New York State Senate

Last updated

New York State Senate
New York State Legislature
Seal of the New York State Senate.svg
Type
Type
Leadership
Kathy Hochul (D)
since January 1, 2015
Andrea Stewart-Cousins (D)
since January 2, 2019
Rob Ortt (R)
since June 28, 2020
Structure
Seats63
New York State Senate 2020.svg
Political groups
Majority
  •    Democratic  (43)

Minority

Length of term
2 years [1]
AuthorityArticle III, New York Constitution
Salary$120,000/year + per diem
Elections
Last election
November 3, 2020
Next election
November 8, 2022
RedistrictingLegislative Control
Meeting place
New York State Senate chamber.jpg
Senate Chamber at New York State Capitol, Albany
Website
NYSenate.gov

The New York State Senate is the upper house of the New York State Legislature, the New York State Assembly being the lower house. [2] Its members are elected to two-year terms; [3] there are no term limits. [4] As of 2014, there are 63 seats in the Senate. [5]

Contents

Partisan composition

The New York State Senate was dominated by the Republican Party for much of the 20th century. Between World War II and the turn of the 21st century, the Democratic Party only controlled the upper house for one year. [6] The Democrats took control of the Senate following the 1964 elections; [7] however, the Republicans quickly regained a Senate majority in special elections later that year. [8] By 2018, the State Senate was the last Republican-controlled body in New York government. [9]

In the 2018 elections, Democrats gained eight Senate seats, taking control of the chamber from the Republicans. [10] In the 2020 elections, Democrats won a total of 43 seats, while Republicans won 20; [11] the election results gave Senate Democrats a veto-proof two-thirds supermajority. [12]

AffiliationRecent party affiliation history
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic Republican
SDC [lower-alpha 1] IDC [lower-alpha 2] SF [lower-alpha 3] Vacant
Begin 2007 session [13] 2933620
End 2008 session3031611
Begin 2009 session [14] 3230620
End 2010 session3229611
Begin 2011 session26432620
End 2012 session2533620
Begin 2013 session [15] 275130630
End 2014 session24229612
Begin 2015 session [16] 2515132630
End 2016 session2531621
Begin 2017 session [17] 247131630
End 2018 session [18] 31
Begin 2019 session [19] [20] 39123630
End 2020 session [lower-alpha 4] [21] 4020603
Begin 2021 session [22] 4320630
Latest voting share68.3%31.7%

Recent history

2009–2010: Democrats control Senate; parliamentary coup occurs

New York State Senate Chamber Senate Chamber at New York State Capitol, Albany.jpg
New York State Senate Chamber

Democrats won 32 of 62 seats in New York's upper chamber in the 2008 general election on November 4, capturing the majority for the first time in more than four decades. [45] [46]

However, a power struggle emerged before the new term began. Four Democratic senators — Rubén Díaz Sr. (Bronx), Carl Kruger (Brooklyn), Pedro Espada, Jr. (Bronx), and Hiram Monserrate (Queens) — immediately refused to caucus with their party. [47] The self-named "Gang of Four" refused to back Malcolm Smith (Queens) as the chamber's majority leader and sought concessions. [48] Monserrate soon rejoined the caucus after reaching an agreement with Smith that reportedly included the chairmanship of the Consumer Affairs Committee. [49] The remaining "Gang of Three" reached an initial compromise in early December that collapsed within a week, [50] but was ultimately resolved [51] with Smith becoming majority leader. [52]

At the beginning of the 2009–2010 legislative session, there were 32 Democrats and 30 Republicans in the Senate. On June 8, 2009, then-Senators Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada, Jr.--both Democrats—voted with the 30 Republican members to install Senate Republican Leader Dean Skelos (R-Rockville Centre) as the new majority leader of the Senate, replacing Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith. [53] [54] The Associated Press described the vote as a "parliamentary coup". The move came after Republican whip Tom Libous introduced a surprise resolution to vacate the chair and replace Smith as temporary president and majority leader. In an effort to stop the vote, Democratic whip Jeff Klein (Bronx) unilaterally moved to recess, and Smith had the lights and Internet cut off; however, they were unable to prevent the vote from being held. In accordance with a prearranged deal, Espada was elected temporary president and acting lieutenant governor while Skelos was elected majority leader. [55]

Following the coup, Senate Democrats voted for John Sampson (D-Brooklyn) to replace Smith as Democratic Leader. On June 14, Monserrate declared that he would once again caucus with the Democrats. This development meant that the Senate was evenly split, 31–31, between the Republican Conference and the Democratic Conference. Due to a vacancy in the office of the Lieutenant Governor, there was no way to break the deadlock. [56]

Between June 8 and the end of the coup on July 9, the Senate did not conduct any official business. [57] According to The New York Times , Espada's power play "threw the Senate into turmoil and hobbled the state government, making the body a national laughingstock as the feuding factions shouted and gaveled over each other in simultaneous legislative sessions." [58] The coup also led to litigation. [59]

On July 9, 2009, the coup ended. Espada rejoined the Senate Democratic Conference after reaching a deal in which he would be named Senate Majority Leader, [58] Sampson would remain Senate Democratic Leader, and Smith would be Temporary President of the Senate during a "transition period" after which Sampson would ascend to the Temporary Presidency. [60] On February 9, 2010, the Senate voted to expel Monserrate from the Senate following a misdemeanor domestic violence conviction. [61] Espada was defeated in a September 2010 primary election [62] in which the Democratic Party backed his challenger, Gustavo Rivera.

