1992 United States presidential election

Last updated

1992 United States presidential election
Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg
  1988 November 3, 1992 1996  

All 538 electoral votes of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout55.2% [1] Increase2.svg 5.0 pp
  Bill Clinton.jpg George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait (cropped 2).jpg RossPerotColor.jpg
Nominee Bill Clinton George H. W. Bush Ross Perot
Party Democratic Republican Independent
Home state Arkansas Texas Texas
Running mate Al Gore Dan Quayle James Stockdale
Electoral vote3701680
States carried32 + DC 180
Popular vote44,909,88939,104,54519,743,821
Percentage43.0%37.4%18.9%

1992 United States presidential election in California1992 United States presidential election in Oregon1992 United States presidential election in Washington (state)1992 United States presidential election in Idaho1992 United States presidential election in Nevada1992 United States presidential election in Utah1992 United States presidential election in Arizona1992 United States presidential election in Montana1992 United States presidential election in Wyoming1992 United States presidential election in Colorado1992 United States presidential election in New Mexico1992 United States presidential election in North Dakota1992 United States presidential election in South Dakota1992 United States presidential election in Nebraska1992 United States presidential election in Kansas1992 United States presidential election in Oklahoma1992 United States presidential election in Texas1992 United States presidential election in Minnesota1992 United States presidential election in Iowa1992 United States presidential election in Missouri1992 United States presidential election in Arkansas1992 United States presidential election in Louisiana1992 United States presidential election in Wisconsin1992 United States presidential election in Illinois1992 United States presidential election in Michigan1992 United States presidential election in Indiana1992 United States presidential election in Ohio1992 United States presidential election in Kentucky1992 United States presidential election in Tennessee1992 United States presidential election in Mississippi1992 United States presidential election in Alabama1992 United States presidential election in Georgia1992 United States presidential election in Florida1992 United States presidential election in South Carolina1992 United States presidential election in North Carolina1992 United States presidential election in Virginia1992 United States presidential election in West Virginia1992 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia1992 United States presidential election in Maryland1992 United States presidential election in Delaware1992 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania1992 United States presidential election in New Jersey1992 United States presidential election in New York1992 United States presidential election in Connecticut1992 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1992 United States presidential election in Vermont1992 United States presidential election in New Hampshire1992 United States presidential election in Maine1992 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1992 United States presidential election in Hawaii1992 United States presidential election in Alaska1992 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia1992 United States presidential election in Maryland1992 United States presidential election in Delaware1992 United States presidential election in New Jersey1992 United States presidential election in Connecticut1992 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1992 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1992 United States presidential election in Vermont1992 United States presidential election in New Hampshire1992 United States presidential election
1992 United States presidential election
Presidential election results map. Blue denotes states won by Clinton/Gore, red denotes states won by Bush/Quayle. Numbers indicate electoral votes allotted to the winner of each state.

President before election

George H. W. Bush
Republican

Elected President

Bill Clinton
Democratic

The 1992 United States presidential election was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1992. Democratic Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas defeated incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush, independent businessman Ross Perot of Texas, and a number of minor candidates.

United States presidential election type of election in the United States

The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors. These electors then in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, and for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes is then elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; if no one receives an absolute majority of the votes for Vice President, then the Senate chooses the winner.

Democratic Party (United States) Major political party in the United States

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its rival, the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party.

Bill Clinton 42nd president of the United States

William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, and again from 1983 to 1992, and the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, and many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy.

Contents

Bush had alienated many of the conservatives in his party by breaking his 1988 campaign pledge against raising taxes, but he fended off a primary challenge from conservative commentator Pat Buchanan. Bush's popularity after his success in the Gulf War dissuaded high-profile Democratic candidates like Mario Cuomo from entering the 1992 Democratic primaries. Clinton, a leader of the centrist Democratic Leadership Council, established himself as the front-runner for the Democratic nomination by sweeping the Super Tuesday primaries. He defeated former & future Governor of California Jerry Brown, former Massachusetts Senator Paul Tsongas, and other candidates to win his party's nomination, and chose Senator Al Gore as his running mate. Billionaire Ross Perot launched an independent campaign, emphasizing his opposition to the North American Free Trade Agreement and his plan to reduce the national debt.

Read my lips: no new taxes Political catchphrase

"Read my lips: no new taxes" is a phrase spoken by then-American presidential candidate George H. W. Bush at the 1988 Republican National Convention as he accepted the nomination on August 18. Written by speechwriter Peggy Noonan, the line was the most prominent sound bite from the speech. The pledge not to tax the American people further had been a consistent part of Bush's 1988 election platform, and its prominent inclusion in his speech cemented it in the public consciousness. The impact of the election promise was considerable, and many supporters of Bush believe it helped Bush win the 1988 presidential election.

Pat Buchanan American politician and commentator

Patrick Joseph Buchanan is an American paleoconservative political commentator, author, syndicated columnist, politician, and broadcaster. Buchanan was a senior advisor to U.S. Presidents Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Ronald Reagan, and was an original host on CNN's Crossfire. He sought the Republican presidential nomination in 1992 and 1996. He ran on the Reform Party ticket in the 2000 presidential election.

Gulf War 1990–1991 war between Iraq and Coalition Forces

The Gulf War, codenamed Operation Desert Shield for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes. The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War, First Iraq War or Iraq War, before the term "Iraq War" became identified instead with the post-2003 Iraq War.

The economy was in recession and Bush's greatest strength, foreign policy, was regarded as much less important following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War and the relatively peaceful climate in the Middle East after the Gulf War. Perot led in several polls taken in June 1992, but severely damaged his candidacy by temporarily dropping out of the race in July. The Bush campaign criticized Clinton's character and emphasized Bush's foreign policy successes, while Clinton focused on the economy.

Economy of the United States National economy

The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy. It is the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and the second-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). It also has the world's seventh-highest per capita GDP (nominal) and the eleventh-highest per capita GDP (PPP) in 2016. The US has a highly diversified, world-leading industrial sector. It is also a high-technology innovator with the second-largest industrial output in the world. The U.S. dollar is the currency most used in international transactions and is the world's foremost reserve currency, backed by its science and technology, its military, the full faith of the U.S. government to reimburse its debts, its central role in a range of international institutions since World War II, and the petrodollar system. Several countries use it as their official currency, and in many others, it is the de facto currency. Its largest trading partners are China, Canada, Mexico, Japan, Germany, South Korea, United Kingdom, France, India, and Taiwan.

