1932 United States presidential election

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1932 United States presidential election
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg
  1928 November 8, 1932 1936  

531 electoral votes of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout56.9% [1] Steady2.svg 0.0 pp
  FDR in 1933.jpg President Hoover portrait.jpg
Nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt Herbert Hoover
Party Democratic Republican
Home state New York California [2]
Running mate John Nance Garner Charles Curtis
Electoral vote47259
States carried426
Popular vote22,821,27715,761,254
Percentage57.4%39.7%

1932 United States presidential election in California1932 United States presidential election in Oregon1932 United States presidential election in Washington (state)1932 United States presidential election in Idaho1932 United States presidential election in Nevada1932 United States presidential election in Utah1932 United States presidential election in Arizona1932 United States presidential election in Montana1932 United States presidential election in Wyoming1932 United States presidential election in Colorado1932 United States presidential election in New Mexico1932 United States presidential election in North Dakota1932 United States presidential election in South Dakota1932 United States presidential election in Nebraska1932 United States presidential election in Kansas1932 United States presidential election in Oklahoma1932 United States presidential election in Texas1932 United States presidential election in Minnesota1932 United States presidential election in Iowa1932 United States presidential election in Missouri1932 United States presidential election in Arkansas1932 United States presidential election in Louisiana1932 United States presidential election in Wisconsin1932 United States presidential election in Illinois1932 United States presidential election in Michigan1932 United States presidential election in Indiana1932 United States presidential election in Ohio1932 United States presidential election in Kentucky1932 United States presidential election in Tennessee1932 United States presidential election in Mississippi1932 United States presidential election in Alabama1932 United States presidential election in Georgia1932 United States presidential election in Florida1932 United States presidential election in South Carolina1932 United States presidential election in North Carolina1932 United States presidential election in Virginia1932 United States presidential election in West Virginia1932 United States presidential election in Maryland1932 United States presidential election in Delaware1932 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania1932 United States presidential election in New Jersey1932 United States presidential election in New York1932 United States presidential election in Connecticut1932 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1932 United States presidential election in Vermont1932 United States presidential election in New Hampshire1932 United States presidential election in Maine1932 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1932 United States presidential election in Maryland1932 United States presidential election in Delaware1932 United States presidential election in New Jersey1932 United States presidential election in Connecticut1932 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1932 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1932 United States presidential election in Vermont1932 United States presidential election in New Hampshire1932 United States presidential election
1932 United States presidential election
Presidential election results map. Blue denotes those won by Roosevelt/Garner, red denotes states won by Hoover/Curtis. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Herbert Hoover
Republican

Elected President

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic

The 1932 United States presidential election was the thirty-seventh quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1932. The election took place against the backdrop of the Great Depression. Incumbent Republican President Herbert Hoover was defeated in a landslide by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Governor of New York. The election marked the effective end of the Fourth Party System, which had been dominated by Republicans.

Contents

Despite poor economic conditions, Hoover faced little opposition at the 1932 Republican National Convention. Roosevelt was widely considered the front-runner at the start of the 1932 Democratic National Convention, but was not able to clinch the nomination until the fourth ballot of the convention. The Democratic convention chose a leading Southern Democrat, Speaker of the House John Nance Garner of Texas, as the party's vice presidential nominee. Roosevelt united the party around him, campaigning on the failures of the Hoover administration. He promised recovery with a "New Deal" for the American people.

Roosevelt won by a landslide in both the electoral and popular vote, carrying every state outside of the Northeast and receiving the highest percentage of the popular vote of any Democratic nominee up to that time. Hoover had won over 58% of the popular vote in the 1928 presidential election, but saw his share of the popular vote decline to 39.7%. Socialist Party nominee Norman Thomas won 2.2% of the popular vote. Subsequent landslides in the 1934 mid-term elections and the 1936 presidential election confirmed the commencement of the Fifth Party System, which would be dominated by Roosevelt's New Deal Coalition. [3]

Nominations

Republican Party nomination

Republican Party Ticket, 1932
Herbert Hoover Charles Curtis
for Presidentfor Vice President
President Hoover portrait.jpg
Charles Curtis-portrait.jpg
31st
President of the United States
(1929–1933)
31st
Vice President of the United States
(1929–1933)
Campaign

Republican candidates:

As the year 1932 began, the Republican Party believed Hoover's protectionism and aggressive fiscal policies would solve the depression. Whether they were successful or not, President Herbert Hoover controlled the party and had little trouble securing a re-nomination. Little-known former United States Senator Joseph I. France ran against Hoover in the primaries, but Hoover was often unopposed. France's primary wins were tempered by his defeat to Hoover in his home state of Maryland and the fact that few delegates to the national convention were chosen in the primaries.

