948 Democratic platform, prompted many Southerners to walk out of the Democratic National Convention and form the Dixiecrat Party. This splinter party played a significant role in the 1948 election; the Dixiecrat candidate, Strom Thurmond, carried Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and his native South Carolina. In the elections of 1952 and 1956, the popular Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, commander of the Allied armed forces during World War II, carried several Southern states, with especially strong showings in the new suburbs. In 1956, Eisenhower also carried Louisiana, becoming the first Republican to win the state since Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876. The rest of the Deep South voted for his Democratic opponent, Adlai Stevenson. The 1948 election also marked Maryland's permanent defection from the Solid South, as the expansion of the federal government led to a population explosion that transformed the state into one that more closely resembled the Northeastern states politically.

In the 1960 election, the Democratic nominee, John F. Kennedy, continued his party's tradition of selecting a Southerner as the vice presidential candidate (in this case, Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas). Kennedy and Johnson, however, both supported civil rights. In October 1960, when Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested at a peaceful sit-in in Atlanta, Georgia, Kennedy placed a sympathetic phone call to King's wife, Coretta Scott King, and Kennedy's brother Robert F. Kennedy helped secure King's release. King expressed his appreciation for these calls. Although King made no endorsement, his father, who had previously endorsed Republican Richard Nixon, switched his support to Kennedy.

Because of these and other events, the Democrats lost ground with white voters in the South, as those same voters increasingly lost control over what was once a whites-only Democratic Party in much of the South. The 1960 election was the first in which a Republican presidential candidate received electoral votes in the South while losing nationally. Nixon carried Virginia, Tennessee, and Florida. Though the Democrats also won Alabama and Mississippi, slates of unpledged electors, representing Democratic segregationists, awarded those states' electoral votes to Harry Byrd, rather than Kennedy.

The parties' positions on civil rights continued to evolve in the run up to the 1964 election. The Democratic candidate, Johnson, who had become president after Kennedy's assassination, spared no effort to win passage of a strong Civil Rights Act of 1964. After signing the landmark legislation, Johnson said to his aide, Bill Moyers: "I think we just delivered the South to the Republican Party for a long time to come." [30] In contrast, Johnson's Republican opponent, Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona, voted against the Civil Rights Act, believing it enhanced the federal government and infringed on the private property rights of businessmen. Goldwater did support civil rights in general and universal suffrage, and voted for the 1957 and 1960 Civil Rights Acts as well as the 24th Amendment, which banned poll taxes as a requirement for voting. This was one of the devices that states used to disfranchise African Americans and the poor.

That November, Johnson won a landslide electoral victory, and the Republicans suffered significant losses in Congress. Goldwater, however, besides carrying his home state of Arizona, carried the Deep South: voters in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina had switched parties for the first time since Reconstruction. Goldwater notably won only in Southern states that had voted against Republican Richard Nixon in 1960, while not winning a single Southern state which Nixon had carried. This created a complete inversion of the electoral pattern of the previous presidential election: the South, angry at Johnson and the Civil Rights Acts, changed from Democratic to Republican. Prior to the 1956 election, the region had almost always provided the only victories for Democratic challengers to popular Republican incumbent presidents. Now, however, the South had provided a Republican challenger with electoral victories against a popular Democratic incumbent.

According to a quantitative analysis for the National Bureau of Economic Research, racism played a central role in the decline in relative white Southern Democratic identification. [31]

"Southern strategy": end of Solid South

In the 1968 election, the Republican candidate, Richard Nixon, saw this trend and capitalized on it with his "Southern strategy". His strategy was designed to appeal to white Southerners who were more conservative than the leaders of the national Democratic Party. As a result of the strategy and conservative Southerners' reactions against Democratic leaders, Hubert Humphrey was almost shut out in the South, carrying only Texas, with the rest of the South being divided between Nixon and the American Independent Party candidate George C. Wallace, the governor of Alabama, who had gained fame for opposing integration. Nationwide, Nixon won a decisive electoral college victory, although he received only a plurality of the popular vote. Nixon won the 1972 election in a landslide.