The early 1990s recession describes the period of economic downturn affecting much of the Western world in the early 1990s.

Foreign policy of the United States National foreign policy

The foreign policy of the United States is its interactions with foreign nations and how it sets standards of interaction for its organizations, corporations and system citizens of the United States.

Clinton won a plurality in the popular vote and a majority of the electoral vote, breaking a streak of three straight Republican victories. Clinton swept the Northeastern United States, marking the start of Democratic dominance in the region in presidential elections, while also performing well in the Midwest and the West. Along with Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford, Bush is one of three incumbent presidents since World War II to be defeated in the general election. Perot won 18.9% of the popular vote, the highest share of the vote won by a candidate outside of the two major parties since 1912. Although he failed to win any electoral votes, Perot found support in every state, and Clinton's home state of Arkansas was the lone state to give a majority of its vote to any candidate.

Northeastern United States region of the United States

The Northeastern United States, also referred to as simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States. The Northeast is one of the four regions defined by the United States Census Bureau for the collection and analysis of statistics.

Midwestern United States region that includes parts of Canada and the United States

The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau. It occupies the northern central part of the United States. It was officially named the North Central Region by the Census Bureau until 1984. It is located between the Northeastern United States and the Western United States, with Canada to its north and the Southern United States to its south.

Western United States Region in the United States

The Western United States is the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. As European settlement in the U.S. expanded westward through the centuries, the meaning of the term the West changed. Before about 1800, the crest of the Appalachian Mountains was seen as the western frontier. The frontier moved westward and eventually the lands west of the Mississippi River were considered the West.

Nominations

Republican Party nomination

Republican Party Ticket, 1992
George H. W. Bush Dan Quayle
for Presidentfor Vice President
George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait (cropped).jpg
Dan Quayle crop.jpg
41st
President of the United States
(1989–1993)
44th
Vice President of the United States
(1989–1993)
Campaign
Bush Quayle 92 bumper sticker (3071481918).jpg

Withdrawn candidates

Columnist someone who writes for publication in a series, creating an article that usually offers commentary and opinions

A columnist is a person who writes for publication in a series, creating an article that usually offers commentary and opinions.

Virginia State of the United States of America

Virginia, officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million.

David Ernest Duke is a prominent American white supremacist, white nationalist politician, white separatist, antisemitic conspiracy theorist, Holocaust denier, convicted felon, and former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan.

Conservative journalist Pat Buchanan was the primary opponent of President Bush; Ron Paul, the Libertarian Party's presidential nominee in 1988, had planned to run against the President, but dropped out shortly after Buchanan's entry in December. Buchanan's best showing was in the New Hampshire primary on February 18, 1992—where Bush won by a 53–38% margin. President Bush won 73% of all primary votes, with 9,199,463 votes. Buchanan won 2,899,488 votes; unpledged delegates won 287,383 votes, and David Duke, a former Republican Louisiana state representative and Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan won 119,115 votes. Just over 100,000 votes were cast for all other candidates, half of which were write-in votes for H. Ross Perot. [2] Former Minnesota Governor Harold Stassen who had run for President 9 times since 1944 also mounted his final campaign.

Ron Paul American politician and physician

Ronald Ernest Paul is an American author, physician, and retired politician who served as the U.S. Representative for Texas's 22nd congressional district from 1976 to 1977 and again from 1979 to 1985, and for Texas's 14th congressional district from 1997 to 2013. On three occasions, he sought the presidency of the United States: as the Libertarian Party nominee in 1988 and as a candidate in the Republican primaries of 2008 and 2012. Paul is a critic of the federal government's fiscal policies, especially the existence of the Federal Reserve and the tax policy, as well as the military–industrial complex, and the War on Drugs. He has also been a vocal critic of mass surveillance policies such as the USA PATRIOT Act and the NSA surveillance programs. He was the first chairman of the conservative PAC Citizens for a Sound Economy and has been characterized as the "intellectual godfather" of the Tea Party movement.

Libertarian Party (United States) national political party in United States

The Libertarian Party (LP) is a political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, laissez-faire capitalism and shrinking the size and scope of government. The party was conceived at meetings in the home of David F. Nolan in Westminster, Colorado in 1971 and was officially formed on December 11, 1971 in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The founding of the party was prompted in part due to concerns about the Nixon administration, the Vietnam War, conscription and the end of the gold standard.

Grand Wizard was the title given to the head of the Reconstruction-era Ku Klux Klan which existed from 1865 to 1869.

President George H. W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle easily won renomination by the Republican Party. However, the success of the conservative opposition forced the moderate Bush to move further to the right than in the previous election, and to incorporate many socially conservative planks in the party platform. Bush allowed Buchanan to give the keynote address at the Republican National Convention in Houston, Texas, and his culture war speech alienated many moderates.

With intense pressure on the Buchanan delegates to relent, the tally for president went as follows:

Vice President Dan Quayle was renominated by voice vote.

Democratic Party nomination

Democratic Party Ticket, 1992
Bill Clinton Al Gore
for Presidentfor Vice President
Bill Clinton.jpg
Al Gore, Vice President of the United States, official portrait 1994.jpg
40th and 42nd
Governor of Arkansas
(1979–1981, 1983–1992)
U.S. Senator
from Tennessee
(1985–1993)
Campaign
Clinton Gore 1992.jpg

Withdrawn candidates

Overview

After the successful performance by U.S. and coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War, President George H.W. Bush's approval ratings were 89%. His re-election was considered very likely. As a result, several high-profile candidates, such as Mario Cuomo and Jesse Jackson, refused to seek the Democratic nomination. In addition, Senator Al Gore refused to seek the nomination due to the fact his son was struck by a car and was undergoing extensive surgery as well as physical therapy. However, Tom Harkin, Paul Tsongas, Jerry Brown, Larry Agran, Bob Kerrey, Douglas Wilder and Bill Clinton chose to run as candidates.

U.S. Senator Tom Harkin (Iowa) ran as a populist liberal with labor union support. Former U.S. Senator Paul Tsongas (Massachusetts) highlighted his political independence and fiscal conservatism. Former California Governor Jerry Brown, who had run for the Democratic nomination in 1976 and 1980 while he was still Governor, declared a significant reform agenda, including Congressional term limits, campaign finance reform, and the adoption of a flat income tax. Nebraska Senator Bob Kerrey was an attractive candidate based on his business and military background, but made several gaffes on the campaign trail. Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton positioned himself as a centrist, or New Democrat. He was still relatively unknown nationally before the primary season. That quickly changed however, when a woman named Gennifer Flowers appeared in the press to reveal allegations of an affair. Clinton rebutted the story by appearing on 60 Minutes with his wife, Hillary Clinton.