Hoover's managers at the Republican National Convention, which met in Chicago between June 14 and 16, ran a tight ship, not allowing expressions of concern for the direction of the nation. He was nominated on the first ballot with 98% of the delegate vote.

The tally was spectacularly lopsided:

Presidential Ballot, RNC 1932
Herbert Hoover 1126.5
John J. Blaine 13
Calvin Coolidge 4.5
Joseph I. France 4
James Wolcott Wadsworth, Jr. 1

Both rural Republicans and hard-money Republicans (the latter hoping to nominate former President Calvin Coolidge) balked at the floor managers and voted against the renomination of Vice-President Charles Curtis, who won with just 55% of the delegate votes.

Democratic Party nomination

Democratic Party Ticket, 1932
Franklin D. Roosevelt John Nance Garner
for Presidentfor Vice President
FDR in 1933.jpg
John Nance Garner (1).jpg
44th
Governor of New York
(1929–1932)
39th
Speaker of the House
(1931–1933)
Campaign

Democratic candidates:

The leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1932 was New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt. Speaker of the House John Nance Garner and former New York Governor Al Smith were trailing him. Before the 1932 Democratic National Convention met in Chicago between June 27 and July 2, Roosevelt was believed to have more delegate votes than all of his opponents combined. However, due to the "two-thirds" nominating rule then used by the Democrats, his opponents hoped that he would be unable to obtain the two-thirds majority necessary to win, and that they could gain votes on later ballots or coalesce behind a dark horse candidate. [4] :3–4

On the first three ballots Roosevelt had well over a majority of the delegate vote, but still lacked the two-thirds majority. Before the fourth ballot, his managers James Farley and Louis McHenry Howe struck a deal with House Speaker John Nance Garner: Garner would drop out of the race and support Roosevelt, and in return Roosevelt would agree to name Garner as his running mate. With this agreement, Roosevelt won the two-thirds majority and with it the presidential nomination. [4]

General election of 1932

Campaign

Hoover addresses a large crowd in his 1932 campaign. Hoover Campaign.jpg
Hoover addresses a large crowd in his 1932 campaign.

After making an airplane trip to the Democratic convention, Roosevelt accepted the nomination in person. In his speech, he stated, "ours must be a party of liberal thought, of planned action, of enlightened international outlook, and of the greatest good to the greatest number of our citizens." [5] Roosevelt's trip to Chicago was the first of several successful, precedent-making moves designed to make him appear to be the candidate of change in the election. Large crowds greeted Roosevelt as he traveled around the nation; his campaign song "Happy Days Are Here Again" became one of the most popular in American political history [4] :244 – and, indeed, the unofficial anthem of the Democratic Party. [6]

The Democrats were united as they had not been in 1928, and probably the most united the party had been in the entire Fourth Party System. [7] Roosevelt's Protestant background nullified the anti-Catholic attacks Smith faced in 1928, and The Depression seemed to be of greater concern among the American public than previous cultural battles. Prohibition was a favorite Democratic target, with few Republicans trying to defend it given mounting demand to end prohibition and bring back beer, liquor, and the resulting tax revenues. [8]

Roosevelt (seated, center) at Greenway Ranch in Williams, Arizona on September 26, 1932. He is accompanied by U.S. Senator from Arizona Carl Hayden standing far right, along with -among others -three Democrats from the U.S. Senate (seated): Pittman, Walsh, and Cohen. Franklin D. Roosevelt and others in Williams, Arizona - NARA - 197042.jpg
Roosevelt (seated, center) at Greenway Ranch in Williams, Arizona on September 26, 1932. He is accompanied by U.S. Senator from Arizona Carl Hayden standing far right, along with –among others –three Democrats from the U.S. Senate (seated): Pittman, Walsh, and Cohen.

