1980 United States presidential election

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1980 United States presidential election
Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg
  1976 November 4, 1980 1984  

All 538 electoral votes of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout52.6% [1] Decrease2.svg 0.9 pp
  Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981-cropped.jpg Carter cropped.jpg John Bayard Anderson crop.jpg
Nominee Ronald Reagan Jimmy Carter John B. Anderson
Party Republican Democratic Independent
Home state California Georgia Illinois
Running mate George H. W. Bush Walter Mondale Patrick Lucey
Electoral vote489490
States carried446 + DC 0
Popular vote43,903,23035,480,1155,719,850
Percentage50.7%41.0%6.6%

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1980 United States presidential election
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Reagan/Bush, blue denotes those won by Carter/Mondale. Numbers indicate the electoral votes per state.

President before election

Jimmy Carter
Democratic

Elected President

Ronald Reagan
Republican

The 1980 United States presidential election was the 49th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on November 4, 1980. Republican nominee Ronald Reagan defeated incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter. Due to the rise of conservativism following Reagan's victory, some historians consider the election to be a realigning election that marked the start of the "Reagan Era".

United States presidential election type of election in the United States

The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors. These electors then in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, and for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes is then elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; if no one receives an absolute majority of the votes for Vice President, then the Senate chooses the winner.

Republican Party (United States) Major political party in the United States

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

Ronald Reagan 40th president of the United States

Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician and film actor who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975.

Contents

Carter's unpopularity and poor relations with Democratic leaders encouraged an intra-party challenge by Senator Ted Kennedy, a younger brother of former President John F. Kennedy. Carter defeated Kennedy in the majority of the Democratic primaries, but Kennedy remained in the race until Carter was officially nominated at the 1980 Democratic National Convention. The Republican primaries were contested between Reagan, who had previously served as the Governor of California, former Congressman George H. W. Bush of Texas, Congressman John B. Anderson of Illinois, and several other candidates. All of Reagan's opponents had dropped out by the end of the primaries, and the 1980 Republican National Convention nominated a ticket consisting of Reagan and Bush. Anderson entered the race as an independent candidate, and convinced former Wisconsin Governor Patrick Lucey, a Democrat, to serve as his running mate.

Ted Kennedy American politician (1932–2009), served the U.S. Senator from Massachusetts from 1962 until his death

Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy was an American politician who served as a U.S. Senator from Massachusetts for almost 47 years, from 1962 until his death in 2009. A member of the Democratic Party and the Kennedy political family, he was the second most senior member of the Senate when he died and is the third-longest-continuously-serving senator in United States history. Kennedy was a brother of President John F. Kennedy and U.S. Attorney General and U.S. Senator Robert F. Kennedy—both victims of assassination—and was the father of Congressman Patrick J. Kennedy.

John F. Kennedy 35th president of the United States

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy, often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. He served at the height of the Cold War, and the majority of his presidency dealt with managing relations with the Soviet Union. A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate prior to becoming president.

1980 Democratic National Convention

The 1980 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party nominated President Jimmy Carter and Vice President Walter Mondale for reelection. The convention was held in Madison Square Garden in New York City from August 11 to August 14, 1980.

Reagan campaigned for increased defense spending, implementation of supply-side economic policies, and a balanced budget. His campaign was aided by Democratic dissatisfaction with Carter, the Iran hostage crisis, and a worsening economy at home marked by high unemployment and inflation. Carter attacked Reagan as a dangerous right-wing extremist and warned that Reagan would cut Medicare and Social Security.

Supply-side economics Macroeconomic theory

Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic theory arguing that economic growth can be most effectively created by lowering taxes and decreasing regulation, by which it is directly opposed to demand-side economics. According to supply-side economics, consumers will then benefit from a greater supply of goods and services at lower prices and employment will increase.

Iran hostage crisis diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States, 1979–81

The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between the United States and Iran. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981, after a group of Iranian college students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. It stands as the longest hostage crisis in recorded history.

In economics, stagflation, or recession-inflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high, the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high. It presents a dilemma for economic policy, since actions intended to lower inflation may exacerbate unemployment, and vice versa.

Reagan won the election by a landslide, taking a large majority of the electoral vote and 50.7% of the popular vote. Reagan received the highest number of electoral votes ever won by a non-incumbent presidential candidate. In the simultaneous Congressional elections, Republicans won control of the United States Senate for the first time since 1955. Carter won 41% of the vote but carried just six states and Washington, D.C. Anderson won 6.6% of the popular vote, and he performed best among liberal Republican voters dissatisfied with Reagan. Reagan, then 69, was the oldest person to ever be elected to a first term, until Donald Trump, at 70, was elected in 2016.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C. Capital of the United States

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States and a Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is also one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.

Donald Trump 45th and current president of the United States

Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality.

Background

Throughout the 1970s, the United States underwent a wrenching period of low economic growth, high inflation and interest rates, and intermittent energy crises. [2] By October 1978, Iran—a major oil supplier to the United States at the time—was experiencing a major uprising that severely damaged its oil infrastructure and greatly weakened its capability to produce oil. [3] In January 1979, shortly after Iran's leader Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi fled the country, Iranian opposition figure Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini ended his 14-year exile in France and returned to Iran to establish an Islamic Republic, largely hostile to American interests and influence in the country. [3] In the spring and summer of 1979 inflation was on the rise and various parts of the United States were experiencing energy shortages. [4]

Shah Persian title

Shah is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran. It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan namely the Shirvanshahs. It was also used by Persianate societies such as the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire, Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent, the Bengal Sultanate, as well as in Afghanistan. In Iran the title was continuously used; rather than King in the European sense, each Persian ruler regarded himself as the Shahanshah or Padishah of the Persian Empire.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 20th-century Shah of Iran

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, also known as Mohammad Reza Shah, was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah took the title Shahanshah on 26 October 1967. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief"). His dream of what he referred to as a "Great Civilisation" in Iran led to a rapid industrial and military modernisation, as well as economic and social reforms.