The primary season began with U.S. Senator Tom Harkin winning his native Iowa as expected. Paul Tsongas of Massachusetts won the New Hampshire primary on February 18, but Clinton's second-place finish, helped by his speech labeling himself "The Comeback Kid," energized his campaign. Jerry Brown won the Maine caucus and Bob Kerrey won South Dakota. Clinton won his first primary in Georgia. Tsongas won the Utah and Maryland primaries and a caucus in Washington. Harkin won caucuses in Idaho and Minnesota while Jerry Brown won Colorado. Bob Kerrey dropped out two days later. Clinton won the South Carolina and Wyoming primaries and Tsongas won Arizona. Harkin dropped out. Jerry Brown won the Nevada caucus. Clinton swept nearly all of the Super Tuesday primaries on March 10 making him the solid front runner. Clinton won the Michigan and Illinois primaries. Tsongas dropped out after finishing 3rd in Michigan. Jerry Brown, however, began to pick up steam, aided by using a 1–800 number to receive funding from small donors. Brown scored surprising wins in Connecticut, Vermont and Alaska. As the race moved to the primaries in New York and Wisconsin, Brown had taken the lead in polls in both states. Then he made a serious gaffe by announcing to an audience of New York City's Jewish community that, if nominated, he would consider Reverend Jesse Jackson as a vice presidential candidate. Clinton won dramatically in New York (41%–26%) and closely in Wisconsin (37%–34%). Clinton then proceeded to win a long streak of primaries leading up to Jerry Brown's home state of California. Clinton won this primary 48% to 41% and secured the delegates needed to clinch the nomination.

The convention met in New York, New York, and the official tally was:

Clinton chose U.S. Senator Al Gore (D-Tennessee) to be his running mate on July 9, 1992. Choosing fellow Southerner Gore went against the popular strategy of balancing a Southern candidate with a Northern partner. Gore did serve to balance the ticket in other ways, as he was perceived as strong on family values and environmental issues, while Clinton was not. [3] Also, Gore's similarities to Clinton allowed him to push some of his key campaign themes, such as centrism and generational change. [4]

Third parties and independents

Ross Perot's candidacy

Ross Perot was on the ballot in every state; in six states (Alaska, Arkansas, Connecticut, Louisiana, Oregon, Pennsylvania) Perot was placed upon the ballot through the formation of a political party supporting his candidacy. His electoral performance in each of those states led to those parties being given ballot-qualified status. BallotAccessofRossPerot1992.svg
Ross Perot was on the ballot in every state; in six states (Alaska, Arkansas, Connecticut, Louisiana, Oregon, Pennsylvania) Perot was placed upon the ballot through the formation of a political party supporting his candidacy. His electoral performance in each of those states led to those parties being given ballot-qualified status.
Businessman Ross Perot from Texas Ross Perot 7 Allan Warren.jpg
Businessman Ross Perot from Texas

The public's concern about the federal budget deficit and fears of professional politicians allowed the independent candidacy of billionaire Texan Ross Perot to explode on the scene in dramatic fashion—at one point Perot was leading the major party candidates in the polls. [5] Perot crusaded against the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and internal and external national debt, tapping into voters' potential fear of the deficit. His volunteers succeeded in collecting enough signatures to get his name on the ballot in all 50 states. In June, Perot led the national public opinion polls with support from 39% of the voters (versus 31% for Bush and 25% for Clinton). [5] Perot severely damaged his credibility by dropping out of the presidential contest in July and remaining out of the race for several weeks before re-entering. He compounded this damage by eventually claiming, without evidence, that his withdrawal was due to Republican operatives attempting to disrupt his daughter's wedding. [6]

Perot and retired Vice Admiral James Stockdale drew 19,743,821 votes (19% of the popular vote).

Libertarian Party nomination

Andre Marrou was on the ballot in every state. BallotAccessofAndreMarrou1992.svg
Andre Marrou was on the ballot in every state.

Libertarian candidates:

The 6th Libertarian Party National Convention was held in Chicago, Illinois. There, the Libertarian Party nominated Andre Marrou, former Alaska State Representative and the Party's 1988 vice-presidential candidate, for President. Nancy Lord was his running mate.

Marrou and Lord drew 291,627 votes (0.28% of the popular vote).

The Balloting
Presidential Ballot1stVice Presidential Ballot1st2nd3rd
Andre Marrou 257 Nancy Lord 98180240
Richard B. Boddie 187 Richard B. Boddie 179160180
None of the Above20 Mary Ruwart 129640
Hans G. Schroeder7 Calvin Warburton 19200
David H. Raaflaub6Craig Franklin1000
Mary Ruwart 2
Craig Franklin1
Nancy Lord 1

New Alliance Party nomination

Lenora Fulani was on the ballot in thirty-nine states (352 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which she was an official write-in candidate. BallotAccessofLenoraFulani1992.svg
Lenora Fulani was on the ballot in thirty-nine states (352 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which she was an official write-in candidate.

New Alliance candidate:

Lenora Fulani, who was the 1988 presidential nominee of the New Alliance Party, received a second consecutive nomination from the Party in 1992. Unlike in 1988, Fulani failed to gain ballot access in every state, deciding to concentrate some of that campaign funding towards exposure of her candidacy and the Party to the national public.

Fulani also sought the endorsement of the Peace and Freedom Party of California, but despite winning a majority in that party's primary, she would lose the nomination to Ronald Daniels, the former Director the National Rainbow Coalition. Rather than pursuing a ballot space of her own, Fulani would endorse Daniels's candidacy in California.

Fulani and her running mate Maria Elizabeth Munoz received 73,622 votes (0.1% of the popular vote).

Natural Law Party nomination

John Hagelin was on the ballot in twenty-eight states (264 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate. BallotAccessofJohnHagelin1992.svg
John Hagelin was on the ballot in twenty-eight states (264 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.

Natural Law candidate:

The newly formed Natural Law Party nominated scientist and researcher John Hagelin for President and Mike Tompkins for Vice President. The Natural Law Party had been founded in 1992 by Hagelin and 12 others who felt that governmental problems could be solved more effectively by following "Natural Laws." The party platform included preventive health care, sustainable agriculture and renewable energy technologies. During this and future campaigns, Hagelin favored abortion rights without public financing, campaign finance law reform, improved gun control, a flat tax, the eradication of PACs, a ban on soft money contributions, and school vouchers.