2011–2012: Republicans return to power; IDC forms

Republicans retook the Senate majority in the 2010 elections, [63] winning 32 seats to the Democrats' 30 on Election Day. [64] [65] One Republican Senate incumbent (Sen. Frank Padavan of Queens) was defeated, [66] while Democratic candidate David Carlucci was elected to an open seat in Senate District 38 [67] that had been vacated due to the death of Republican Senator Thomas Morahan on July 12, 2010. [68] Four Democratic incumbents lost their seats to Republicans in the 2010 elections: Sen. Brian Foley was defeated by Lee Zeldin, [69] Sen. Antoine Thompson was defeated by Mark Grisanti, [70] Sen. Darrel Aubertine was defeated by Patty Ritchie, [71] and Craig M. Johnson was defeated by Jack Martins. [72] [64]

Just before the new legislative session convened in January 2011, four Senate Democrats--led by former Democratic whip Jeff Klein--broke away from the Senate Democratic Conference to form an Independent Democratic Conference (IDC). Klein said that he and his three colleagues, Diane Savino, David Carlucci and David Valesky could no longer support the leadership of Senate Democratic Leader John Sampson. [73]

In March 2011, "Gang of Four" member Senator Carl Kruger surrendered to bribery charges. He later pleaded guilty to those charges in December 2011. [74] On March 20, 2012, Republican David Storobin defeated Democrat Lew Fidler in a special election to fill Kruger's vacated seat; results of the special election took weeks to finalize. [29] [75]

On June 24, 2011, Skelos announced that the Senate would consider same-sex marriage legislation as the final bill of the legislative session. [76] Skelos had previously stated that Republican senators would be free to vote their consciences on the bill if it came to the floor. [77] That same day, the bill passed the Senate by a vote of 33-29. Governor Andrew Cuomo signed it into law at 11:55 P.M. [78]

2013–2014: Coalition government

In the November 6, 2012 elections, Democrats won a total of 33 seats for a three-seat majority. Democrats gained seats in Senate Districts 17 (where Democrat Simcha Felder defeated Republican incumbent David Storobin), 41 (discussed hereinbelow), and 55 (where Ted O'Brien defeated Sean Hanna to win the seat vacated by the retiring Republican Sen. Jim Alesi), and won the election in the newly created Senate District 46 (discussed hereinbelow). [79] [80] [81]

The election in Senate District 46--a new district that was created through the redistricting process following the 2010 census--was noteworthy because the candidate who was sworn in as the victor was later found, following a recount, to have lost the election. Republican George Amedore was sworn in to the State Senate following the election. However, a recount revealed that Democrat Cecilia Tkaczyk had defeated Amedore by 18 votes; therefore, Amedore vacated the seat, becoming the shortest-tenured senator in modern New York history. [30] [82] [81] Amedore would eventually win a rematch with Tkaczyk in 2014. [83]

Of the four Republican state senators who voted for the Marriage Equality Act in 2011 (Sens. Roy McDonald, James Alesi, Mark Grisanti, and Stephen Saland), [84] ) only Grisanti was re-elected in 2012. [85] [86] The Conservative Party of New York withdrew support for any candidate who had voted for the bill. [87] Sen. Alesi opted to retire instead of facing a potential primary challenge; [88] Sen. McDonald lost a Republican primary to Saratoga County Clerk Kathy Marchione; [89] and Sen. Saland won his Republican primary, but lost the general election to Democrat Terry Gipson by a margin of approximately 2,000 votes [90] after Saland's Republican primary challenger, Neil Di Carlo, remained on the ballot on the Conservative line and acted as a spoiler. [91]

On December 4, 2012, it was announced that Senate Republicans had reached a power-sharing deal with the four-member Independent Democratic Conference (IDC). Under their power-sharing arrangement, the IDC and the Senate Republicans to "jointly decide what bills [would] reach the Senate floor each day of the session", would "dole out committee assignments", would "have the power to make appointments to state and local boards", and would "share negotiations over the state budget". [92] Sens. Klein and Skelos also agreed that the title of Senate President would shift back and forth between the two of them every two weeks. [92] Together, the Senate Republicans and the IDC held enough seats to form a governing majority; that majority was augmented when freshman Sen. Simcha Felder of Brooklyn, a Democrat, joined the Senate Republican Conference. [93] Also, former Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith joined the Independent Democrats in December 2012. [94]

On December 17, 2012, Senate Democrats elected Andrea Stewart-Cousins as Senate Democratic Leader. [95] [96] Stewart-Cousins became the first woman in history to lead a conference in the New York State Legislature. [97]

Malcolm Smith was expelled from the IDC in April 2013 due to a scandal in which he attempted to bribe the Republican Party chairs in New York City for a Wilson Pakula to run in the upcoming New York City mayoral election. [98]

Former Senate Minority Leader John L. Sampson was expelled from the Senate Democratic Conference on May 6, 2013 following his arrest on embezzlement charges. [99] [100] Sampson later forfeited his Senate seat after being convicted of making false statements to federal agents in relation to the initial embezzlement case. [101]

In February 2014, Tony Avella joined the Independent Democratic Conference. [102]

2015–2018: Republicans lead again

In June 2014, the IDC announced that it would end its political alliance with the Republicans and create a new one with the Senate Democratic Conference, citing a need "to fight for the core Democratic policies that are left undone." [103] In the 2014 elections, Senate Republicans retook an outright majority in the Senate. [104] The election results meant that Klein lost his position as co-leader, with Skelos taking over as the Senate Majority Leader and Temporary President of the Senate and regaining sole control over which bills would reach the Senate floor. [92] [105] [106] After the election, the IDC reversed course and continued their alliance with the Republicans in the 2015 legislative session [105] [107] despite their conference's diminished role. [92]

On May 4, 2015, U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara announced the arrest of Senate Majority Leader Dean Skelos (along with his son, Adam Skelos) and the arrest of Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver. [108] Within days, Skelos announced that he was stepping down as leader of the Republican Caucus and as Majority Leader. Senator John Flanagan, of Suffolk County, became the new Majority Leader, and the first Majority Leader from Suffolk County. [109] After Skelos was convicted in December 2015, his seat was declared vacant, with a special election to be held on the presidential primary of 2016. [110] [111] The special election was won by Democrat Todd Kaminsky, resulting in the Democratic Party having a numerical 32–31 advantage over the Republicans in the State Senate. [112] [113] Despite this, Senator Felder and the members of the IDC chose to remain in coalition with the Republican majority. [114]