At the 1976 election, Jimmy Carter, a Southern governor, gave Democrats a short-lived comeback in the South, winning every state in the old Confederacy except for Virginia, which was narrowly lost. However, in his unsuccessful 1980 re-election bid, the only Southern states he won were his native state of Georgia and West Virginia. The year 1976 was the last year a Democratic presidential candidate won a majority of Southern electoral votes. The Republicans took all the region's electoral votes in the 1984 election and every state except West Virginia in 1988.

In the 1992 election and 1996, when the Democratic ticket consisted of two Southerners, (Bill Clinton and Al Gore), the Democrats and Republicans split the region. In both elections, Clinton won Arkansas, Louisiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, while the Republican won Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Bill Clinton won Georgia in 1992, but lost it in 1996 to Bob Dole. Conversely, Clinton lost Florida in 1992 to George Bush, but won it in 1996.

In 2000, however, Gore received no electoral votes from the South, even from his home state of Tennessee. The popular vote in Florida was extraordinarily close in awarding the state's electoral votes to George W. Bush. This pattern continued in the 2004 election; the Democratic ticket of John Kerry and John Edwards received no electoral votes from the South, even though Edwards was from North Carolina, and was born in South Carolina. However, in the 2008 election, Barack Obama won the former Republican strongholds of Virginia and North Carolina as well as Florida; Obama won Virginia and Florida again in 2012 and lost North Carolina by only 2.04 percent. In 2016, Hillary Clinton won only Virginia while narrowly losing Florida and North Carolina.

While the South was shifting from the Democrats to the Republicans, the Northeastern United States went the other way. The Northeastern United States is defined by the US Census Bureau as Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and the New England States although politically the Northeast also includes Maryland and Delaware. Well into the 1980s, the Northeast was a bastion of the Republican Party. The Democratic Party made steady gains there, however, and in 1992, 1996, 2004, 2008 and 2012 all eleven Northeastern states, from Maryland to Maine, voted for the Democrats except New Hampshire leaned more Republican. The same trend can be observed on the West Coast and Upper Midwest (excluding The Dakotas and including Illinois and Iowa) of the nation, as they shifted from solidly Republican and swing-states, respectively, to a change in political party strength.

"Southern strategy" today

Although Republicans gradually began doing better in presidential elections in the South starting in 1952, Republicans did not finish taking over Southern politics at the nonpresidential level until the elections of November 2010. Today, the South is dominated by Republicans at both the state and presidential level. Republicans control all 22 of the other legislative bodies in the former Confederacy, and all but one in a border state. Between the defeats of Georgia Representative John Barrow, Arkansas Senator Mark Pryor and Louisiana Senator Mary Landrieu in 2014 and the election of Alabama Senator Doug Jones in 2017, there were no white Democratic members of Congress from the Deep South. Until November 2010, Democrats had a majority in the Alabama, North Carolina, Texas, Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana Legislatures, a majority in the Kentucky House of Representatives and Virginia Senate, a near majority of the Tennessee House of Representatives, and a majority of the U.S. House delegations from Arkansas, North Carolina, Texas, Mississippi, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as near-even splits of the Georgia and Alabama U.S. House delegations.