The party's first presidential ticket appeared on the ballot in 28 states and drew 37,137 votes (<0.1% of the popular vote).

U.S. Taxpayers' Party nomination

Howard Phillips was on the ballot in twenty-one states (215 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate. BallotAccessofHowardPhillips1992.svg
Howard Phillips was on the ballot in twenty-one states (215 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.

U.S. Taxpayers' candidates:

The U.S. Taxpayers Party ran its first presidential ticket in 1992, having only been formed the prior year. Initially Howard Phillips had hoped to successfully entice a prominent conservative politician, such as the former Senator Gordon J. Humphrey from New Hampshire, or even Patrick Buchanan who at the time had only been mulling over running against President Bush (he would officially declare in December of '91).

No one, however, announced any intention to seek the Taxpayers Party nomination; Buchanan himself in the end endorsed President Bush at the Republican National Convention in Houston. Phillips had been unofficially nominated earlier in the year so as to allow the Party to be able to seek ballot access properly. This was a temporary post that was made permanent in September, with Phillips and Albion Knight being named the official presidential ticket of the party.

Phillips and Knight drew 43,369 votes (<0.1% of the popular vote).

Populist Party Nomination

Bo Gritz was on the ballot in eighteen states (161 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate. BallotAccessofBoGritz1992.svg
Bo Gritz was on the ballot in eighteen states (161 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.

Populist candidate:

Former United States Army Special Forces officer and Vietnam veteran Bo Gritz was the nominee of the Populist Party, facing virtually no opposition. Under the campaign slogan "God, Guns and Gritz" and publishing his political manifesto "The Bill of Gritz" (playing on his last name rhyming with "rights"), he called for staunch opposition to what he called "global government" and "The New World Order", ending all foreign aid, abolishing federal income tax, and abolishing the Federal Reserve System. During the campaign, Gritz openly proclaimed the United States to be a "Christian Nation", stating that the country's legal statutes "should reflect unashamed acceptance of Almighty God and His Laws." His run on the America First/Populist Party ticket was prompted by his association with another far-right political Christian talk radio host, Tom Valentine. During his campaign, part of Gritz's standard stump speech was an idea to pay off the National debt by minting a coin at the Treasury and sending it to the Federal Reserve. This predates the 2012 Trillion dollar coin concept.

During August 1992, Gritz attracted national attention as mediator during the government standoff with Randy Weaver at Ruby Ridge, Idaho.

He received 106,152 votes nationwide (0.1% of the popular vote). In two states he had a respectable showing for a minor third party candidate: Utah, where he received 3.8% of the vote and Idaho, where he received 2.1% of the vote. In some counties, his support topped 10%, and in Franklin County, Idaho, was only a few votes away from pushing Bill Clinton into fourth place in the county.

Lyndon LaRouche's candidacy

Lyndon LaRouche was on the ballot in seventeen states (156 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate. BallotAccessofLyndonLaRouche1992.svg
Lyndon LaRouche was on the ballot in seventeen states (156 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.

While officially running for the Democratic Presidential nomination, Lyndon LaRouche also decided to run as an Independent in the general election, standing as the National Economic Recovery candidate. LaRouche was in jail at the time, having been convicted of conspiracy to commit mail fraud in December 1988; it was only the second time in history that the presidency was sought from a prison cell (after Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs, while imprisoned for his opposition to U.S. involvement in World War I, ran in 1920). His running-mate was James Bevel, a civil rights activist who had represented the LaRouche movement in its pursuit of the Franklin child prostitution ring allegations.

In addition to the displayed states, LaRouche had nearly made the ballot in the states of New York and Mississippi. In the case of New York, while his petition was valid and had enough signatures, none of his electors filed declarations of candidacy; in the cases of Mississippi a sore-loser law was in place, and because he ran in that state's Democratic presidential primary he was ineligible to run as an Independent in the general. Ohio also had a sore-loser law, but it was ruled in Brown vs. Taft that it did not apply to presidential candidates. LaRouche and Beval drew 22,863 votes. (<0.1% of the popular vote).

Socialist Workers' Party nomination

James Warren was on the ballot in thirteen states (148 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate. BallotAccessofJamesWarren1992.svg
James Warren was on the ballot in thirteen states (148 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.

Socialist Workers candidate:

James Warren, who was the 1988 presidential nominee of the Socialist Workers Party, received a second consecutive nomination from the Party on the first of November 1991. Warren had two running mates that varied from state to state; Estelle DeBates and Willie Mae Reid, the latter also a resident of Illinois.

Warren received 22,882 votes (<0.1% of the popular vote).

Ron Daniels candidacy

Ron Daniels was on the ballot in eight states (126 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate. BallotAccessofRonDaniels1992.svg
Ron Daniels was on the ballot in eight states (126 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.

Ronald Daniels was the former executive director for the Center for Constitutional Rights, the former director of the National Rainbow Coalition, and the worked on both of Jesse Jackson's campaigns for the Democratic presidential nomination. Asiba Tupahache, a Native American activist from New York was his running-mate.

Though running an Independent campaign under the label "Campaign for a Better Tomorrow", Daniels was endorsed by a number of third parties across the states, most notably the Peace and Freedom Party of California; though he had lost that party's presidential primary to Lenora Fulani, the nominee of the New Alliance Party, the delegates at its convention voted in favor of his candidacy 110–91, the only time it has ever nominated someone other than the winner of the primary.

Daniels and Tupachache drew 27,396 votes (<0.1% of the popular vote).

Other nominations

The 1992 campaign also marked the entry of Ralph Nader into presidential politics as a candidate. Despite the advice of several liberal and environmental groups, Nader did not formally run. Rather, he tried to make an impact in the New Hampshire primaries, urging members of both parties to write-in his name. [7] As a result, several thousand Democrats and Republicans wrote-in Nader's name. Despite supporting mostly liberal legislation during his career as a consumer advocate, Nader received more votes from Republicans than Democrats.

The Worker's League nominated Helen Halyard for President; she was the party's nominee for Vice President in 1984 and 1988. Fred Mazelis was nominated for Vice President. Halyard and Mazelis drew 3,050 votes.