Ayatollah high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics

Ayatollah or ayatullah is a high-ranking Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah cleric. Those who carry the title are experts in Islamic studies such as jurisprudence, Quran reading, and philosophy and usually teach in Islamic seminaries. The next lower clerical rank is Hujjat al-Islam.

Carter was widely blamed for the return of the long gas lines in the summer of 1979 that were last seen just after the 1973 Yom Kippur War. He planned on delivering his fifth major speech on energy, but he felt that the American people were no longer listening. Carter left for the presidential retreat of Camp David. "For more than a week, a veil of secrecy enveloped the proceedings. Dozens of prominent Democratic Party leaders—members of Congress, governors, labor leaders, academics and clergy—were summoned to the mountaintop retreat to confer with the beleaguered president." His pollster, Pat Caddell, told him that the American people simply faced a crisis of confidence because of the assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr.; the Vietnam War; and Watergate. [5] On July 15, 1979, Carter gave a nationally televised address in which he identified what he believed to be a "crisis of confidence" among the American people. This came to be known as his "malaise" speech, although Carter never used the word in the speech. [6]

Yom Kippur War October 1973 war between Israel and the Arab states Egypt and Syria

The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War, also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel. The war took place mostly in Sinai and the Golan—occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War—with some fighting in African Egypt and northern Israel. Egypt's initial war objective was to use its military to seize a foothold on the east bank of the Suez Canal and use this to negotiate the return of the rest of Sinai.

Camp David country retreat of the President of the United States

Camp David is the country retreat for the President of the United States. It is located in the wooded hills of Catoctin Mountain Park near Thurmont, Maryland, also near Emmitsburg, Maryland about 62 miles (100 km) north-northwest of Washington, D.C. It is officially known as the Naval Support Facility Thurmont, because it is technically a military installation, the staffing is primarily provided by the Seabees, CEC, and Marines of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps.

Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy 1968 assassination of an American politician

On June 5, 1968, presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy was mortally wounded shortly after midnight at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. Earlier that evening, the 42-year-old junior senator from New York was declared the winner in the South Dakota and California presidential primaries in the 1968 election. He was pronounced dead at 1:44 a.m. PDT on June 6, about 26 hours after he had been shot.

Many expected Senator Ted Kennedy to successfully challenge Carter in the upcoming Democratic primary. Kennedy's official announcement was scheduled for early November. A television interview with Roger Mudd of CBS a few days before the announcement went badly, however. Kennedy gave an "incoherent and repetitive" [7] answer to the question of why he was running, and the polls, which showed him leading the President by 58–25 in August now had him ahead 49–39. [8]

Meanwhile, Carter was given an opportunity for political redemption when the Khomeini regime again gained public attention and allowed the taking of 52 American hostages by a group of Islamist students and militants at the U.S. embassy in Tehran on November 4, 1979. Carter's calm approach towards the handling of this crisis resulted in his approval ratings jump in the 60-percent range in some polls, due to a "rally round the flag" effect. [9]

By the beginning of the election campaign, the prolonged Iran hostage crisis had sharpened public perceptions of a national crisis. [10] On April 25, 1980, Carter's ability to use the hostage crisis to regain public acceptance eroded when his high risk attempt to rescue the hostages ended in disaster when eight servicemen were killed. The unsuccessful rescue attempt drew further skepticism towards his leadership skills. [11]

Following the failed rescue attempt, Carter took overwhelming blame for the Iran hostage crisis, in which the followers of the Ayatollah Khomeini burned American flags and chanted anti-American slogans, paraded the captured American hostages in public, and burned Carter in effigy. Carter's critics saw him as an inept leader who had failed to solve the worsening economic problems at home. His supporters defended the president as a decent, well-intentioned man being unfairly criticized for problems that had been escalating for years. [12]

Another event that polarized the electorate was the U.S.-led 1980 Summer Olympics boycott. Shortly following the Soviet Union's December 1979 invasion of Afghanistan, Carter demanded that the USSR withdraw from Afghanistan or the U.S. would boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics, set to be staged in Moscow. The USSR did not withdraw (for ten years). Carter's stance was controversial—he was both praised for his moral stand and criticized for politicizing the Olympics. With many allied countries joining the U.S. in the boycott, the contrasting spirits of competitive goodwill and campaign animosity, a feature of most presidential campaign years, was absent and the press had additional time to devote to national and international strife.

In a tit for tat response four years later, the Soviet Bloc countries boycotted the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.

Nominations

Democratic Party

Democratic Party Ticket, 1980
Jimmy Carter Walter Mondale
for Presidentfor Vice President
JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg
Vice President Mondale 1977 closeup.jpg
39th
President of the United States
(1977–1981)
42nd
Vice President of the United States
(1977–1981)
Campaign
Cartermondale1980.gif

Other major candidates

The following candidates were frequently interviewed by major broadcast networks, were listed in published national polls, or had held public office. Carter received 10,043,016 votes in the primaries.