Late in 2016, Senator Jesse Hamilton announced his intention to join the IDC if re-elected. [115] The IDC aided Hamilton in his first election in 2014, which had resulted in speculation he would eventually join the conference. [116]

After all 2016 election results were announced, Senate Republicans lost one seat on Long Island and gained an upstate seat in Buffalo. On Long Island, freshman Sen. Michael Venditto was defeated in a close race by Democrat John Brooks. [117] In Buffalo, the open seat vacated by Democratic Sen. Mark Panepinto (who did not seek re-election) was won by Republican Erie County Clerk Chris Jacobs. Sen. Simcha Felder announced that he would continue to caucus with the GOP; Felder's move ensured that the Republicans would retain control of the Senate by a margin of 32–31. [118] Newly elected Democratic Sen. Marisol Alcantara also announced that she would join the IDC, after Klein assisted her campaign. [119] [120]

Liberal groups in New York State, including the Working Families Party, called on the governor to intervene and pressure Sen. Felder, the IDC, and the Senate Democratic Conference to unite to make New York a united one-party government in opposition to President-elect Donald Trump's incoming administration. Klein criticized those groups along with Minority Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins for lack of outreach as well as for calling on the governor to intervene in a separate branch of government. On January 2, 2017, Senate Majority Leader Flanagan and Senate IDC Leader Klein announced the continuation of their coalition. Klein, in a statement to the press, opined that the coalition allowed for the passage of bipartisan legislation and the consideration of pragmatic, progressive ideas. [121] The Republicans retained Senate control with 32 votes, including every Senator elected as a Republican and Sen. Felder. [122] In late January 2017, Senator Jose Peralta announced that he was joining the IDC, expanding the IDC to 8 members, the Republican-IDC-Felder coalition to 40 members, and reducing the Democratic conference to 23 members. [123]

On April 4, 2018, the IDC announced that it would dissolve, that its members would rejoin the Senate Democratic Conference, that Stewart-Cousins would continue as Senate Democratic Leader, and that Sen. Klein would become the Deputy Democratic Conference Leader. [124] The announcement followed a meeting called by Governor Andrew Cuomo at which Cuomo requested that the IDC reunite with the Senate Democratic Conference. [124] On April 16, the IDC was dissolved. [125] After the IDC dissolved, the Senate Democratic Conference contained 29 Members, the Senate Republican Conference contained 32 Members (including Sen. Felder), and there were two vacant Senate seats. [126] After two April 24, 2018 special elections were won by Democrats, the Democrats gained a 32–31 numerical Senate majority; however, Felder continued to caucus with the Republicans, allowing them to maintain a 32–31 majority instead. [127]

In 2018, five Republican senators announced that they would not seek re-election in the fall. [128]

In the September 13, 2018 Democratic primary elections, all eight Democratic senators who had been members of the IDC at the time of its dissolution faced challengers. [129] Six of the challengers prevailed. [130] Another Democratic incumbent, Martin Malave Dilan, was also defeated by a primary challenger (Julia Salazar, a self-described democratic socialist). [131]

2019–present: Democratic majority

On November 6, 2018, the Democratic Party gained eight seats and won control of the State Senate. [10] Democratic challengers defeated incumbent Republican Sens. Carl Marcellino, Kemp Hannon, Martin Golden, Terrence Murphy, and Elaine Phillips and won races in three districts (Districts 3, 39, and 42, respectively) in which Republican incumbents had not sought re-election. The mainstream Democrats won 39 seats, a decisive majority. [97] [132] In total, enrolled Democrats won 40 of the chamber's 63 seats, including all but one seat in New York City and six of the nine seats on Long Island, the latter of which has been under GOP control for decades. Felder offered to rejoin the Democratic Conference, but was turned down in December 2018. [133] Senate Republicans won 23 seats in the 2018 elections. [132] Stewart-Cousins was formally elected Majority Leader and Temporary President on January 9, becoming the first woman to hold the post. [134]

Catharine Young challenged Republican leader John Flanagan in a post-election bid for the minority leader position, losing 14–9. [135] She resigned her seat effective March 10, 2019 to take another job. [136]

In July 2019, Simcha Felder was accepted into the Senate Democratic Conference; this action gave the Conference a total of 40 members. [137] [138]

During the 2019-2020 session, Republican Bob Antonacci resigned his seat to become a trial court judge, and eight other members of the Senate Republican Conference announced their intent to not seek re-election in 2020. [139] In anticipation of Leader Flanagan's resignation on June 28, Sen. Rob Ortt was named the leader of the Senate Republican Conference. [140] [141] On July 20, 2020, Sen. Chris Jacobs stepped down after being elected to the United States House of Representatives. [21]

On November 23, 2020, following the 2020 elections, Senate Majority Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins asserted that Senate Democrats would enter 2021 with "a supermajority of at least 42 members". According to Politico , "the numbers mean that Democratic legislators now have the two-thirds needed in each house to override any vetoes from Gov. Andrew Cuomo without relying on Republican support". [12] Democrats won a total of 43 seats, while Republicans won 20. [11]

Officers

The Lieutenant Governor of New York is the ex officio President of the Senate. Like the Vice President of the United States, the Lieutenant Governor has a casting vote in the event of a tie, but otherwise may not vote. With few exceptions, the Senate is presided over by the Temporary President, a post which is normally also held by the Majority Leader.[ citation needed ]

The Senate has one additional officer outside those who are elected by the people. The Secretary of the Senate is a post that is chosen by a majority vote of the senators, and does not have voting power (he/she is allowed, though officially discouraged, from discussing and negotiating legislative matters). The Secretary of the Senate is responsible for administering the Senate's office space, overseeing the handling of bills and the oversight of the sergeants-at-arms and the stenographer. Alejandra Paulino was appointed to the position in December 2018. [142]