Ballot Access: Michigan, New Jersey (33 Electoral)

John Yiamouyiannis, a major opponent of water fluoridation, ran as an Independent under the label "Take Back America". Allen C. McCone was his running-mate. Yiamouyiannis and McCone drew 2,199 votes.

Ballot Access: Arkansas, Iowa, Louisiana, Tennessee (33 Electoral)

The Socialist Party nominated J. Quinn Brisben for President and Barbara Garson for Vice President. Brisben and Garson drew 2,909 votes.

Ballot Access: DC, Tennessee, Utah, Wisconsin (30 Electoral)

The Grassroots Party nominated Jack Herer, a noted cannabis activist for President and Derrick Grimmer for Vice President. Herer and Grimmer drew 3,875 votes.

Ballot Access: Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin (28 Electoral)

The Prohibition Party nominated Earl Dodge, the party's chairman for President and George Ormsby for Vice President. Dodge and Ormsby drew 935 votes.

Ballot Access: Arkansas, New Mexico, Tennessee (22 Electoral)

Drew Bradford was an Independent candidate for the Presidency; he did not have a running-mate. Bradford drew 4,749 votes.

Ballot Access: New Jersey (15 Electoral)

Eugene R. Hem was an Independent candidate for the Presidency, running under the label "The Third Party". His running-mate was Joanne Roland. Hem and Roland drew 405 votes.

Ballot Access: Wisconsin (11 Electoral)

Delbert Ehlers was an Independent candidate for the Presidency. His running-mate was Rick Wendt. Ehlers and Wendt drew 1,149 votes.

Ballot Access: Iowa (7 Electoral)

James Boren was an Independent candidate for the Presidency, running under the label "Apathy". His running-mate was Bill Weidman. Boren and Weidman drew 956 votes.

Ballot Access: Arkansas (6 Electoral)

Professor Isabell Masters was an Independent candidate for the Presidency, running under the label "Looking Back". Her running-mate was her son, Walter Ray Masters. Masters drew 327 votes.

Ballot Access: Arkansas (6 Electoral)

The American Party nominated Robert J. Smith for President and Doris Feimer for Vice President. However, for a time neither the Utah or South Carolina state parties would endorse the ticket. The American Party of South Carolina would ultimately endorse the candidacy of Howard Phillips, the nominee of the U.S. Taxpayers Party, while the American Party of Utah would decide to endorse Smith. Smith and Feimer drew 291 votes.

Ballot Access: Utah (5 Electoral)

The Workers World Party nominated Gloria La Riva for President and Larry Holmes for Vice President. Initially the party had voted not to field a presidential candidate in 1992, but it was later found that the party would need to get at least half a percent of the vote in New Mexico in order to maintain its ballot access in that state. La Riva and Holmes drew 181 votes.

Ballot Access: New Mexico (5 Electoral)

General election

Campaign

After Bill Clinton secured the Democratic Party's nomination in the spring of 1992, polls showed Ross Perot leading the race, followed by President Bush and Clinton in third place after a grueling nomination process. Two-way trial heats between Bush and Clinton in early 1992 showed Bush in the lead, however. [8] [9] [10] [11] But as the economy continued to grow sour and the President's approval rating continued to slide, the Democrats began to rally around their nominee. On July 9, 1992, Clinton chose Tennessee senator and former 1988 presidential candidate Al Gore to be his running mate. [12] As Governor Clinton's nomination acceptance speech approached, Ross Perot dropped out of the race, convinced that staying in the race with a "revitalized Democratic Party" would cause the race to be decided by the United States House of Representatives. [13] Clinton gave his acceptance speech on July 16, 1992, promising to bring a "new covenant" to America, and to work to heal the gap that had developed between the rich and the poor during the Reagan/Bush years. [14] The Clinton campaign received the biggest convention "bounce" in history [15] which brought him from 25 percent in the spring, behind Bush and Perot, to 55 percent versus Bush's 31 percent.

After the convention, Clinton and Gore began a bus tour around the United States, while the Bush/Quayle campaign began to criticize Clinton's character, highlighting accusations of infidelity and draft dodging. The Bush campaign emphasized its foreign policy successes such as Desert Storm, and the end of the Cold War. Bush also contrasted his military service to Clinton's lack thereof, and criticized Clinton's lack of foreign policy expertise. However, as the economy was the main issue, Bush's campaign floundered across the nation, even in strongly Republican areas, [16] and Clinton maintained leads with over 50 percent of the vote nationwide consistently, while Bush typically saw numbers in the upper 30s. [17] As Bush's economic edge had evaporated, his campaign looked to energize its socially conservative base at the 1992 Republican National Convention in Houston, Texas. At the Convention, Bush's primary campaign opponent Pat Buchanan gave his famous "culture war" speech, criticizing Clinton's and Gore's social progressiveness, and voicing skepticism on his "New Democrat" brand. After President Bush accepted his renomination, his campaign saw a small bounce in the polls, but this was short lived, as Clinton maintained his lead. [18] The campaign continued with a lopsided lead for Clinton through September, [19] until Ross Perot decided to re-enter the race. [20] Ross Perot's re-entry in the race was welcome by the Bush campaign, as Fred Steeper, a poll taker for Bush, said, "He'll be important if we accomplish our goal, which is to draw even with Clinton." Initially, Perot's return saw the Texas billionaire's numbers stay low, until he was given the opportunity to participate in a trio of unprecedented three-man debates. The race narrowed, as Perot's numbers significantly improved as Clinton's numbers declined, while Bush's numbers remained more or less the same from earlier in the race [21] as Perot and Bush began to hammer at Clinton on character issues once again.

Presidential debates

The Commission on Presidential Debates issued four presidential debates [22]

Debates among candidates for the 1992 U.S. presidential election
No.DateHostLocationPanelistsModeratorParticipantsViewership

(Millions)

P1Sunday, October 11, 1992 Washington University in St. Louis St. Louis, Missouri Sander Vanocur

Ann Compton

John Mashek

Jim Lehrer President George H. W. Bush

Governor Bill Clinton

Mr. Ross Perot

62.4 [23]
VPTuesday, October 13, 1992 Georgia Tech Atlanta, Georgia n/a Hal Bruno Vice President Dan Quayle

Senator Al Gore

Admiral James Stockdale

51.2 [23]
P2Thursday, October 15, 1992 University of Richmond Richmond, Virginia n/a Carole Simpson President George H. W. Bush

Governor Bill Clinton

Mr. Ross Perot

69.9 [23]
P3Monday, October 19, 1992 Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan Gene Gibbons

Helen Thomas

Susan Rook

Jim Lehrer President George H. W. Bush

Governor Bill Clinton

Mr. Ross Perot

66.9 [23]

Character issues

Many character issues were raised during the campaign, including allegations that Clinton had dodged the draft during the Vietnam War, and had used marijuana, which Clinton claimed he had pretended to smoke, but "didn't inhale." Bush also accused Clinton of meeting with communists on a trip to Russia he took as a student. Clinton was often accused of being a philanderer by political opponents.