Candidates in this section are sorted by date of withdrawal from the nomination race
Ted Kennedy Jerry Brown Cliff Finch
Edward Kennedy.jpg
Jerry Brown in 1978 crop.jpg
Collection- Finch, Charles C. Cliff Gov. of MS 1976-1980 (8806301864).jpg
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(1962–2009)
Governor of California
(1975–1983)
Governor of Mississippi
(1976–1980)
Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: August 11, 1980
7,381,693 votes
W: April 2, 1980
575,296 votes
?: N/A
48,032 votes

The three major Democratic candidates in early 1980 were incumbent President Jimmy Carter, Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts, and Governor Jerry Brown of California. Brown withdrew on April 2. Carter and Kennedy faced off in 34 primaries. Not counting the 1968 election in which Lyndon Johnson withdrew his candidacy, this was the most tumultuous primary race that an elected incumbent president had encountered since President Taft, during the highly contentious election of 1912.

During the summer of 1980, there was a short-lived "Draft Muskie" movement; Secretary of State Edmund Muskie was seen as a favorable alternative to a deadlocked convention. One poll showed that Muskie would be a more popular alternative to Carter than Kennedy, implying that the attraction was not so much to Kennedy as to the fact that he was not Carter. Muskie was polling even with Ronald Reagan at the time, while Carter was seven points behind. [13] Although the underground "Draft Muskie" campaign failed, it became a political legend. [14]

After defeating Kennedy in 24 of 34 primaries, Carter entered the party's convention in New York in August with 60 percent of the delegates pledged to him on the first ballot. Still, Kennedy refused to drop out. At the convention, after a futile last-ditch attempt by Kennedy to alter the rules to free delegates from their first-ballot pledges, Carter was renominated with 2,129 votes to 1,146 for Kennedy. Vice President Walter Mondale was also renominated. In his acceptance speech, Carter warned that Reagan's conservatism posed a threat to world peace and progressive social welfare programs from the New Deal to the Great Society. [15]

Republican Party

Republican Party Ticket, 1980
Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush
for Presidentfor Vice President
Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg
1988 Bush.jpg
33rd
Governor of California
(1967–1975)
11th
Director of Central Intelligence
(1976–1977)
Campaign
Reaganbush1980.gif

Other major candidates

The following candidates were frequently interviewed by major broadcast networks and cable news channels, were listed in publicly published national polls, or had held a public office. Reagan received 7,709,793 votes in the primaries.

Candidates in this section are sorted by date of withdrawal from the nomination race
George H. W. Bush John B. Anderson Phil Crane Bob Dole John Connally
George H. W. Bush official CIA portrait.jpg
John Bayard Anderson crop.jpg
Philip M. Crane 94th Congress 1975.jpg
1981 Dole p49 (cropped).jpg
John Connally.jpg
Fmr. Director of
Central Intelligence

(1976–1977)
Representative from
Illinois's 16th district
(1961–1981)
Representative from
Illinois's 12th district
(1973–1993)
Senator from Kansas
(1969–1996)
Fmr. Secretary of
the Treasury
from Texas
(1971–1972)
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
SC: May 26, 1980
ER: June 14, 1980
3,070,033 votes
DI: April 24, 1980
1,572,174 votes
W: April 17, 1980
ER: April 17, 1980
97,793 votes
W: March 15, 1980
ER: March 30, 1980
7,204 votes
W: March 9, 1980
ER: March 25, 1980
82,625 votes
Howard Baker Larry Pressler Lowell P. Weicker Jr. Harold Stassen Ben Fernandez
Howard Baker photo.jpg
Larry Pressler.jpg
Lweicker.jpg
Harold Stassen 1980.jpg
Senator from Tennessee
(1967–1985)
Senator from South Dakota
(1979–1997)
Senator from Connecticut
(1971–1989)
Governor of Minnesota
(1939–1943)
RNC Executive from California
(1973–1973)
W: March 5, 1980
ER: April 20, 1980
181,153 votes
W: January 8, 1980
ER: March 21, 1980
0 votes
W: May 16, 1979
0 votes
?: n/a
25,425 votes
?: n/a
25,520 votes

Former governor Ronald Reagan of California was the odds-on favorite to win his party's nomination for president after nearly beating incumbent President Gerald Ford just four years earlier. Reagan dominated the primaries, early driving from the field Senate Minority Leader Howard Baker from Tennessee, former governor John Connally of Texas, Senator Robert Dole from Kansas, Representative Phil Crane from Illinois, and Representative John Anderson from Illinois, who dropped out of the race to run as an Independent. George Bush from Texas posed the strongest challenge to Reagan with his victories in the Pennsylvania and Michigan primaries, but it was not enough to turn the tide. Reagan won the nomination on the first round at the 1980 Republican National Convention in Detroit, Michigan, in July, then chose George H. W. Bush, his top rival, as his running mate.

Other candidates

John Anderson was defeated in the Republican primaries, but entered the general election as an independent candidate. He campaigned as a moderate Republican alternative to Reagan's conservatism. However, his campaign appealed primarily to frustrated anti-Carter voters. [16] His support progressively evaporated through the campaign season as his supporters were pulled away by Carter and Reagan. His running mate was Patrick Lucey, a Democratic former governor of Wisconsin and then ambassador to Mexico, appointed by President Carter.