However, during the 2010 midterm elections, Republicans swept the South, successfully reelecting every Senate incumbent, electing freshmen Marco Rubio in Florida and Rand Paul in Kentucky, and defeating Democratic incumbent Blanche Lincoln in Arkansas for a seat now held by John Boozman. In the House, Republicans reelected every incumbent except for Joseph Cao of New Orleans and defeated several Democratic incumbents. Republicans won the majority in the congressional delegations of every Southern state. Every Solid South state, with the exceptions of Arkansas, Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia, also elected or reelected Republicans governors. Most significantly, Republicans took control of both houses of the Alabama and North Carolina State Legislatures for the first time since Reconstruction, with Mississippi and Louisiana flipping a year later during their off-year elections. Even in Arkansas, the GOP won three of six statewide down-ballot positions for which they had often not fielded candidates until recently; they also went from eight to 15 out of 35 seats in the State Senate and from 28 to 45 out of 100 in the State House of Representatives. In 2012, the Republicans finally took control of the Arkansas State Legislature and the North Carolina Governorship, leaving West Virginia as the last Solid South state with the Democrats still in control of the state legislature, as well as the governorship. In 2014, though, both houses of the West Virginia legislature were finally taken by the GOP, and most other legislative chambers in the South up for election that year saw increased GOP gains. Arkansas' governorship finally flipped GOP in 2014 when incumbent Mike Beebe was term-limited, as did every other statewide office not previously held by the Republicans. Many analysts believe the so-called "Southern Strategy" that has been employed by Republicans since the 1960s is now virtually complete, with Republicans in firm, almost total, control of political offices in the South.[ citation needed ] However, the Louisiana governorship was won by John Bel Edwards in 2015, and Jim Hood has been Mississippi Attorney General since 2004, making them the only Southern Democratic statewide executive officials.

The biggest exception to this trend has been the state of Virginia. It got an earlier start in the trend towards the Republican Party than the rest of the region. It voted Republican for president in eleven of the twelve elections between 1952 and 1996, while no other Southern state did so more than nine times (that state, Florida, is the other potential exception to the trend, but to a significantly lesser extent). Moreover, it had a Republican Governor more often than not between 1970 and 2002, and Republicans held at least half the seats in the Virginia congressional delegation from 1968 to 1990 (although the Democrats had a narrow minority throughout the 1990s), while with single-term exceptions (Alabama from 1965–1967, Tennessee from 1973–1975, and South Carolina from 1981–1983) and the exception of Florida (which had its delegation turn majority-Republican in 1989) Democrats held at least half the seats in the delegations of the rest of the Southern states until the Republican Revolution of 1994. However, thanks in large part to massive population growth in Northern Virginia and the orientation of that population with the political ideologies of the solidly Democratic Northeast, the Democratic party has won nearly every major statewide race since 2005, with the single exception being the Governor's race in 2009. [32]

Solid South in presidential elections

While Republicans occasionally won southern states in elections in which they won the presidency in the Solid South, it was not until 1960 that a Republican carried one of these states while losing the national election.

Presidential l votes in southern states since 1876
YearAlabamaArkansasFloridaGeorgiaKentuckyLouisianaMississippiNorth CarolinaOklahomaSouth CarolinaTennesseeTexasVirginiaWest Virginia
1876 Tilden Tilden Hayes [lower-alpha 2] Tilden Tilden Hayes [lower-alpha 2] Tilden Tilden No election [lower-alpha 3] Hayes [lower-alpha 2] Tilden Tilden Tilden Tilden
1880 Hancock Hancock Hancock Hancock Hancock Hancock Hancock Hancock No election Hancock Hancock Hancock Hancock Hancock
1884 Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland
1888 Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland
1892 Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland
1896 Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan McKinley Bryan Bryan Bryan No election Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan McKinley
1900 Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan No election Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan McKinley
1904 Parker Parker Parker Parker Parker Parker Parker Parker No election Parker Parker Parker Parker Roosevelt
1908 Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Bryan Taft
1912 Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson
1916 Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson Hughes
1920 Cox Cox Cox Cox Cox Cox Cox Cox Harding Cox Harding Cox Cox Harding
1924 Davis Davis Davis Davis Coolidge Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Coolidge
1928 Smith Smith Hoover Smith Hoover Smith Smith Hoover Hoover Smith Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover
1932 Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1936 Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1940 Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1944 Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1948 Thurmond Truman Truman Truman Truman Thurmond Thurmond Truman Truman Thurmond Truman Truman Truman Truman
1952 Stevenson Stevenson Eisenhower Stevenson Stevenson Stevenson Stevenson Stevenson Eisenhower Stevenson Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Stevenson
1956 Stevenson Stevenson Eisenhower Stevenson Eisenhower Eisenhower Stevenson Stevenson Eisenhower Stevenson Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower
1960 Byrd [lower-alpha 4] Kennedy Nixon Kennedy Nixon Kennedy Byrd Kennedy Nixon Kennedy Nixon Kennedy Nixon Kennedy
1964 Goldwater Johnson Johnson Goldwater Johnson Goldwater Goldwater Johnson Johnson Goldwater Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson
1968 Wallace Wallace Nixon Wallace Nixon Wallace Wallace Nixon [lower-alpha 5] Nixon Nixon Nixon Humphrey Nixon Humphrey
1972 Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon
1976 Carter Carter Carter Carter Carter Carter Carter Carter Ford Carter Carter Carter Ford Carter
1980 Reagan Reagan Reagan Carter Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Carter
1984 Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan
1988 Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Dukakis
1992 Bush Clinton Bush Clinton Clinton Clinton Bush Bush Bush Bush Clinton Bush Bush Clinton
1996 Dole Clinton Clinton Dole Clinton Clinton Dole Dole Dole Dole Clinton Dole Dole Clinton
2000 Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush
2004 Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush Bush
2008 McCain McCain Obama McCain McCain McCain McCain Obama McCain McCain McCain McCain Obama McCain
2012 Romney Romney Obama Romney Romney Romney Romney Romney Romney Romney Romney Romney Obama Romney
2016 Trump Trump Trump Trump Trump Trump Trump Trump Trump Trump Trump Trump Clinton Trump
YearAlabamaArkansasFloridaGeorgiaKentuckyLouisianaMississippiNorth CarolinaOklahomaSouth CarolinaTennesseeTexasVirginiaWest Virginia
Key
Democratic Party nominee
Republican Party nominee
Third-party nominee or write-in candidate