PositionNamePartyDistrict
President of the Senate/Lieutenant Governor Kathy C. Hochul Dem
Temporary President/Majority Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins Dem 35
Minority Leader Rob Ortt Rep62

Democratic Conference leadership

[143]

Republican Conference Leadership

[143]

Current members

DistrictSenatorPartyFirst electedCounties Represented
1 Anthony Palumbo Republican2020 Suffolk
2 Mario MatteraRepublican2020 Suffolk
3 Alexis Weik Republican2020 Suffolk
4 Phil Boyle Republican2012 Suffolk
5 Jim Gaughran Democratic2018 Nassau, Suffolk
6 Kevin Thomas Democratic2018 Nassau
7 Anna Kaplan Democratic2018 Nassau
8 John Brooks Democratic2016 Nassau, Suffolk
9 Todd Kaminsky Democratic2016* Nassau
10 James Sanders Jr. Democratic2012 Queens
11 John Liu Democratic2018 Queens
12 Michael Gianaris Democratic2010 Queens
13 Jessica Ramos Democratic2018 Queens
14 Leroy Comrie Democratic2014 Queens
15 Joseph Addabbo Jr. Democratic2008 Queens
16 Toby Ann Stavisky Democratic1999* Queens
17 Simcha Felder Democratic [lower-alpha 3] 2012 Kings (Brooklyn)
18 Julia Salazar Democratic2018 Kings (Brooklyn)
19 Roxanne Persaud Democratic2015* Kings (Brooklyn)
20 Zellnor Myrie Democratic2018 Kings (Brooklyn)
21 Kevin Parker Democratic2002 Kings (Brooklyn)
22 Andrew Gounardes Democratic2018 Kings (Brooklyn)
23 Diane Savino Democratic2004 Kings (Brooklyn), Richmond (Staten Island)
24 Andrew Lanza Republican2006 Richmond (Staten Island)
25 Jabari Brisport Democratic2020 Kings (Brooklyn)
26 Brian P. Kavanagh Democratic2017* Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan)
27 Brad Hoylman Democratic2012 New York (Manhattan)
28 Liz Krueger Democratic2002* New York (Manhattan)
29 José M. Serrano Democratic2004 New York (Manhattan), Bronx
30 Brian Benjamin Democratic2017* New York (Manhattan)
31 Robert Jackson Democratic2018 New York (Manhattan)
32 Luis R. Sepúlveda Democratic2018* Bronx
33 Gustavo Rivera Democratic2010 Bronx
34 Alessandra Biaggi Democratic2018 Bronx, Westchester
35 Andrea Stewart-Cousins Democratic2006 Westchester
36 Jamaal Bailey Democratic2016 Bronx, Westchester
37 Shelley Mayer Democratic2018* Westchester
38 Elijah Reichlin-Melnick Democratic2020 Rockland, Westchester
39 James Skoufis Democratic2018 Orange, Rockland, Ulster
40 Peter Harckham Democratic2018 Dutchess, Putnam, Westchester
41 Sue Serino Republican2014 Dutchess, Putnam
42 Mike Martucci Republican2020 Delaware, Orange, Sullivan, Ulster
43 Daphne Jordan Republican2018 Columbia, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Washington
44 Neil Breslin Democratic1996 Albany, Rensselaer
45 Dan Stec Republican2020 Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Saint Lawrence, Warren, Washington
46 Michelle Hinchey Democratic2020 Albany, Greene, Montgomery, Schenectady, Ulster
47 Joseph Griffo Republican2006 Lewis, Oneida, St. Lawrence
48 Patty Ritchie Republican2010 Jefferson, Oswego, St. Lawrence
49 Jim Tedisco Republican2016 Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Saratoga, Schenectady
50 John MannionDemocratic2020 Cayuga, Onondaga
51 Peter OberackerRepublican2020 Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, Delaware, Herkimer, Otsego, Schoharie, Tompkins, Ulster
52 Fred Akshar Republican2015* Broome, Chenango, Delaware, Tioga
53 Rachel May Democratic2018 Madison, Oneida, Onondaga
54 Pam Helming Republican2016 Cayuga, Monroe, Ontario, Seneca, Tompkins, Wayne
55 Samra Brouk Democratic2020 Monroe, Ontario
56 Jeremy Cooney Democratic2020 Monroe
57 George Borrello Republican2019* Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Livingston
58 Tom O'Mara Republican2010 Chemung, Schuyler, Steuben, Tompkins, Yates
59 Patrick M. Gallivan Republican2010 Erie, Livingston, Monroe, Wyoming
60 Sean Ryan Democratic2020 Erie
61 Edward Rath IIIRepublican2020 Erie, Genesee, Monroe
62 Rob Ortt Republican2014 Monroe, Niagara, Orleans
63 Timothy M. Kennedy Democratic2010 Erie

* First elected in a special election.

Committee leadership

As of February 2020, the State Senate committee chairs (all Democrats) were as follows: [144]

See also

Notes

  1. "SDC" stands for "Senate Democratic Conference".
  2. "IDC" stands for "Independent Democratic Conference".
  3. 1 2 "SF" stands for "Simcha Felder". Felder is an enrolled Democrat. From the beginning of his Senate tenure (in 2013) until 2019, he caucused with Senate Republicans. In early 2019, he did not caucus with either party. In July 2019, he joined the Senate Democratic Conference.
  4. Republican Chris Jacobs (District 60) resigned from office after being elected to Congress.

Related Research Articles

New York is a Democratic stronghold and one of the three largest Democratic states alongside California and Illinois.