The Libertarian Party nominated Ed Clark for president and David Koch for vice president. They received almost one million votes and were on the ballot in all 50 states plus Washington, D.C. Koch, a co-owner of Koch Industries, pledged part of his personal fortune to the campaign. The Libertarian Party platform was the only political party in 1980 to contain a plank advocating for the equal rights of homosexual men and women as well as the only party platform to advocate explicitly for "amnesty" for all illegal non-citizens. [17] The platform was also unique in favoring the repeal of both the National Labor Relations Act and all state Right to Work laws. [17] Clark emphasized his support for an end to the war on drugs. [18] He advertised his opposition to the draft and wars of choice. [19]

The Clark–Koch ticket received 921,128 votes (1.1% of the total nationwide). [20] This was the highest overall number of votes earned by a Libertarian candidate until the 2012 election, when Gary Johnson and James P. Gray became the first Libertarian ticket to earn more than a million votes, albeit with a lower overall vote percentage than Clark–Koch. It remained the highest percentage of popular votes a Libertarian Party candidate received in a presidential race until Johnson and William Weld became the first Libertarian ticket to receive more than 3 percent of the popular vote in 2016. His strongest support was in Alaska, where he came in third place with 11.7% of the vote, finishing ahead of independent candidate John Anderson and receiving almost half as many votes as Jimmy Carter.

The Socialist Party USA nominated David McReynolds for president and Sister Diane Drufenbrock for vice president, making McReynolds the first openly gay man to run for president and Drufenbrock the first nun to be a candidate for national office in the U.S.

The Citizens Party ran biologist Barry Commoner for president and Comanche Native American activist LaDonna Harris for vice president. The Commoner–Harris ticket was on the ballot in twenty-nine states and in the District of Columbia. [21]

The Communist Party USA ran Gus Hall for president and Angela Davis for vice president.

The American Party nominated Percy L. Greaves, Jr. for president and Frank L. Varnum for vice president.

Rock star Joe Walsh ran a mock campaign as a write-in candidate, promising to make his song "Life's Been Good" the new national anthem if he won, and running on a platform of "Free Gas For Everyone." Though the 33-year-old Walsh was not old enough to actually assume the office, he wanted to raise public awareness of the election.

General election


Campaign

Under federal election laws, Carter and Reagan received $29.4 million each, and Anderson was given a limit of $18.5 million with private fund-raising allowed for him only. They were not allowed to spend any other money. Carter and Reagan each spent about $15 million on television advertising, and Anderson under $2 million. Reagan ended up spending $29.2 million in total, Carter $29.4 million, and Anderson spent $17.6 million—partially because he (Anderson) didn't get Federal Election Commission money until after the election.[ citation needed ]

The 1980 election is considered by some to be a realigning election, reaching a climate of confrontation practically not seen since 1932. Reagan's supporters praise him for running a campaign of upbeat optimism. [22] David Frum says Carter ran an attack-based campaign based on "despair and pessimism" which "cost him the election." [23] Carter emphasized his record as a peacemaker, and said Reagan's election would threaten civil rights and social programs that stretched back to the New Deal. Reagan's platform also emphasized the importance of peace, as well as a prepared self-defense. [22]

Immediately after the conclusion of the primaries,[ date missing ] a Gallup poll held that Reagan was ahead, with 58% of voters upset by Carter's handling of the Presidency. [22] One analysis of the election has suggested that "Both Carter and Reagan were perceived negatively by a majority of the electorate." [24] While the three leading candidates (Reagan, Anderson and Carter) were religious Christians, Carter had the most support of evangelical Christians according to a Gallup poll. [22] However, in the end, Jerry Falwell's Moral Majority lobbying group is credited with giving Reagan two-thirds of the white evangelical vote. [25] According to Carter: "that autumn [1980] a group headed by Jerry Falwell purchased $10 million in commercials on southern radio and TV to brand me as a traitor to the South and no longer a Christian." [26]

The election of 1980 was a key turning point in American politics. It signaled the new electoral power of the suburbs and the Sun Belt. Reagan's success as a conservative would initiate a realigning of the parties, as liberal Republicans and conservative Democrats would either leave politics or change party affiliations through the 1980s and 1990s to leave the parties much more ideologically polarized. [12] While during Barry Goldwater's 1964 campaign, many voters saw his warnings about a too-powerful government as hyperbolic and only 30% of the electorate agreed that government was too powerful, by 1980 a majority of Americans believed that government held too much power. [27]

Promises

Reagan promised a restoration of the nation's military strength, at the same time 60% of Americans polled felt defense spending was too low. [28] Reagan also promised an end to "trust me government" and to restore economic health by implementing a supply-side economic policy. Reagan promised a balanced budget within three years (which he said would be "the beginning of the end of inflation"), accompanied by a 30% reduction in tax rates over those same years. With respect to the economy, Reagan famously said, "A recession is when your neighbor loses his job. A depression is when you lose yours. And recovery is when Jimmy Carter loses his." [22] Reagan also criticized the "windfall profit tax" that Carter and Congress enacted that year in regards to domestic oil production and promised to attempt to repeal it as president. [29] The tax was not a tax on profits, but on the difference between the price control-mandated price and the market price. [30]

On the issue of women's rights there was much division, with many feminists frustrated with Carter, the only candidate who supported the Equal Rights Amendment. After a bitter Convention fight between Republican feminists and antifeminists the Republican Party dropped their forty-year endorsement of the ERA. [31] Reagan, however, announced his dedication to women's rights and his intention to, if elected, appoint women to his cabinet and the first female justice to the Supreme Court. [32] He also pledged to work with all 50 state governors to combat discrimination against women and to equalize federal laws as an alternative to the ERA. [22] Reagan was convinced to give an endorsement of women's rights in his nomination acceptance speech.