Bold denotes candidates elected as president

South in gubernatorial elections

Officials who acted as governor for less than ninety days are excluded from this chart. This chart is intended to be a visual exposition of party strength in the solid south and the dates listed are not exactly precise. Governors not elected in their own right are listed in italics.

The parties are as follows:    Democratic (D),    Farmers' Alliance (FA),    Prohibition (P),    Readjuster (RA),    Republican (R).

Governors of southern states since 1877
Year Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia
1877 George S. Houston (D) William Read Miller (D) George F. Drew (D) Alfred H. Colquitt (D) James B. McCreary (D) Francis T. Nicholls (D) John M. Stone (D) [lower-alpha 6] Zebulon Baird Vance (D)Unorganized territory Wade Hampton III (D) James D. Porter (D) Richard B. Hubbard (D) [lower-alpha 7] James L. Kemper (D) Henry M. Mathews (D)
1878 Frederick W. M. Holliday (D)
1879 Rufus W. Cobb (D) Thomas Jordan Jarvis (D) William Dunlap Simpson (D) [lower-alpha 7] Albert S. Marks (D) Oran M. Roberts (D)
1880 Luke P. Blackburn (D) Louis A. Wiltz (D) [lower-alpha 8] Thomas Bothwell Jeter (D)
1881 Thomas James Churchill (D) William D. Bloxham (D) Samuel D. McEnery (D) Johnson Hagood (D) Alvin Hawkins (R) Jacob B. Jackson (D)
1882 Robert Lowry (D) Hugh Smith Thompson (D) [lower-alpha 9] William E. Cameron (RA)
1883 Edward A. O'Neal (D) James Henderson Berry (D) Henry Dickerson McDaniel (D) William B. Bate (D) John Ireland (D)
1884 J. Proctor Knott (D)
1885 Simon Pollard Hughes, Jr. (D) Edward A. Perry (D) Alfred Moore Scales (D)(D) Emanuel Willis Wilson (D) [lower-alpha 10]
1886 Fitzhugh Lee (D)
1887 Thomas Seay (D) John B. Gordon (D) Robert Love Taylor (D) Lawrence Sullivan Ross (D)
1888 Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. (D) Francis T. Nicholls (D)
1889 James Philip Eagle (D) Francis P. Fleming (D) Daniel Gould Fowle (D)
1890 John M. Stone (D)Governors of Oklahoma Territory

(appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the Senate)

Philip W. McKinney (D) Aretas B. Fleming (D) [lower-alpha 11]
1891 Thomas G. Jones (D) William J. Northen (D) Thomas Michael Holt (D) John P. Buchanan (D) Jim Hogg (D)
1892 John Y. Brown (D) Murphy J. Foster (D)
1893 William Meade Fishback (D) Henry L. Mitchell (D) Elias Carr (D) Peter Turney (D) William A. MacCorkle (D)
1894 Charles Triplett O'Ferrall (D)
1895 William C. Oates (D) James Paul Clarke (D) William Yates Atkinson (D) Charles A. Culberson (D)
1896 William O. Bradley (R) Anselm J. McLaurin (D)
1897 Joseph F. Johnston (D) Daniel Webster Jones (D) William D. Bloxham (D) Daniel Lindsay Russell (R) Robert Love Taylor (D) George W. Atkinson (R)
1898 James Hoge Tyler (D)
1899 Allen D. Candler (D) Benton McMillin (D) Joseph D. Sayers (D)
1900 [lower-alpha 12] William Wright Heard (D) Andrew H. Longino (D)
J. C. W. Beckham (D) [lower-alpha 13]
1901 William J. Samford (D) [lower-alpha 8] Jeff Davis (D) William S. Jennings (D) Charles Brantley Aycock (D) Albert B. White (R)
William D. Jelks (D) [lower-alpha 14] [lower-alpha 15]
1902 Andrew Jackson Montague (D)
1903 Joseph M. Terrell (D) James B. Frazier (D) [lower-alpha 16] S. W. T. Lanham (D)
1904 Newton C. Blanchard (D) James K. Vardaman (D)
1905 Napoleon B. Broward (D) Robert Broadnax Glenn (D) John I. Cox (D) [lower-alpha 17] William M. O. Dawson (R)
1906 Claude A. Swanson (D)
1907 B. B. Comer (D)(D) M. Hoke Smith (D) Charles N. Haskell (D) Malcolm R. Patterson (D) Thomas Mitchell Campbell (D)
1908 Augustus E. Willson (R) Jared Y. Sanders, Sr. (D) Edmond Noel (D)
1909 Albert W. Gilchrist (D) George Washington Donaghey (D) Joseph M. Brown (D) William Walton Kitchin (D) William E. Glasscock (R)
1910 William Hodges Mann (D)
1911 Emmet O'Neal (D) [lower-alpha 18] Lee Cruce (D) Ben W. Hooper (R) Oscar Branch Colquitt (D)
1912 James B. McCreary (D) Luther E. Hall (D) Earl L. Brewer (D)
1913(D) [lower-alpha 19] Park Trammell (D) John M. Slaton (D) Locke Craig (D) Henry D. Hatfield (R)
1914 George Washington Hays (D) [lower-alpha 20] Henry Carter Stuart (D)
1915 Charles Henderson (D) Nathaniel E. Harris (D) R. L. Williams (D) Tom C. Rye (D) James E. Ferguson (D) [lower-alpha 21]
1916 Augustus O. Stanley (D) [lower-alpha 22] Ruffin G. Pleasant (D) Theodore G. Bilbo (D)
1917 Charles Hillman Brough (D) Sidney Johnston Catts (P) Hugh M. Dorsey (D) Thomas Walter Bickett (D) William P. Hobby (D) [lower-alpha 13] John J. Cornwell (D)
1918 Westmoreland Davis (D)
1919 Thomas Kilby (D) James D. Black (D) [lower-alpha 7] James B. A. Robertson (D) A. H. Roberts (D)
1920 Edwin P. Morrow (R) John M. Parker (D) Lee M. Russell (D)
1921 Thomas Chipman McRae (D) Cary A. Hardee (D) Thomas W. Hardwick (D) Cameron Morrison (D) Alfred A. Taylor (R) Pat Morris Neff (D) Ephraim F. Morgan (R)