Allegations were also made that Bill Clinton had engaged in a long-term extramarital affair with Gennifer Flowers. [24] Clinton denied ever having an affair with Flowers. [25]

Election results by county
Bill Clinton
George H. W. Bush
Ross Perot 1992prescountymap2.PNG
Election results by county
1992 Presidential Election, results by congressional district 1992 Presidential Election, Results by Congressional District.png
1992 Presidential Election, results by congressional district

Results

On November 3, Bill Clinton won the election to serve as the 42nd President of the United States by a wide margin in the Electoral College, receiving 43% of the popular vote against Bush's 37.5% and Perot's 18.9%. It was the first time since 1968 that a candidate won the White House with under 50% of the popular vote. Only Washington, D.C. and Clinton's home state of Arkansas gave the majority of their votes to a single candidate in the entire country; the rest were won by pluralities of the vote.

Even though Clinton roughly received 3.1 million more votes than Democratic nominee Michael Dukakis had four years earlier, the Democrats recorded a 2.6 percentage point decrease in their share of the popular vote compared to 1988 due to the higher turnout. His 43% share of the popular vote was the second-lowest for any winning candidate in the 20th century after Woodrow Wilson in 1912 (41.8%). President Bush's 37.5% was the lowest percentage total for a sitting president seeking re-election since William Howard Taft, also in 1912 (23.2%). [26] 1992 was, as the 1912 election was, a three-way race (that time between Taft, Woodrow Wilson, and Theodore Roosevelt). It was also the lowest percentage for a major-party candidate since Alf Landon received 36.5% of the vote in 1936. Bush had a lower percentage of the popular vote than even Herbert Hoover, who was defeated in 1932 (39.7%). However, none of these races included a major third candidate. As of the 2016 election, Bush has been the last president voted out of office after one term, as Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama were all re-elected to second terms in office.

Independent candidate Ross Perot received 19,741,065 with 18.9% of the popular vote. The billionaire used his own money to advertise extensively, and is the only third-party candidate ever allowed into the nationally televised presidential debates with both major party candidates (Independent John Anderson debated Republican Ronald Reagan in 1980, but without Democrat Jimmy Carter, who had refused to appear in a three-man debate). Speaking about the North American Free Trade Agreement, Perot described its effect on American jobs as causing a "giant sucking sound". Perot was ahead in the polls for a period of almost two months – a feat not accomplished by an independent candidate in almost 100 years.[ citation needed ] Perot lost much of his support when he temporarily withdrew from the election, only to declare himself a candidate again soon after. This was also the most recent time that a third-party candidate won a county.

Perot's almost 19% of the popular vote made him the most successful third-party presidential candidate in terms of popular vote since Theodore Roosevelt in the 1912 election. Also, his 19% of the popular vote was the highest ever percent of the popular vote for a candidate who did not win any electoral votes. Although he did not win any states, Perot managed to finish ahead of one of the two major party candidates in two states: In Maine, he received 30.44% of the vote to Bush's 30.39% (Clinton won Maine with 38.77%); in Utah, he collected 27.34% of the vote to Clinton's 24.65%. Bush won that state with 43.36%.

The election was the most recent in which Georgia and Montana voted for the Democratic candidate, the last time the state of Florida backed the losing candidate, and the last time that Colorado voted Democratic until 2008. This was also the first time since Texas' admission to the Union in 1845 that a Democrat won the White House without winning the state, and the second time a Democrat won the White House without North Carolina (the first was 1844), and the second time since Florida's admission (also in 1845) that a Democrat won without winning the state (John F. Kennedy in 1960 was the first).

Clinton was also the only Democrat at that point to win every electoral vote in the Northeast except for Lyndon Johnson in 1964. Every Democrat since Clinton has repeated this result, except for Al Gore, who narrowly lost New Hampshire in 2000, and Hillary Clinton, who lost Pennsylvania and Maine's second congressional district in 2016. Also, this was the first time since 1964 that the following nine states had voted Democratic: California, Colorado, Illinois, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, and Vermont.

The 168 electoral votes received by Bush, added to the 426 electoral votes he received in 1988, gave him the most total electoral votes received by any candidate who was elected to the office of president only once (594).

Analysis

Several factors made the results possible. First, the campaign came on the heels of an economic slowdown. Exit polling showed that 75% thought the economy was in fairly or very bad shape while 63% thought their personal finances were better or the same as four years ago. [27] The decision by Bush to accept a tax increase adversely affected his re-election bid. Pressured by rising budget deficits, Bush agreed to a budget compromise with Congress which raised taxes. Clinton was able to condemn the tax increase effectively on both its own merits and as a reflection of Bush's dishonesty. Effective Democratic TV ads were aired showing a clip of Bush's infamous 1988 campaign speech in which he promised "Read my lips … No new taxes." Most importantly, Bush's coalition was in disarray, for both the aforementioned reasons and for unrelated reasons. The end of the Cold War allowed old rivalries among conservatives to re-emerge and meant that other voters focused more on domestic policy, to the detriment of Bush, a social and fiscal moderate. The consequence of such a perception depressed conservative turnout. [28]

Unlike Bush, Clinton was able to unite his fractious and ideologically diverse party behind his candidacy, even when its different wings were in conflict. To garner the support of moderates and conservative Democrats, he attacked Sister Souljah, an obscure rap musician whose lyrics Clinton condemned. Furthermore, Clinton made clear his support of the death penalty and would later champion making school uniforms in public schools a requirement. [29] Clinton could also point to his centrist record as governor of Arkansas. More liberal Democrats were impressed by Clinton's record on abortion and affirmative action. His strong connections to African Americans also played a key role. In addition, he organized significant numbers of young voters and became a symbol of the rise of the Baby Boomer generation to political power. [30] Supporters remained energized and confident, even in times of scandal or missteps.