In contrast, Hoover was not supported by many of the more prominent Republicans and violently opposed by others, in particular by a number of senators who had fought him throughout his administration and whose national reputation made their opposition of considerable importance. Many prominent Republicans even went so far as to espouse the cause of the Democratic candidate openly. [9]

Making matters worse for Hoover was the fact that many Americans blamed him for the Great Depression. For more than two years, President Hoover had been restricting trade and increasing taxes on the wealthy with legislation such as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and the Revenue Act of 1932. As Governor of New York, Roosevelt had garnered a reputation for promoting government help for the impoverished, providing a welcome contrast for many who saw Hoover as do-nothing president. [10] Roosevelt also attacked Hoover for being, "the greatest spending Administration in peacetime in all our history." [11] The outrage caused by the deaths of veterans in the Bonus Army incident in the summer of 1932, combined with the catastrophic economic effects of Hoover's domestic policies, reduced his chances of a second term from slim to none. His attempts to campaign in public were a disaster, as he often had objects thrown at him or his vehicle as he rode through city streets. [12] [13] During the campaign, Roosevelt ran on many of the programs that would later become part of the New Deal during his presidency. [14] It was said that "Even a vaguely talented dog-catcher could have been elected president against the Republicans." [15] Hoover even received a letter from an Illinois man that advised, "Vote for Roosevelt and make it unanimous."

Hoover called Roosevelt a "chameleon in plaid" and Roosevelt called President Hoover a "fat, timid capon". [16] In the last days of campaigning, Hoover criticized Roosevelt's "nonsense ... tirades ... glittering generalizations ... ignorance" and "defamation". [16]

The election was held on November 8, 1932; however Maine held separate state elections in September.

Results

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of blue are for Roosevelt (Democratic), shades of red are for Hoover (Republican), grey indicates zero recorded votes and white indicates territories not elevated to statehood. PresidentialCounty1932Colorbrewer.gif
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of blue are for Roosevelt (Democratic), shades of red are for Hoover (Republican), grey indicates zero recorded votes and white indicates territories not elevated to statehood.

This was the first election since 1916 (16 years earlier) in which the Democratic candidate won.

Although the "other" vote (the combined vote total for candidates other than the nominees of the two major parties) of 1932 was three times that of 1928, it was considerably less than what had been recorded in 1920; the time of the greatest "other" vote with the exception of the unusual conditions prevailing in 1912 and 1924.

Roosevelt, the Democratic candidate, won the support of 22,817,883 voters (57.41%), the greatest vote ever cast for a candidate for the Presidency up until that time, and 1,425,000 greater than that cast for Hoover four years earlier. Hoover won a greater percentage of the vote in 1928, as did Harding in 1920. But the national swing of 35.17% impressed all who considered the distribution of the vote, and indicated that more than one-sixth of the electorate had switched from supporting the Republican Party to the Democratic Party. Only once in this period had there been a comparable shift; in 1920, there was a 29.29% swing towards the Republicans. [9] The swing from Smith in 1928 to Roosevelt in this year remains the greatest national swing of the electorate between presidential elections in the history of the United States.

1932 was a realigning election, as Roosevelt won a sweeping victory over Hoover, with Democrats extending their control over the U.S. House and gaining control of the U.S. Senate. Twelve years of Republican leadership came to an end, and 20 consecutive years of Democratic control of the White House began. [16] Until 1932, the Republicans had controlled the Presidency for 56 of the previous 72 years, dating to Abraham Lincoln's election in 1860. After 1932, Democrats would control the Presidency for 28 of the next 36 years.

Roosevelt led the poll in 2,722 counties, the greatest number ever carried by a candidate up until that time. Of these, 282 had never before been Democratic. Only 374 remained loyally Republican. However, that half of the total vote of the nation was cast in just eight states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin) and that in these states, Hoover polled 8,592,163 votes. In one section (West South Central), the Republican percentage sank to 16.21%, but in no other section did the party poll less than 30% of the vote cast. However, the relative appeal of the two candidates in 1932 and the decline of the appeal of Hoover as compared with 1928 are shown in the fact that the Republican vote increased in 1932 in only 87 counties, while the Democratic vote increased in 3,003 counties.

The great vote cast for Hoover, and the fact that in only one section of the nation (West South Central) did he have less than 500,000 votes and in only three states outside of the South less than 50,000 votes, made it clear that the nation remained a two-party electorate, and that everywhere, despite the triumph of the Democrats, there was a party membership devoted to neither the new administration nor the proposals of the Socialist candidate who had polled 75% of the "other" vote (as well as the highest raw vote total of his campaigns). [18]

This election marks the last time a Republican presidential candidate won a majority of black and African-American votes. As New Deal policies took effect, the strong support of black voters for these programs began a transition from their traditional support for Republicans to providing solid majorities for Democrats.

The Roosevelt ticket swept every region of the country except the Northeast and carried many reliable Republican states that had not been carried by the Democrats since their electoral landslide of 1912, when the Republican vote was divided. Michigan voted Democratic for the first time since the emergence of the Republican Party. Minnesota was carried by a Democrat for the first time in its history, leaving Vermont as the only remaining state never to be carried by a Democratic candidate (and it would not be until 1964). In contrast to the state's solid support of Republicans prior to this election, Minnesota continued supporting Democrats in every presidential election but three since 1932, the exceptions being 1952, 1956, and 1972.