1922 Elbert Lee Trinkle (D)
1923 William W. Brandon (D) Clifford Walker (D) Jack C. Walton [lower-alpha 23] Austin Peay (D) [lower-alpha 24]
1924 William J. Fields (D) Henry L. Fuqua (D) [lower-alpha 8] Henry L. Whitfield (D) [lower-alpha 8] Martin E. Trapp (D) [lower-alpha 7]
1925 Tom Jefferson Terral (D) John W. Martin (D) Angus Wilton McLean (D) Miriam A. Ferguson (D) Howard M. Gore (R)
1926 Oramel H. Simpson (D) [lower-alpha 7] Harry F. Byrd (D)
1927 Bibb Graves (D) John Ellis Martineau (D) [lower-alpha 25] Lamartine G. Hardman (D) Dennis Murphree (D) [lower-alpha 7] Henry S. Johnston (D) [lower-alpha 26] Dan Moody (D)
1928 Harvey Parnell (D) [lower-alpha 13] Flem D. Sampson (R) Huey Long (D) Theodore G. Bilbo (D) Henry Hollis Horton (D) [lower-alpha 27]
1929 Doyle E. Carlton (D) Oliver Max Gardner (D) William J. Holloway (D) [lower-alpha 7] William G. Conley (R)
1930 John Garland Pollard (D)
1931 Benjamin M. Miller (D) Richard Russell, Jr. (D) William H. Murray (D) Ross S. Sterling (D)
1932 Ruby Laffoon (D) Alvin Olin King (D) [lower-alpha 28] Martin Sennett Conner (D)
1933 Junius Marion Futrell (D) David Sholtz (D) Eugene Talmadge (D) Oscar K. Allen (D) [lower-alpha 8] John C.B. Ehringhaus (D) Harry Hill McAlister (D) Miriam A. Ferguson (D) Herman G. Kump (D)
1934 George C. Peery (D)
1935 Bibb Graves (D) Ernest W. Marland (D) James V. Allred (D)
1936 Happy Chandler (D) [lower-alpha 29] James A. Noe(D) Hugh L. White
1937 Carl Edward Bailey (D) Fred P. Cone (D) Eurith D. Rivers (D) Clyde R. Hoey (D) Gordon Browning (D) Homer A. Holt (D)
1938 James H. Price (D)
1939 Frank M. Dixon (D) Keen Johnson (D) [lower-alpha 13] Leon C. Phillips (D) Prentice Cooper (D) W. Lee O'Daniel (D) [lower-alpha 30]
1940 Sam H. Jones (D) Paul B. Johnson, Sr. (D) [lower-alpha 8]
1941 Homer Martin Adkins (D) Spessard Holland (D)Eugene Talmadge (D) J. Melville Broughton (D) Matthew M. Neely (D)
1942 Coke R. Stevenson (D) [lower-alpha 13] Colgate Darden (D)
1943 Chauncey Sparks (D) Ellis Arnall (D) Dennis Murphree (D) [lower-alpha 7] Robert S. Kerr (D)
1944 Simeon S. Willis (R) Jimmie Davis (D) Thomas L. Bailey (D) [lower-alpha 8]
1945 Benjamin Travis Laney (D) Millard F. Caldwell (D) R. Gregg Cherry (D) Jim Nance McCord (D) Clarence W. Meadows (D)
1946 Fielding L. Wright (D) [lower-alpha 13] William M. Tuck (D)
1947 Jim Folsom (D) Melvin E. Thompson (D) Roy J. Turner (D) Beauford H. Jester (D) [lower-alpha 31]
1948 Earle C. Clements (D) [lower-alpha 22] Earl Long (D)
1949 Sid McMath (D) Fuller Warren (D) Herman Talmadge (D) W. Kerr Scott (D) Gordon Browning (D) Allan Shivers (D) [lower-alpha 13] Okey L. Patteson (D)
1950 John S. Battle (D)
1951 Gordon Persons (D) Lawrence W. Wetherby (D) [lower-alpha 13] Johnston Murray (D)