The effect of Ross Perot's candidacy has been a contentious point of debate for many years. In the ensuing months after the election, various Republicans asserted that Perot had acted as a spoiler, enough to the detriment of Bush to lose him the election. While many disaffected conservatives may have voted for Ross Perot to protest Bush's tax increase, further examination of the Perot vote in the Election Night exit polls not only showed that Perot siphoned votes nearly equally among Bush and Clinton, [31] [32] [33] [34] but roughly two-thirds of those voters who cited Bush's broken "No New Taxes" pledge as "very important" (25%) voted for Bill Clinton. [35] The voting numbers reveal that to win the electoral vote Bush would have had to win 10 of the 11 states Clinton won by less than five percentage points. For Bush to earn a majority of the popular vote, he would have needed 12.2% of Perot's 18.9% of the vote, 65% of Perot's support base. [36] State exit polls suggested that Perot did not alter the electoral college count, except potentially in one state (Ohio), which nonetheless showed a result in the margin of error. [37] Furthermore, Perot was most popular in states that strongly favored either Clinton or Bush, limiting his real electoral impact for either candidate. [38] He gained relatively little support in the Southern states and happened to have the best showing in states with few electoral votes. Perot appealed to disaffected voters all across the political spectrum who had grown weary of the two-party system. NAFTA played a role in Perot's support, and Perot voters were relatively moderate on hot-button social issues. [39] [40] A 1999 study in the American Journal of Political Science estimated that Perot's candidacy hurt the Clinton campaign, reducing "Clinton's margin of victory over Bush by seven percentage point." [41]

Clinton, Bush, and Perot did not focus on abortion during the campaign. Exit polls, however, showed that attitudes toward abortion "significantly influenced" the vote, as pro-choice Republicans defected from Bush. [42] [43]

Implications

Clinton's election ended an era in which the Republican Party had controlled the White House for 12 consecutive years, and for 20 of the previous 24 years. The election also brought the Democrats full control of the legislative and executive branches of the federal government, including both houses of U.S. Congress and the presidency, for the first time since the administration of the last Democratic president, Jimmy Carter. This would not last for very long, however, as the Republicans won control of both the House and Senate in 1994. Reelected in 1996, Clinton would become the first Democratic President since Franklin D. Roosevelt to serve two full terms in the White House.

1992 was arguably a "realigning" election. It made the Democratic Party dominant in presidential elections in the Northeast, the Great Lakes region (until 2016) and the West Coast, where many states had previously either been swing states or Republican-leaning. Clinton picked up several states that went Republican in 1988, and which have remained in the Democratic column ever since: California, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, most of Maine (besides the state's second congressional district, which broke the state's total straight Democratic voting record since, when it voted for Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump in 2016), Maryland, New Jersey, and Vermont. Vermont, carried by Clinton, had been heavily Republican for generations prior to the election, voting for a Democrat only once (in 1964). [44] The state has been won by the Democratic nominee in every presidential election since. Bill Clinton narrowly defeated Bush in New Jersey (by two points), which had voted for the Republican nominee all but twice since 1948. Clinton would later win the state in 1996 by eighteen points; like Vermont, Republicans have not won the state since. [45] California, which had previously been a Republican stronghold from 1952 to 1988, was now solidly Democratic. Clinton, a lifelong Southerner, was able to carry several states in the South that the GOP had been winning for decades, but ultimately won only four of eleven former Confederate states. This reflected the final shift of the South to the Republican Party. This was also the last election where Colorado voted Democratic until 2008. The election was the last time that a member of either party won the presidency without winning Florida.

Detailed results

Presidential candidatePartyHome statePopular voteElectoral
vote
Running mate
CountPercentageVice-presidential candidateHome stateElectoral vote
William Jefferson Clinton Democratic Arkansas 44,909,80643.01%370 Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. Tennessee 370
George Herbert Walker Bush (Incumbent) Republican Texas39,104,55037.45%168 James Danforth Quayle Indiana 168
Henry Ross Perot Independent Texas19,743,82118.91%0 James Bond Stockdale California0
Andre Verne Marrou Libertarian Alaska 290,0870.28%0 Nancy Lord Nevada 0
Bo Gritz Populist Nevada106,1520.10%0 Cy Minett New Mexico 0
Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party New York73,6220.07%0 Maria Munoz California0
Howard Phillips U.S. Taxpayers Party Virginia 43,3690.04%0 Albion Knight, Jr. Florida0
Other152,5160.13%Other
Total104,423,923100%538538
Needed to win270270

Source (Popular Vote):Leip, David. "1992 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.

Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration . Retrieved August 7, 2005.

Popular vote
Clinton
43.01%
Bush
37.45%
Perot
18.91%
Marrou
0.28%
Others
0.35%
Electoral vote
Clinton
68.77%
Bush
31.23%
ElectoralCollege1992-Large.png

Results by state

[46]