The Majority Leader of the New York State Senate is elected by the majority of the members of the New York State Senate. The position usually coincides with the title of Temporary President of the State Senate, who presides over the session of the State Senate if the Lieutenant Governor of New York is absent. The Temporary President of the State Senate becomes Acting Lieutenant Governor for the remainder of the unexpired term in case of a vacancy in the office of lieutenant governor. In case of a vacancy in the offices of both the governor and lieutenant governor at the same time, the Temporary President of the State Senate becomes Acting Governor. If the double vacancy occurs until three months before the mid-term state elections, a special election for Governor of New York and Lieutenant Governor is held. If the double vacancy occurs later, the Temporary President of the State Senate acts as governor until the end of the unexpired term. The Temporary President of the State Senate retains both majority leadership and a seat in the State Senate while acting as lieutenant governor or governor.

Simcha Felder American politician

Simcha Felder is an American politician from Borough Park, Brooklyn. He represents the 17th District of the New York State Senate. Felder has been elected to multiple offices as a Democrat, but is known for having caucused with the Republicans during the early part of his New York State Senate tenure. Felder has also served in city government.

Tony Avella

Anthony Avella Jr. is an American politician. A member of the Democratic Party, he represented the New York State Senate's 11th District in northeast Queens from 2011 to 2019. The district included the mostly affluent neighborhoods of College Point, Whitestone, Bayside, Little Neck, Douglaston, Floral Park, Beechhurst, Malba and Auburndale. Avella also served as a member of the New York City Council from 2002 to 2009, representing some of the same Queens neighborhoods in District 19. Avella is a former member of the Independent Democratic Conference (IDC), a group of Democratic state senators who allied themselves with Senate Republicans. He was also a losing candidate in the 2009 New York City mayoral election, the 2013 Queens Borough President election, and the 2017 New York City mayoral election.

In U.S. politics an independent Democrat is an individual who loosely identifies with the ideals of the Democratic Party but chooses not to be a formal member of the party. Independent Democrat is not a political party. Several elected officials, including members of Congress, have identified as Independent Democrats.

Jeffrey D. Klein American politician

Jeffrey David Klein is a New York State politician and a member of the Democratic Party. He represented the New York State Senate's 34th District, serving parts of Bronx and Westchester Counties from 2005 to 2018. Klein also served as Deputy Democratic Conference Leader.

Hiram Monserrate

Hiram Monserrate is an American politician from the State of New York. A Democrat, Monserrate represented New York's 13th State Senate District in Queens from January 1, 2009 until February 9, 2010, when he was expelled from office following a misdemeanor conviction for assaulting his then-girlfriend. He later served time in prison following a plea of guilty to federal corruption charges. Monserrate is also a former Marine, a former New York City police officer, and a former Member of the New York City Council.

Dean Skelos American politician

Dean George Skelos is an American politician from Long Island, New York. A Republican, Skelos represented the Ninth District in the New York State Senate from 1985 through 2015. He served as Senate Majority Leader in 2008 and again from 2011 to 2015. Skelos is the second Long Islander to have held the position of Senate Majority Leader; the first was Ralph J. Marino.

Kevin Parker (New York politician) American politician from New York (born 1967)

Kevin Parker is an American politician from the State of New York. Parker is a member of the New York State Senate representing the 21st district, which comprises portions of the neighborhoods of East Flatbush, Flatbush, Midwood, Ditmas Park, Kensington, Park Slope, and Windsor Terrace in Brooklyn. A Democrat, Parker was first elected to the Senate in 2002. In December 2010, Parker was convicted of criminal mischief following an altercation with a photographer.

Jose Peralta American politician

José Rafael Peralta was an American politician who served in the New York State Assembly and New York State Senate. A member of the Democratic Party, he last represented District 13 in the State Senate, which includes the Queens neighborhoods of Corona, East Elmhurst, Elmhurst, Jackson Heights, and Woodside. He previously represented District 39 in the New York State Assembly, which is located in Queens, New York and includes Corona, Elmhurst and Jackson Heights. He was elected to the New York State Senate in a landslide on March 16, 2010. Peralta was a member of the Independent Democratic Conference (IDC), a group of Democratic senators who allied themselves with Senate Republicans. He was re-elected in 2012, 2014 and 2016, but was defeated in the 2018 Democratic primary.

Pedro Espada Jr.

Pedro Espada Jr. is an American ex-convict and former politician. A Democrat, Espada served in the New York Senate.

2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis

The 2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis was a political dispute that prevented the New York State Senate from functioning for a month.

2012 New York state elections

The 2012 New York state elections took place on November 6, 2012. These elections included the 2012 presidential election, an election to one U.S. Senate seat, and elections to all 27 New York congressional seats, all 63 seats in the New York State Senate, and all 150 seats in the New York State Assembly.

The 2010 elections to the New York State Senate took place on November 2, 2010. Republicans retook the Senate majority, winning 32 seats to the Democrats' 30 on Election Day. One Republican Senate incumbent, Senator Frank Padavan of Queens, was defeated, while four Democratic incumbents were defeated in the general election. Democratic candidate David Carlucci was elected to an open seat in Senate District 38 that had become vacant due to the July 2010 death of Republican Senator Thomas Morahan. After defeating incumbent William Stachowski in a Democratic primary, Timothy M. Kennedy prevailed in the general election in Senate District 58. The Republicans' takeover of control of the State Senate was not confirmed until Johnson, who had sought a full hand recount of his race, exhausted his final court appeal on December 20, 2010.

Independent Democratic Conference

The Independent Democratic Conference (IDC) was a group of members of the New York State Senate from the Democratic Party who were elected as Democrats, but who formed a coalition to give the Republicans the majority in the chamber. At the time of its dissolution, the IDC included eight members: Jeffrey D. Klein, Marisol Alcantara, Tony Avella, David Carlucci, Jesse Hamilton, Jose Peralta, Diane Savino, and David Valesky.