1952 Robert F. Kennon (D) Hugh L. White (D)
1953 Francis Cherry (D) Daniel T. McCarty (D) [lower-alpha 8] William B. Umstead (D) [lower-alpha 8] Frank G. Clement (D) William C. Marland (D)
1954 Charley Eugene Johns (D) [lower-alpha 32] Luther Hodges (D) [lower-alpha 13] Thomas Bahnson Stanley (D)
1955 Jim Folsom (D) Orval Faubus (D) LeRoy Collins (D) Marvin Griffin (D) Raymond D. Gary (D)
1956 Happy Chandler (D) Earl Long (D) James P. Coleman (D)
1957 Price Daniel (D) Cecil H. Underwood (R)
1958 James Lindsay Almond, Jr. (D)
1959 John Malcolm Patterson (D) Ernest Vandiver (D) J. Howard Edmondson (D) Buford Ellington (D)
1960 Bert T. Combs (D) Jimmie Davis (D) Ross Barnett (D)
1961 C. Farris Bryant (D) Terry Sanford (D) William Wallace Barron (D)
1962 Albertis S. Harrison, Jr. (D)
1963 George Wallace (D) Carl Sanders (D) Henry Bellmon (R) Frank G. Clement (D) John Connally (D)
1964 Edward T. Breathitt (D) John McKeithen (D) Paul B. Johnson, Jr. (D)
1965 W. Haydon Burns (D) Dan K. Moore Robert Evander McNair (D) [lower-alpha 13] Hulett C. Smith (D)
1966 Mills E. Godwin, Jr. (D)
1967 Lurleen Wallace (D) [lower-alpha 8] Winthrop Rockefeller (R) Claude R. Kirk, Jr. (R) Lester Maddox (D) Dewey F. Bartlett (R) Buford Ellington (D)
1968 Louie B. Nunn (R) John Bell Williams (D)
1969 Albert Brewer (D) [lower-alpha 7] Robert W. Scott (D) Preston Smith (D) Arch A. Moore, Jr. (R)
1970 A. Linwood Holton, Jr. (R)
1971 George Wallace (D) Dale Bumpers (D) Reubin Askew (D) Jimmy Carter (D) David Hall (D) John C. West (D) Winfield Dunn (R)
1972 Wendell H. Ford (D) [lower-alpha 22] Edwin Edwards (D) Bill Waller (D)
1973 James Holshouser (R) Dolph Briscoe (D)
1974 Mills E. Godwin, Jr. (R)
1975 David Pryor (D) George Busbee (D) Julian Carroll (D) [lower-alpha 13] David L. Boren (D) James B. Edwards (R) Ray Blanton (D)
1976 Cliff Finch (D)
1977 James B. Hunt, Jr. (D) Jay Rockefeller (D)
1978 John N. Dalton (R)
1979 Fob James (D) Bill Clinton (D) Bob Graham (D) George Nigh (D) Richard Riley (D) Lamar Alexander (R) Bill Clements (R)
1980 John Y. Brown, Jr. (D) Dave Treen (R) William Winter (D)
1981 Frank D. White (R)
1982 Chuck Robb (D)
1983 George Wallace (D) Bill Clinton (D) [lower-alpha 33] Joe Frank Harris (D) Mark White (D)
1984 Martha Layne Collins (D) Edwin Edwards (D) William Allain (D)
1985 James G. Martin (R) Arch A. Moore, Jr. (R)
1986 Gerald L. Baliles (D)
1987 H. Guy Hunt (R) [lower-alpha 34] Bob Martinez (R) Henry Bellmon (R) Carroll A. Campbell, Jr. (R) Ned McWherter (D) Bill Clements (R)
1988 Wallace G. Wilkinson (D) Buddy Roemer (D/R) [lower-alpha 35] Ray Mabus (D)
1989 Gaston Caperton (D)
1990 Douglas Wilder (D)
1991 Lawton Chiles (D) Zell Miller (D) David Walters (D) Ann Richards (D)
1992 Brereton Jones (D)