States/districts won by Clinton/Gore
States/districts won by Bush/Quayle
Candidates with electoral votes (E)Candidates with no electoral votesOverall popular vote
Bill Clinton
Democratic
George H.W. Bush
Republican
Ross Perot
Independent
Andre Marrou
Libertarian
OthersTop-2 margin
(+/− if won by D/R)
State Total
StateEVote%EVote%EVote%Vote%Vote%Vote%Vote
Alabama 9690,08040.88804,28347.659183,10910.855,7370.344,8510.29−114,203−6.771,688,060AL
Alaska 378,29430.29102,00039.46373,48128.431,3780.533,3531.29−23,706−9.17258,506AK
Arizona 8543,05036.52572,08638.478353,74123.796,7810.4611,3480.76−29,036−1.951,487,006AZ
Arkansas 6505,82353.216337,32435.4899,13210.431,2610.137,1130.75168,49917.72950,653AR
California 545,121,32546.01543,630,57432.612,296,00620.6348,1390.4335,6770.321,490,75113.3911,131,721CA
Colorado 8629,68140.138562,85035.87366,01023.328,6690.551,9700.1366,8314.261,569,180CO
Connecticut 8682,31842.218578,31335.78348,77121.585,3910.331,5390.10104,0056.431,616,332CT
Delaware 3126,05443.523102,31335.7859,21320.459350.321,1050.3823,7418.20289,620DE
D.C. 3192,61984.64320,6989.109,6814.254670.214,1071.80171,92175.55227,572DC
Florida 252,072,69839.002,173,31040.89251,053,06719.8215,0790.282380.00−100,612−1.895,314,392FL
Georgia 131,008,96643.4713995,25242.88309,65713.347,1100.311480.0113,7140.592,321,133GA
Hawaii 4179,31048.094136,82236.7053,00314.221,1190.302,5880.6942,48811.40372,842HI
Idaho 4137,01328.42202,64542.034130,39527.051,1670.2410,8942.26−65,632−13.61482,114ID
Illinois 222,453,35048.58221,734,09634.34840,51516.649,2180.1812,9780.26719,25414.245,050,157IL
Indiana 12848,42036.79989,37542.9112455,93419.777,9360.344,2060.18−140,955−6.112,305,871IN
Iowa 7586,35343.297504,89137.27253,46818.711,0760.088,8190.6581,4626.011,354,607IA
Kansas 6390,43433.74449,95138.886312,35826.994,3140.371990.02−59,517−5.141,157,256KS
Kentucky 8665,10444.558617,17841.34203,94413.664,5130.302,1610.1447,9263.211,492,900KY
Louisiana 9815,97145.589733,38640.97211,47811.813,1550.1826,0271.4582,5854.611,790,017LA
Maine 4263,42038.774206,50430.39206,82030.441,6810.251,0740.1656,6008.33679,499ME
Maryland 10988,57149.8010707,09435.62281,41414.184,7150.243,2520.16281,47714.181,985,046MD
Massachusetts 121,318,66247.5412805,04929.03632,31222.807,4580.2710,0930.36513,61318.522,773,574MA
Michigan 181,871,18243.77181,554,94036.38824,81319.3010,1750.2413,5630.32316,2427.404,274,673MI
Minnesota 101,020,99743.4810747,84131.85562,50623.963,3740.1413,2300.56273,15611.632,347,948MN
Mississippi 7400,25840.77487,79349.68785,6268.722,1540.225,9620.61−87,535−8.92981,793MS
Missouri 111,053,87344.0711811,15933.92518,74121.697,4970.31242,71410.152,391,270MO
Montana 3154,50737.633144,20735.12107,22526.129860.243,6580.8910,3002.51410,583MT
Nebraska 5217,34429.40344,34646.585174,68723.631,3440.181,5620.21−127,002−17.18739,283NE
Nevada 4189,14837.364175,82834.73132,58026.191,8350.366,9271.3713,3202.63506,318NV
New Hampshire 4209,04038.914202,48437.69121,33722.593,5480.668060.156,5561.22537,215NH
New Jersey 151,436,20642.95151,356,86540.58521,82915.616,8220.2021,8720.6579,3412.373,343,594NJ
New Mexico 5261,61745.905212,82437.3491,89516.121,6150.282,0350.3648,7938.56569,986NM
New York 333,444,45049.73332,346,64933.881,090,72115.7513,4510.1931,6540.461,097,80115.856,926,925NY
North Carolina 141,114,04242.651,134,66143.4414357,86413.705,1710.201120.00−20,619−0.792,611,850NC
North Dakota 399,16832.18136,24444.22371,08423.074160.141,2210.40−37,076−12.03308,133ND
Ohio 211,984,94240.18211,894,31038.351,036,42620.987,2520.1517,0340.3490,6321.834,939,964OH
Oklahoma 8473,06634.02592,92942.658319,87823.014,4860.32−119,863−8.621,390,359OK
Oregon 7621,31442.487475,75732.53354,09124.214,2770.297,2040.49145,5579.951,462,643OR
Pennsylvania 232,239,16445.15231,791,84136.13902,66718.2021,4770.434,6610.09447,3239.024,959,810PA
Rhode Island 4213,29947.044131,60129.02105,04523.165710.132,9610.6581,69818.02453,477RI
South Carolina 8479,51439.88577,50748.028138,87211.552,7190.233,9150.33−97,993−8.151,202,527SC
South Dakota 3124,88837.14136,71840.66373,29521.808140.245390.16−11,830−3.52336,254SD
Tennessee 11933,52147.0811841,30042.43199,96810.091,8470.096,0020.3092,2214.651,982,638TN
Texas 322,281,81537.082,496,07140.56321,354,78122.0119,6990.321,6520.03−214,256−3.486,154,018TX
Utah 5183,42924.65322,63243.365203,40027.341,9000.2632,6374.39−119,232−16.03743,998UT
Vermont 3133,59246.11388,12230.4265,99122.785010.171,4950.5245,47015.70289,701VT
Virginia 131,038,65040.591,150,51744.9713348,63913.635,7300.2215,1290.59−111,867−4.372,558,665VA
Washington 11993,03743.4111731,23431.97541,78023.687,5330.3313,9810.61261,80311.442,287,565WA
West Virginia 5331,00148.415241,97435.39108,82915.911,8730.2789,02713.02683,677WV
Wisconsin 111,041,06641.1311930,85536.78544,47921.512,8770.1111,8370.47110,2114.352,531,114WI
Wyoming 368,16034.1079,34739.70351,26325.658440.422700.14−11,187−5.60199,884WY
TOTALS:53844,909,80643.0137039,104,55037.4516819,743,82118.91290,0870.28375,6590.365,805,2565.56104,423,923US

Close states

States with margin of victory less than 1% (27 electoral votes):

  1. Georgia – 0.59%
  2. North Carolina – 0.79%

States with margin of victory less than 5% (175 electoral votes):

  1. New Hampshire – 1.22%
  2. Ohio – 1.83%
  3. Florida – 1.89%
  4. Arizona – 1.95%
  5. New Jersey – 2.37%
  6. Montana – 2.51%
  7. Nevada – 2.63%
  8. Kentucky – 3.21%
  9. Texas – 3.48%
  10. South Dakota – 3.52%
  11. Colorado – 4.26%
  12. Wisconsin – 4.35%
  13. Virginia – 4.37%
  14. Louisiana – 4.61%
  15. Tennessee – 4.65% (tipping point state)

States with margin of victory between 5% and 10% (131 electoral votes):

  1. Kansas – 5.14%
  2. Wyoming – 5.60%
  3. Iowa – 6.02%
  4. Indiana – 6.12%
  5. Connecticut – 6.43%
  6. Alabama – 6.77%
  7. Michigan – 7.39%
  8. South Carolina – 8.14%
  9. Delaware – 8.19%
  10. Maine – 8.33%
  11. New Mexico – 8.56%
  12. Oklahoma – 8.63%
  13. Mississippi – 8.91%
  14. Pennsylvania – 9.02%
  15. Alaska – 9.17%
  16. Oregon – 9.95%