Carter was criticized by his own aides for not having a "grand plan" for the recovery of the economy, nor did he ever make any campaign promises; he often criticized Reagan's economic recovery plan, but did not create one of his own in response. [22]

Events

Ronald Reagan campaigning with his wife Nancy and Strom Thurmond in Columbia, South Carolina, October 10, 1980 Reagan 1980 campaign.jpg
Ronald Reagan campaigning with his wife Nancy and Strom Thurmond in Columbia, South Carolina, October 10, 1980

In August, after the Republican National Convention, Ronald Reagan gave a campaign speech at the annual Neshoba County Fair on the outskirts of Philadelphia, Mississippi, where three civil rights workers were murdered in 1964. He was the first presidential candidate ever to campaign at the fair. [33] Reagan famously announced, "Programs like education and others should be turned back to the states and local communities with the tax sources to fund them. I believe in states' rights. I believe in people doing as much as they can at the community level and the private level." [22] Reagan also stated, "I believe we have distorted the balance of our government today by giving powers that were never intended to be given in the Constitution to that federal establishment." He went on to promise to "restore to states and local governments the power that properly belongs to them." [34] President Carter criticized Reagan for injecting "hate and racism" by the "rebirth of code words like 'states' rights'". [35] Two days later, Reagan appeared at the Urban League convention in New York, where he said, "I am committed to the protection and enforcement of the civil rights of black Americans. This commitment is interwoven into every phase of the plans I will propose." [22] He then said that he would develop "enterprise zones" to help with urban renewal. [22]

The media's main criticism of Reagan centered on his gaffes. When Carter kicked off his general election campaign in Tuscumbia, Reagan—referring to the Southern U.S. as a whole—claimed that Carter had begun his campaign in the birthplace of the Ku Klux Klan. In doing so, Reagan seemed to insinuate that the KKK represented the South, which caused many Southern governors to denounce Reagan's remarks. [36] Additionally, Reagan was widely ridiculed by Democrats for saying that trees caused pollution; he later said that he meant only certain types of pollution and his remarks had been misquoted. [37]

Meanwhile, Carter was burdened by a continued weak economy and the Iran hostage crisis. [28] Inflation, high interest rates, and unemployment continued through the course of the campaign, and the ongoing hostage crisis in Iran became, according to David Frum in How We Got Here: The '70s, a symbol of American impotence during the Carter years. [28] John Anderson's independent candidacy, aimed at eliciting support from liberals, was also seen as hurting Carter more than Reagan, [22] especially in reliably Democratic states such as Massachusetts and New York.

Debates

Debates among candidates for the 1980 U.S. presidential election
No.DateHostLocationPanelistsModeratorParticipantsViewership

(millions)

P1Sunday, September 21, 1980 Baltimore Convention Center Baltimore, Maryland Carol Loomis

Daniel Greenberg

Charles Corddry

Lee May

Jane Bryant Quinn

Soma Golden

Bill Moyers Governor Ronald Reagan

Congressman John Anderson

n/a
P1aTuesday, October 28, 1980 Public Auditorium Cleveland, Ohio Marvin Stone

Harry Ellis

William Hilliard

Barbara Walters

Howard K. Smith Governor Ronald Reagan

President Jimmy Carter

80.6 [38]
External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Reagan-Carter presidential debate, October 28, 1980 on YouTube

The League of Women Voters, which had sponsored the 1976 Ford/Carter debate series, announced that it would do so again for the next cycle in the spring of 1979. However, Carter was not eager to participate with any debate. He had repeatedly refused to a debate with Senator Edward M. Kennedy during the primary season, and had given ambivalent signals as to his participation in the fall.

The League of Women Voters had announced a schedule of debates similar to 1976, three presidential and one vice presidential. No one had much of a problem with this until it was announced that Rep. John Anderson might be invited to participate along with Carter and Reagan. Carter steadfastly refused to participate with Anderson included, and Reagan refused to debate without him. It took months of negotiations for the League of Women Voters to finally put it together. It was held on September 21, 1980, in the Baltimore Convention Center. Reagan said of Carter's refusal to debate: "He [Carter] knows that he couldn't win a debate even if it were held in the Rose Garden before an audience of Administration officials with the questions being asked by Jody Powell." [39] The League of Women Voters promised the Reagan campaign that the debate stage would feature an empty chair to represent the missing president. Carter was very upset about the planned chair stunt, and at the last minute convinced the league to take it out. The debate was moderated by Bill Moyers. Anderson, who many thought would handily dispatch the former governor, managed only a draw, according to many in the media at that time. The Illinois congressman, who had been as high as 20% in some polls, and at the time of the debate was over 10%, dropped to about 5% soon after. Anderson failed to substantively engage Reagan, instead he started off by criticizing Carter: "Governor Reagan is not responsible for what has happened over the last four years, nor am I. The man who should be here tonight to respond to those charges chose not to attend," to which Reagan added: "It's a shame now that there are only two of us here debating, because the two that are here are in more agreement than disagreement." [40] In one moment in the debate, Reagan commented on a rumor that Anderson had invited Senator Ted Kennedy to be his running mate by asking the candidate directly, "John, would you really prefer Teddy Kennedy to me?" [41]

As September turned into October, the situation remained essentially the same. Governor Reagan insisted Anderson be allowed to participate, and the President remained steadfastly opposed to this. As the standoff continued, the second round was canceled, as was the vice presidential debate.

With two weeks to go to the election, the Reagan campaign decided that the best thing to do at that moment was to accede to all of President Carter's demands, and LWV agreed to exclude Congressman Anderson from the final debate, which was rescheduled for October 28 in Cleveland, Ohio.