Jesse Hamilton is an American lawyer and politician in New York City. A member of the Democratic Party, he represented the New York State Senate's 20th District, including parts of the Brooklyn neighborhoods of Crown Heights, Brownsville and East Flatbush from 2015 to 2018. Hamilton is a former member of the Independent Democratic Conference (IDC), a group of Democratic senators who allied themselves with Senate Republicans. Hamilton is the Secretary of the Brooklyn Democratic Party, the official organization of the Democratic Party for Brooklyn. He was defeated in the September 2018 Democratic primary election by lawyer Zellnor Myrie.

2018 New York State Senate election

Elections to the New York State Senate took place on November 6, 2018. Primary elections were held on September 13, 2018.

David J. Valesky is an American politician who is a former member of the New York State Senate. A Democrat, Valesky represented the 53rd Senate District and the 49th Senate District in upstate New York.

2020 New York State Senate election

Elections to the New York State Senate were held on November 3, 2020, along with State Assembly elections, congressional elections, a presidential election, and other elections. Primary elections were held on June 23, 2020.

References

  1. "Branches of Government in New York State". New York State Senate, A Guide to New York State's Government. New York State Senate. 1988. Archived from the original on September 23, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2009.
  2. "The Secret Playbook NY State Senate Democrats Used To 'Wipe The Floor' With Republicans". Gothamist. November 28, 2018. Archived from the original on July 30, 2019. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  3. "Everything You Need to Know About New York's Primary Election on Thursday". Vogue. September 10, 2018.
  4. Press, Chris Carola Associated. "New York state lawmakers push term limits for elected state offices". Daily Freeman.
  5. McKinley, Jesse (February 24, 2014). "What Is a Majority Vote in the State Senate? The Answer Goes Beyond Simple Math". The New York Times .
  6. "State's Whirl of Progress". February 1, 2019.
  7. Confessore, Nicholas; Hakim, Danny (November 5, 2008). "Democrats Are Poised to Control Albany" via NYTimes.com.
  8. "Big LI wins help Democrats take control of NY Senate". Newsday.
  9. "Democrats Win New York Senate Races". Wall Street Journal. April 24, 2018. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  10. 1 2 Wang, Vivian (November 7, 2018). "Democrats Take Control of New York Senate for First Time in Decade". The New York Times . Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  11. 1 2 "2020 Election Results". www.elections.ny.gov. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  12. 1 2 Mahoney, Bill (November 23, 2020). "Stewart-Cousins claims supermajority for Democrats in state Senate". Politico PRO. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  13. "New York State Senate Election Results, 2006" (PDF).
  14. "New York - Election Results 2008 - The New York Times". www.nytimes.com.
  15. "2012 Election Results - New York State Legislature" via NYTimes.com.
  16. "New York State Senate Election Results, 2014" (PDF).
  17. "New York Election Results 2016". August 1, 2017 via NYTimes.com.
  18. Goldmacher, Shane (April 4, 2018). "Democrats in New York State Senate Reconcile After Years of Infighting" via NYTimes.com.
  19. "New York Election Results". November 6, 2018. Retrieved June 23, 2019 via NYTimes.com.
  20. Lombardo, David (December 31, 2018). "Wayward state senator not welcomed by Democrats fold". Times Union. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  21. 1 2 "Chris Jacobs to be sworn in Tuesday". Lockport Union-Sun & Journal. July 21, 2020.
  22. McKinley, Jesse (November 25, 2020). "Democrats Claim Veto-Proof Majority in N.Y. Senate, Pressuring Cuomo". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  23. Dicker, Fredric U. (December 27, 2006). "ELIOT'S GOP SURPRISE COULD RATTLE SENATE".
  24. bureau, IRENE JAY LIU Capitol (July 16, 2008). "Bruno will retire, end 32-year career". Times Union.
  25. Blain, Kenneth Lovett, Glenn. "GOP coup in Albany: Senators Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada Jr. vote against fellow Democrats". nydailynews.com.
  26. "State Sen. Thomas Morahan dies at Age 78". New City, NY Patch. July 12, 2010.
  27. Kaplan, Thomas (January 30, 2011). "Issues of Race in New York Senate" via NYTimes.com.
  28. Kaplan, Thomas; Confessore, Nicholas (January 5, 2011). "4 Democrats in State Senate Break With Leaders".
  29. 1 2 "FINALLY! 14-vote win for Storobin". Brooklyn Eagle. June 1, 2012.
  30. 1 2 Vielkind, Jimmy (January 18, 2013). "It's Tkaczyk by just 18 votes". Times Union.
  31. Kaplan, Thomas; Hakim, Danny (December 4, 2012). "Dissident Democrats and G.O.P. to Jointly Run N.Y. Senate" via NYTimes.com.
  32. Feuer, Alan (January 18, 2017). "John Sampson, Once a State Senate Powerhouse, Sentenced to Prison" via NYTimes.com.
  33. "Queens State Senator Becomes Latest Democrat to Join Breakaway GOP-Aligned Faction". January 25, 2017.
  34. Seiler, Casey (February 27, 2014). "Avella's defection strengthens Senate coalition". Times Union.
  35. Vielkind, Jimmy. "Cuomo's special-election option". Politico PRO.
  36. "GOP wins N.Y. Senate, puts Women's Equality Act in flux". The Poughkeepsie Journal.
  37. McKinley, Jesse (November 5, 2014). "In Rebuke to Democrats, Voters Return Control of New York Senate to G.O.P." via NYTimes.com.
  38. lovett, ken. "And then there were none: Defeated Mark Grisanti last of NY Senate GOP lawmakers who backed legal gay marriage". nydailynews.com.
  39. Clifford, Stephanie (July 24, 2015). "John Sampson, New York State Senator, Is Guilty on Some Federal Charges" via NYTimes.com.
  40. "5 Democrats vie for Mount Vernon-Bronx senate seat". lohud.com.
  41. "New York 9th District State Senate Results: Todd Kaminsky Wins". August 1, 2017 via NYTimes.com.
  42. "Ballot count gives win to Sen. Carl Marcellino". Newsday.
  43. Niedzwiadek, Nick. "Democrat Brooks to be certified winner in SD-8". Politico PRO.