Roosevelt's victory with 472 electoral votes stood until the 1964 victory of Lyndon B. Johnson, who won 486 electoral votes in 1964, as the most ever won by a first-time contestant in a presidential election. Roosevelt also bettered the national record of 444 electoral votes set by Hoover only four years earlier, but would shatter his own record when he was re-elected in 1936 with 523 votes.

This was the last election in which Connecticut, Delaware, New Hampshire, and Pennsylvania voted Republican until 1948.

Electoral Results
Presidential candidatePartyHome statePopular voteElectoral
vote
Running mate
CountPercentageVice-presidential candidateHome stateElectoral vote
Franklin D. Roosevelt Democratic New York 22,821,27757.41%472 John Nance Garner Texas 472
Herbert C. Hoover (Incumbent) Republican California 15,761,25439.65%59 Charles Curtis Kansas 59
Norman M. Thomas Socialist New York884,8852.23%0 James H. Maurer Pennsylvania 0
William Z. Foster Communist Illinois 103,3070.26%0 James W. Ford Alabama 0
William D. Upshaw Prohibition Georgia 81,9050.21%0 Frank S. Regan Illinois0
William H. Harvey Liberty Arkansas 53,4250.13%0 Frank Hemenway Washington 0
Verne L. Reynolds Socialist Labor New York34,0380.09%0 John W. Aiken Massachusetts 0
Jacob Coxey Farmer-Labor Ohio 7,4310.02%0 Julius Reiter Minnesota 0
Other4,3760.01%Other
Total39,751,898100%531531
Needed to win266266

Source (popular vote):Leip, David. "1932 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved July 31, 2005.Source (electoral vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration . Retrieved July 31, 2005.

Popular vote
Roosevelt
57.41%
Hoover
39.65%
Thomas
2.23%
Foster
0.26%
Others
0.45%
Electoral vote
Roosevelt
88.89%
Hoover
11.11%

Geography of results

1932 Electoral Map.png

Results by state

[19]