President Carter (left) and former Governor Reagan (right) at the presidential debate on October 28, 1980 Carter Reagan Debate 10-28-80.png
President Carter (left) and former Governor Reagan (right) at the presidential debate on October 28, 1980

The presidential debate between President Carter and Governor Reagan was moderated by Howard K. Smith and presented by the League of Women Voters. The showdown ranked among the highest ratings of any television program in the previous decade. Debate topics included the Iranian hostage crisis, and nuclear arms treaties and proliferation. Carter's campaign sought to portray Reagan as a reckless "war hawk," as well as a "dangerous right-wing radical". But it was President Carter's reference to his consultation with 12-year-old daughter Amy concerning nuclear weapons policy that became the focus of post-debate analysis and fodder for late-night television jokes. President Carter said he had asked Amy what the most important issue in that election was and she said, "the control of nuclear arms." A famous political cartoon, published the day after Reagan's landslide victory, showed Amy Carter sitting in Jimmy's lap with her shoulders shrugged asking "the economy? the hostage crisis?"

When President Carter criticized Reagan's record, which included voting against Medicare and Social Security benefits, Governor Reagan audibly sighed and replied: "There you go again". [42]

In describing the national debt that was approaching $1 trillion, Reagan stated "a billion is a thousand millions, and a trillion is a thousand billions." When Carter would criticize the content of Reagan's campaign speeches, Reagan began his counter with the words: "Well ... I don't know that I said that. I really don't."

In his closing remarks, Reagan asked viewers: "Are you better off now than you were four years ago? Is it easier for you to go and buy things in the stores than it was four years ago? Is there more or less unemployment in the country than there was four years ago? Is America as respected throughout the world as it was? Do you feel that our security is as safe, that we're as strong as we were four years ago? And if you answer all of those questions 'yes', why then, I think your choice is very obvious as to whom you will vote for. If you don't agree, if you don't think that this course that we've been on for the last four years is what you would like to see us follow for the next four, then I could suggest another choice that you have."

After trailing Carter by 8 points among registered voters (and by 3 points among likely voters) right before their debate, Reagan moved into a 3-point lead among likely voters immediately afterward. [43]

Endorsements

In September 1980, former Watergate scandal prosecutor Leon Jaworski accepted a position as honorary chairman of Democrats for Reagan. [28] Five months earlier, Jaworski had harshly criticized Reagan as an "extremist"; he said after accepting the chairmanship, "I would rather have a competent extremist than an incompetent moderate." [28]

Former Democratic Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota (who in 1968 had challenged Lyndon Johnson from the left, causing the then-President to all but abdicate) endorsed Reagan. [44]

Three days before the November 4 voting in the election, the National Rifle Association endorsed a presidential candidate for the first time in its history, backing Reagan. Reagan had received the California Rifle and Pistol Association's Outstanding Public Service Award. Carter had appointed Abner J. Mikva, a fervent proponent of gun control, to a federal judgeship and had supported the Alaska Lands Bill, closing 40,000,000 acres (160,000 km2) to hunting. [45]

Results

Election results by county.
Ronald Reagan
Jimmy Carter 1980prescountymap2.PNG
Election results by county.
1980 Presidential Election, Results by Congressional District 1980 Presidential Election, Results by Congressional District.png
1980 Presidential Election, Results by Congressional District

The election was held on November 4, 1980. [46] Ronald Reagan and running mate George H. W. Bush beat Carter by almost 10 percentage points in the popular vote. Republicans also gained control of the Senate on Reagan's coattails for the first time since 1952. The electoral college vote was a landslide, with 489 votes (representing 44 states) for Reagan and 49 for Carter (representing six states and Washington, D.C.). [47] NBC News projected Reagan as the winner at 8:15 pm EST (5:15 PST), before voting was finished in the West, based on exit polls; it was the first time a broadcast network used exit polling to project a winner, and took the other broadcast networks by surprise. Carter conceded defeat at 9:50 pm EST. [48] [49] Carter's loss was the worst performance by an incumbent president since Herbert Hoover lost to Franklin D. Roosevelt by a margin of 18% in 1932. Also, Carter was the first incumbent Democrat to serve only one full term since James Buchanan and lose re-election since Andrew Johnson; Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms while Harry Truman and Lyndon B. Johnson served one full term in addition to respectively taking over following the deaths of Franklin D. Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy.

Carter carried only Georgia (his home state), Maryland, Minnesota (Mondale's home state), Hawaii, West Virginia, Rhode Island, and the District of Columbia.

John Anderson won 6.6% of the popular vote but failed to win any state outright. He found the most support in New England, fueled by liberal and moderate Republicans who felt Reagan was too far to the right and with voters who normally leaned Democratic but were dissatisfied with the policies of the Carter Administration. His best showing was in Massachusetts, where he won 15% of the popular vote. Conversely, Anderson performed worst in the South, receiving under 2% of the popular vote in South Carolina, Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi. Anderson claims that he was accused of spoiling the election for Carter by receiving votes that might have otherwise been cast for Carter. [50] However, 37 percent of Anderson voters polled preferred Reagan as their second choice. [51]

Libertarian Party candidate Ed Clark received 921,299 popular votes (1.06%). The Libertarians succeeded in getting Clark on the ballot in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Clark's best showing was in Alaska, where he received 11.66% of the vote. The 921,299 votes achieved by the Clark–Koch ticket was the best performance by a Libertarian presidential candidate until 2012, when the Johnson–Gray ticket received 1,273,667 votes. In addition, the popular vote percentage was the highest of a Libertarian presidential candidate until 2016, when the Johnson-Weld ticket received 3.28%.