  44. McKinley, Jesse (May 9, 2017). "For Group of Breakaway Democrats in New York, It Pays to Be No. 2" via NYTimes.com.
  45. 2008 Election Results, New York State Board of Elections.
  46. 2008–09 (Post-Election) Partisan Composition of State Legislatures [ permanent dead link ] National Conference of State Legislatures
  47. New York Times. "Democrats Take State Senate." . November 5, 2008.
  48. Peters, Jeremy (November 6, 2008). "Democrats Likely to Keep Control of State Senate". The New York Times.
  49. Benjamin, Elizabeth. Monserrate Makes A Democratic Deal Archived June 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine The Daily Politics. The Daily News November 8, 2008
  50. Lanza, Michael. Smith Balks After ‘Gang of Three’ Talks Archived December 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine The Queens Tribune December 11, 2008.
  51. Hakim, Danny (February 8, 2018). "Democrats Reach Pact to Lead New York State Senate" . Retrieved February 8, 2018 via NYTimes.com.
  52. Peters, Jeremy W. (February 8, 2018). "Democrats Take Control of New York State Senate" . Retrieved February 8, 2018 via NYTimes.com.
  53. "GOP, 2 Dems flip power balance in NY Senate", The Washington Post , June 8, 2009[ dead link ]
  54. "Two Democrats join Republicans to topple Smith as Senate leader". Albany Times Union. June 8, 2009. Archived from the original on June 11, 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  55. "Two Democrats join Republicans to topple Smith as Senate leader". Albany Times Union. June 8, 2009. Archived from the original on June 11, 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  56. Lovett, Kenneth (June 15, 2009) State Senate standoff means even bigger mess with Sen. Hiram Monserrate's change of heart. New York Daily News Retrieved June 15, 2009
  57. "Dems regain control of Senate, Espada named majority leader". Albany Business Review. July 9, 2009.
  58. 1 2 Hakim, Danny (July 9, 2009). "Albany Impasse Ends as Defector Rejoins Caucus". The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  59. BAUMAN, VALERIE. "NY judge tosses Senate case back to lawmakers". Press-Republican. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  60. Deadlock-Ending Deal Near? Espada To Return To The Democrats Archived July 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . New York Daily News Retrieved July 9, 2009
  61. "NY Senate votes to expel Hiram Monserrate". longisland.news12.com. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  62. Dolnick, Sam (September 15, 2010). "In N.Y. Legislature Races, Espada and Monserrate Lose" . Retrieved January 10, 2019 via NYTimes.com.
  63. Vielkind, Jimmy. "Democrats Take Control of New York State Senate for First Time Since 2010". WSJ.
  64. 1 2 "Court backs Martins win, GOP takes NY Senate". Newsday.
  65. https://www.elections.ny.gov/NYSBOE/elections/2010/general/2010NYSenateRecertified09122012.pdf
  66. "Padavan Concedes To Avella In Contested Queens Race". NY1.com. Retrieved January 7, 2012.[ permanent dead link ]
  67. "State Senate: Carluccci defeats Vanderhoef for Morahan's seat". Archived from the original on November 6, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
  68. "State Sen. Thomas Morahan dies of cancer". westchester.news12.com. July 13, 2010.
  69. Bolger, Timothy (November 3, 2010). "LI State Senate Races: Zeldin Ousts Foley, Johnson-Martins a Close Call". Long Island Press. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
  70. "Democratic NY Sen. Thompson concedes in recount". Archived from the original on December 6, 2010.
  71. David Lassman / The Post-Standard (November 18, 2010). "Williams giving up Republican chair in Oswego County". syracuse.com. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
  72. Judy Rattner (December 2, 2010). "Skelos to lead GOP in Senate". LIHerald.com. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
  73. Thomas Kaplan; Nicholas Confessore (January 4, 2011). "4 Democrats in State Senate Break With Leaders". The New York Times.
  74. Weiser, Benjamin (April 26, 2012). "Carl Kruger Sentenced to Seven Years in Corruption Case". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 11, 2018.
  75. "Court Drama Heats Up in Fidler-Storobin Race". Observer.com. April 27, 2012.
  76. "Statement from Senate Majority Leader Dean Skelos on Same Sex Marriage Legislation". NYSenate.gov. June 24, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  77. Epstein, Jennifer (June 13, 2011). "N.Y. at the altar of gay marriage". Politico. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  78. New York Times: Nicholas Confessore and Michael Barbaro, "New York Allows Same-Sex Marriage, Becoming Largest State to Pass Law," June 24, 2011, accessed June 25, 2011
  79. "New York State Senate Election Results, 2012" (PDF).
  80. "2012 Election Results - New York State Legislature" . Retrieved January 10, 2019 via NYTimes.com.
  81. 1 2 Vielkind, Jimmy "It's Tkaczyk by just 18 votes," Times Union, January 18, 2013, Retrieved January 19, 2013
  82. United Press International (UPI), " Dem. squeaks into N.Y. Senate by 18 votes," January 18, 2013, Retrieved January 18, 2013
  83. Ariel Zangla (November 5, 2014). "46th NY Senate District: George Amedore ousts Cecilia Tkaczyk". DailyFreeman.com. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  84. Kaplan, Thomas (September 24, 2012). "G.O.P. State Senator Who Backed Same-Sex Marriage Is Apparently Defeated" via NYTimes.com.
  85. Kaplan, Thomas (December 13, 2012). "In Final Tally, Vote for Gay Marriage Costs 3 Republicans". The New York Times.
  86. [ dead link ]
  87. Eckholm, Erik; Seelye, Katharine Q. (July 2, 2011). "Same-Sex Marriage Victory in New York Spurs Opponents to Work Elsewhere" via NYTimes.com.
  88. "James Alesi, Gay Marriage Supporting Republican Senator, Not Running For Re-Election". www.villagevoice.com.
  89. DeWitt, Karen. "Sen. Roy McDonald to leave race after losing GOP Primary". NCPR.
  90. http://polhudson.lohudblogs.com/2012/12/13/salands-defeat-unfortunate-cuomo-says/
  91. Gross, Hank. "DiCarlo plays spoiler in NY 41st Senate Race". www.wamc.org.