States won by Roosevelt/Garner
States won by Hoover/Curtis
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic
Herbert Hoover
Republican
Norman Thomas
Socialist
OtherMarginState Total
Stateelectoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%#
Alabama 11207,91084.741134,67514.13-2,0300.83-7390.30-173,23570.61245,354AL
Arizona 379,26467.03336,10430.53-2,6182.21-2650.22-43,16036.50118,251AZ
Arkansas 9189,60285.96928,46712.91-1,2690.58-1,2240.55-161,13573.06220,562AR
California 221,324,15758.3922847,90237.39-63,2992.79-32,6081.44-476,25521.002,267,966CA
Colorado 6250,87754.816189,61741.43-13,5912.97-3,6110.79-61,26013.38457,696CO
Connecticut 8281,63247.40-288,42048.54820,8403.45-3,6510.61--6,788-1.14594,183CT
Delaware 354,31948.11-57,07350.5531,3761.22-1330.12--2,754-2.44112,901DE
Florida 7206,30774.68769,17025.04-7750.28----137,13749.64276,252FL
Georgia 12234,11891.601219,8637.77-4610.18-1,1480.45-214,25583.83255,590GA
Idaho 4109,47958.66471,41738.27-5260.28-5,2032.79-38,06220.39186,625ID
Illinois 291,882,30455.23291,432,75642.04-67,2581.97-25,6080.75-449,54813.193,407,926IL
Indiana 14862,05454.6714677,18442.94-21,3881.36-16,3011.03-184,87011.721,576,927IN
Iowa 11598,01957.6911414,43339.98-20,4671.97-3,7680.36-183,58617.711,036,687IA
Kansas 9424,20453.569349,49844.13-18,2762.31----74,7069.43791,978KS
Kentucky 11580,57459.0611394,71640.15-3,8530.39-3,9200.40-185,85818.91983,063KY
Louisiana 10249,41892.791018,8537.01----5330.20-230,56585.77268,804LA
Maine 5128,90743.19-166,63155.8352,4890.83-4170.14--37,724-12.64298,444ME
Maryland 8314,31461.508184,18436.04-10,4892.05-2,0670.40-130,13025.46511,054MD
Massachusetts 17800,14850.6417736,95946.64-34,3052.17-8,7020.55-63,1894.001,580,114MA
Michigan 19871,70052.3619739,89444.44-39,2052.35-13,9660.84-131,8067.921,664,765MI
Minnesota 11600,80659.9111363,95936.29-25,4762.54-12,6021.26-236,84723.621,002,843MN
Mississippi 9140,16895.9895,1803.55-6860.47----134,98892.44146,034MS
Missouri 151,025,40663.6915564,71335.08-16,3741.02-3,4010.21-460,69328.621,609,894MO
Montana 4127,28658.80478,07836.07-7,8913.65-3,2241.49-49,20822.73216,479MT
Nebraska 7359,08262.987201,17735.29-9,8761.73-20.00-157,90527.70570,137NE
Nevada 328,75669.41312,67430.59-------16,08238.8241,430NV
New Hampshire 4100,68048.99-103,62950.4249470.46-2640.13--2,949-1.43205,520NH
New Jersey 16806,39449.4916775,40647.59-42,9882.64-4,7190.29-30,9881.901,629,507NJ
New Mexico 395,08962.72354,21735.76-1,7761.17-5240.35-40,87226.96151,606NM
New York 472,534,95954.07471,937,96341.33-177,3973.78-38,2950.82-596,99612.734,688,614NY
North Carolina 13497,56669.9313208,34429.28-5,5910.79----289,22240.65711,501NC
North Dakota 4178,35069.59471,77228.00-3,5211.37-2,6471.03-106,57841.58256,290ND
Ohio 261,301,69549.88261,227,31947.03-64,0942.46-16,6200.64-74,3762.852,609,728OH
Oklahoma 11516,46873.3011188,16526.70-------328,30346.59704,633OK
Oregon 5213,87157.995136,01936.88-15,4504.19-3,4680.94-77,85221.11368,808OR
Pennsylvania 361,295,94845.33-1,453,54050.843691,2233.19-18,4660.65--157,592-5.512,859,177PA
Rhode Island 4146,60455.084115,26643.31-3,1381.18-1,1620.44-31,33811.77266,170RI
South Carolina 8102,34798.0381,9781.89-820.08----100,36996.13104,407SC
South Dakota 4183,51563.62499,21234.40-1,5510.54-4,1601.44-84,30329.23288,438SD
Tennessee 11259,47366.4911126,75232.48-1,7960.46-2,2350.57-132,72134.01390,256TN
Texas 23760,34888.062397,95911.35-4,4500.52-6690.08-662,38976.72836,426TX
Utah 4116,75056.52484,79541.05-4,0871.98-9460.46-31,95515.47206,578UT
Vermont 356,26641.08-78,98457.6631,5331.12-1970.14--22,718-16.58136,980VT
Virginia 11203,97968.461189,63730.09-2,3820.80-1,9440.65-114,34238.38297,942VA
Washington 8353,26057.468208,64533.94-17,0802.78-35,8295.83-144,61523.52614,814WA
West Virginia 8405,12454.478330,73144.47-5,1330.69-2,7860.37-74,39310.00743,774WV
Wisconsin 12707,41063.4612347,74131.19-53,3794.79-6,2780.56-359,66932.261,114,808WI
Wyoming 354,37056.07339,58340.82-2,8292.92-1800.19-14,78715.2596,962WY
TOTALS:53122,821,27757.4147215,761,25439.6559884,8852.23-284,4820.727,060,02317.7639,751,898US

Close states

Margin of victory less than 5% (74 electoral votes):

  1. Connecticut, 1.14%
  2. New Hampshire, 1.43%
  3. New Jersey, 1.90%
  4. Delaware, 2.44%
  5. Ohio, 2.85%
  6. Massachusetts, 4.00%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (64 electoral votes):

  1. Pennsylvania, 5.51%
  2. Michigan, 7.92%
  3. Kansas, 9.43%

Statistics

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Democratic)

  1. Wilkinson County, Georgia 100.00%
  2. Armstrong County, South Dakota 100.00%
  3. Lancaster County, South Carolina 99.84%
  4. Sharkey County, Mississippi 99.82%
  5. Colleton County, South Carolina 99.69%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Republican)

  1. Johnson County, Tennessee 84.51%
  2. Jackson County, Kentucky 84.28%
  3. Leslie County, Kentucky 82.96%
  4. Owsley County, Kentucky 79.08%
  5. Sevier County, Tennessee 77.01%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Other)

  1. Sheridan County, Montana 32.54%
  2. Thurston County, Washington 23.12%
  3. Clallam County, Washington 22.73%
  4. Berks County, Pennsylvania 22.17%
  5. Lake County, Minnesota 21.75%

See also

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References

  1. "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara.
  2. Historical Election Results, National Archives
  3. History of American Political Parties
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Further reading