Reagan won 53% of the vote in reliably Democratic South Boston. [27] His electoral college victory of 489 electoral votes (90.9% of the electoral vote) was the most lopsided electoral college victory for a first-time President-elect.[ citation needed ] Although Reagan was to win an even greater Electoral College majority in 1984, the 1980 election nonetheless stands as the last time some currently very strong Democratic counties gave a Republican majority or plurality. Notable examples are Jefferson County in Washington State, Lane County, Oregon, Marin and Santa Cruz Counties in California, McKinley County, New Mexico, and Rock Island County, Illinois. [52] Conversely, this was the last time that the Democrats won Georgia and Maryland until 1992. This election is the last time a Republican won the presidency without winning Georgia. This is the first time Massachusetts voted for the Republican candidate since 1956. 1980 is one of only two occurrences of a pair of consecutive elections seeing the incumbent president defeated, the other one happening in 1892. This is the only time in the 20th century a party was voted out after a single four-year term.

Statistics

Presidential candidatePartyHome statePopular voteElectoral
vote
Running mate
CountPercentageVice-presidential candidateHome stateElectoral vote
Ronald Wilson Reagan Republican California 43,903,23050.75%489 George Herbert Walker Bush Texas 489
James Earl Carter, Jr. (incumbent) Democratic Georgia 35,480,11541.01%49 Walter Frederick Mondale Minnesota 49
John Bayard Anderson Independent Illinois 5,719,8506.61%0 Patrick Joseph Lucey Wisconsin 0
Ed Clark Libertarian California 921,1281.06%0 David Koch Kansas 0
Barry Commoner Citizens Missouri 233,0520.27%0 LaDonna Harris Oklahoma 0
Gus Hall Communist New York  44,9330.05%0 Angela Davis California  0
John Rarick American Independent Louisiana  40,9060.05%0 Eileen Shearer California  0
Clifton DeBerry Socialist Workers California  38,7380.04%0 Matilde Zimmermann New York  0
Ellen McCormack Right to Life New York  32,3200.04%0 Carroll Driscoll New Jersey  0
Maureen Smith Peace and Freedom California  18,1160.02%0 Elizabeth Barron California  0
Harley McLain Natural People's North Dakota  18,1160.02%0 Jewelie Goeller North Dakota  0
Other2960.000003%Other
Total86,509,678100%538538
Needed to win270270

Source (popular vote):Leip, David. "1980 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.

Source (electoral vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration . Retrieved August 7, 2005.

Popular vote
Reagan
50.75%
Carter
41.01%
Anderson
6.61%
Clark
1.06%
Commoner
0.27%
Others
0.30%
Electoral vote
Reagan
90.9%
Carter
9.1%
ElectoralCollege1980-Large.png

Results by state

[53]

States/districts won by Reagan/Bush
States/districts won by Carter/Mondale
Ronald Reagan
Republican
Jimmy Carter
Democratic
John Anderson
Independent
Ed Clark
Libertarian
MarginState Total
Stateelectoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%#
Alabama 9654,19248.759636,73047.45-16,4811.23-13,3180.99-17,4621.301,341,929AL
Alaska 386,11254.35341,84226.41-11,1557.04-18,47911.66-44,27027.94158,445AK
Arizona 6529,68860.616246,84328.24-76,9528.81-18,7842.15-282,84532.36873,945AZ
Arkansas 6403,16448.136398,04147.52-22,4682.68-8,9701.07-5,1230.61837,582AR
California 454,524,85852.69453,083,66135.91-739,8338.62-148,4341.73-1,441,19716.788,587,063CA
Colorado 7652,26455.077367,97331.07-130,63311.03-25,7442.17-284,29124.001,184,415CO
Connecticut 8677,21048.168541,73238.52-171,80712.22-8,5700.61-135,4789.631,406,285CT
Delaware 3111,25247.213105,75444.87-16,2886.91-1,9740.84-5,4982.33235,668DE
D.C. 323,31313.41-130,23174.89316,1319.28-1,1040.63--106,918-61.49173,889DC
Florida 172,046,95155.52171,419,47538.50-189,6925.14-30,5240.83-627,47617.023,687,026FL
Georgia 12654,16840.95-890,73355.761236,0552.26-15,6270.98--236,565-14.811,597,467GA
Hawaii 4130,11242.90-135,87944.80432,02110.56-3,2691.08--5,767-1.90303,287HI
Idaho 4290,69966.464110,19225.19-27,0586.19-8,4251.93-180,50741.27437,431ID
Illinois 262,358,04949.65261,981,41341.72-346,7547.30-38,9390.82-376,6367.934,749,721IL
Indiana 131,255,65656.0113844,19737.65-111,6394.98-19,6270.88-411,45918.352,242,033IN
Iowa 8676,02651.318508,67238.60-115,6338.78-13,1231.00-167,35412.701,317,661IA
Kansas 7566,81257.857326,15033.29-68,2316.96-14,4701.48-240,66224.56979,795KS
Kentucky 9635,27449.079616,41747.61-31,1272.40-5,5310.43-18,8571.461,294,627KY
Louisiana 10792,85351.2010708,45345.75-26,3451.70-8,2400.53-84,4005.451,548,591LA
Maine 4238,52245.614220,97442.25-53,32710.20-5,1190.98-17,5483.36523,011ME
Maryland 10680,60644.18-726,16147.1410119,5377.76-14,1920.92--45,555-2.961,540,496MD
Massachusetts 141,057,63141.90141,053,80241.75-382,53915.15-22,0380.87-3,8290.152,524,298MA
Michigan 211,915,22548.99211,661,53242.50-275,2237.04-41,5971.06-253,6936.493,909,725MI
Minnesota 10873,24142.56-954,17446.5010174,9908.53-31,5921.54--80,933-3.942,051,953MN
Mississippi 7441,08949.427429,28148.09-12,0361.35-5,4650.61-11,8081.32892,620MS
Missouri 121,074,18151.1612931,18244.35-77,9203.71-14,4220.69-142,9996.812,099,824MO
Montana 4206,81456.824118,03232.43-29,2818.05-9,8252.70-88,78224.39363,952MT
Nebraska 5419,93765.535166,85126.04-44,9937.02-9,0731.42-253,08639.49640,854NE
Nevada 3155,01762.54366,66626.89-17,6517.12-4,3581.76-88,35135.64247,885NV
New Hampshire 4221,70557.744108,86428.35-49,69312.94-2,0670.54-112,84129.39383,999NH
New Jersey 171,546,55751.97171,147,36438.56-234,6327.88-20,6520.69-399,19313.422,975,684NJ
New Mexico 4250,77954.974167,82636.78-29,4596.46-4,3650.96-82,95318.18456,237NM
New York 412,893,83146.66412,728,37243.99-467,8017.54-52,6480.85-165,4592.676,201,959NY
North Carolina 13915,01849.3013875,63547.18-52,8002.85-9,6770.52-39,3832.121,855,833NC
North Dakota 3193,69564.23379,18926.26-23,6407.84-3,7431.24-114,50637.97301,545ND
Ohio 252,206,54551.51251,752,41440.91-254,4725.94-49,0331.14-454,13110.604,283,603OH
Oklahoma 8695,57060.508402,02634.97-38,2843.33-13,8281.20-293,54425.531,149,708OK
Oregon 6571,04448.336456,89038.67-112,3899.51-25,8382.19-114,1549.661,181,516OR
Pennsylvania 272,261,87249.59271,937,54042.48-292,9216.42-33,2630.73-324,3327.114,561,501PA
Rhode Island 4154,79337.20-198,34247.67459,81914.38-2,4580.59--43,549-10.47416,072RI
South Carolina 8441,20749.578427,56048.04-14,1501.59-4,9750.56-13,6471.53890,083SC
South Dakota 4198,34360.534103,85531.69-21,4316.54-3,8241.17-94,48828.83327,703SD
Tennessee 10787,76148.7010783,05148.41-35,9912.22-7,1160.44-4,7100.291,617,616TN
Texas 262,510,70555.28261,881,14741.42-111,6132.46-37,6430.83-629,55813.864,541,637TX
Utah 4439,68772.774124,26620.57-30,2845.01-7,2261.20-315,42152.20604,222UT
Vermont 394,59844.37381,89138.41-31,76014.90-1,9000.89-12,7075.96213,207VT
Virginia 12989,60953.0312752,17440.31-95,4185.11-12,8210.69-237,43512.721,866,032VA
Washington 9865,24449.669650,19337.32-185,07310.62-29,2131.68-215,05112.341,742,394WA
West Virginia 6334,20645.30-367,46249.81631,6914.30-4,3560.59--33,256-4.51737,715WV
Wisconsin 111,088,84547.9011981,58443.18-160,6577.07-29,1351.28-107,2614.722,273,221WI
Wyoming 3110,70062.64349,42727.97-12,0726.83-4,5142.55-61,27334.67176,713WY
TOTALS:53843,903,23050.7548935,480,11541.01495,719,8506.61-921,1281.06-8,423,1159.7486,509,678US

Close states

Margin of victory less than 1% (30 electoral votes):

  1. Massachusetts, 0.15%
  2. Tennessee, 0.29%
  3. Arkansas, 0.61%

Margin of victory less than 5% (135 electoral votes):

  1. Alabama, 1.30%
  2. Mississippi, 1.32%
  3. Kentucky, 1.46%
  4. South Carolina, 1.53%
  5. Hawaii, 1.90%
  6. North Carolina, 2.12%
  7. Delaware, 2.33%
  8. New York, 2.67%
  9. Maryland, 2.96%
  10. Maine, 3.36%
  11. Minnesota, 3.94%
  12. West Virginia, 4.51%
  13. Wisconsin, 4.72%

Margin of victory more than 5%, but less than 10% (113 electoral votes):

  1. Louisiana, 5.45%
  2. Vermont, 5.96%
  3. Michigan, 6.49%
  4. Missouri, 6.81%
  5. Pennsylvania, 7.11%
  6. Illinois, 7.93% (tipping point state)
  7. Connecticut, 9.64%
  8. Oregon, 9.66%

Voter demographics

The 1980 presidential vote by demographic subgroup
Demographic subgroupCarterReaganAnderson% of
total vote
Total vote41518100
Ideology
Liberals 60281217
Moderates 4349846
Conservatives 2373433
Party
Democrats 6727643
Republicans 1185428
Independents 31561323
Sex
Men3855751
Women4647749
Race
White 3656888
Black 8314310
Hispanic 563772
Age
18–21 years old4544116
22–29 years old44441117
30–44 years old3855731
45–59 years old3955623
60 and older4155418
Family income
Under $10,0005242613
$10,000–15,0004843814
$10,000–15,0004843814
$15,000–25,0003954730
$25,000–50,0003359824
Over $50,000266685
Region
East 4448832
Midwest 4252620
South 4552327
West 36541011
Union households
Union 4845726
Non-union3656862

Source: CBS News and The New York Times exit poll from the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research (15,201 surveyed) [54]

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