  92. 1 2 3 4 Roy, Yancey (December 5, 2012). "Skelos praises his Senate deal with Dems". Newsday. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  93. Kaplan, Thomas (November 13, 2012). "Newly Elected State Senator, Simcha Felder, Defects to G.O.P" . Retrieved February 8, 2018 via NYTimes.com.
  94. Kaplan, Thomas Coalition Is to Control State Senate as Dissident Democrats Join With the G.O.P., The New York Times, December 4, 2012.
  95. "Moving on from Sampson, State Senate Democrats elect Andrea Stewart-Cousins". Politico.com. December 17, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  96. "Democratic Senators Embrace Andrea Stewart-Cousins as Their New Leader". Observer. December 18, 2012.
  97. 1 2 McKinley, Jesse; Goldmacher, Shane (November 7, 2018). "Democrats Finally Control the Power in Albany. What Will They Do With It?". The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  98. Lovett, Kenneth (April 15, 2013). NYS Senate Independent Democratic Conference To Busted Malcolm Smith: Stay Away. New York Daily News. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  99. "Stewart-Cousins Boots Sampson From Conference". www.nystateofpolitics.com. May 6, 2013.
  100. Vielkind, Jimmy (May 6, 2013). "FBI: Senator embezzled, lied". Times Union.
  101. "John Sampson, Once a State Senate Powerhouse, Sentenced to Prison". The New York Times. January 18, 2017. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 11, 2018.
  102. "Avella's defection strengthens Senate coalition". Albany Times-Union. February 26, 2018. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  103. Bain, Glenn. "Senate's Independent Democratic Conference announces end to alliance with Republicans – UPDATED". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  104. "GOP wins N.Y. Senate, puts Women's Equality Act in flux". Poughkeepsie Journal. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  105. 1 2 "Klein, diminished but still desired, sides with power". Capital New York. Archived from the original on April 24, 2016. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  106. admin (March 21, 2016). "Jeff Klein's wild ride" . Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  107. "GOP takes full control of NY Senate, but retains 'coalition' with Valesky, IDC". The Post-Standard . Syracuse, New York . Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  108. Craig, Susanne (May 4, 2015). "New York Senate Leader and Son Are Arrested on Corruption Charges". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  109. Kaplan, Thomas; Craig, Susanne (May 11, 2015). "Dean Skelos, New York Senate Leader, Vacates Post". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  110. Rashbaum, William K.; Craig, Susanne (December 11, 2015). "Dean Skelos, Ex-New York Senate Leader, and His Son Are Convicted of Corruption". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  111. Rojas, Rick (January 30, 2016). "Special Election Is Set for April to Fill Seats Left Vacant in Albany". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  112. "Democrats Take Over NY Senate as Skelos' Successor Certified". NBC New York. May 2, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  113. "Kaminsky sworn-in, replaces convicted Skelos". Newsday. May 3, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  114. Campanile, Carl (April 21, 2016). "Kaminsky clinches win to take Skelos' seat".
  115. "Brooklyn senator joins breakaway Democrats" . Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  116. "Jesse Hamilton promises to join Senate's IDC". Politico PRO. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  117. "Republic state Sen. Venditto concedes race to Democratic challenger". News 12 Long Island. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  118. Yee, Vivian (November 21, 2016). "Simcha Felder, Rogue Democratic Senator, Will Remain Loyal to G.O.P." The New York Times. p. A25. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  119. "Alcantara's primary win a major victory for Senate IDC – NY Daily News" . Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  120. "Alcantara wins race to replace Espaillat, bolsters IDC" . Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  121. Lovett, Kenneth (January 2, 2017). "LOVETT: Breakaway Senate Dems will side with GOP". Daily News . New York. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
  122. "NY Senate Legislative Session 1-4-17" . Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  123. "Sen. Jose Peralta blasts 'failed' state Democratic leadership" . Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  124. 1 2 Goldmacher, Shane (April 4, 2018). "Democrats in New York State Senate Reconcile After Years of Infighting". The New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  125. Wang, Vivian (April 16, 2018). "As Session Resumes, a Democratic Truce in Albany Seems Uneasy". The New York Times. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  126. "IDC agrees to dissolve". State of Politics. April 4, 2018.
  127. Campbell, John; Spector, Joseph (April 24, 2018). "Simcha Felder to stick with Senate Republicans, denying potential Democratic control". Rochester Democrat & Chronicle. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  128. Precious, Tom (May 3, 2018). "Fifth GOP state senator in a week announces retirement plans" . Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  129. West, Melanie Grayce (September 10, 2018). "New York State's Breakaway Democrats Face Primary Challengers" via www.wsj.com.
  130. Wang, Vivian (September 14, 2018). "Democratic Insurgents Topple 6 New York Senate Incumbents (Published 2018)" via NYTimes.com.
  131. "Julia Salazar overcomes controversy to notch another victory for democratic socialists". Vox. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  132. 1 2 "New York Election Results". November 6, 2018. Retrieved January 10, 2019 via NYTimes.com.
  133. Lombardo, David (December 31, 2018). "Wayward state senator not welcomed by Democrats fold". Times Union. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  134. Precious, Tom (January 9, 2018). "After 242 years, a woman is in charge of the State Senate". Buffalo News. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  135. Silberstein, Rachel (December 21, 2018). "Flanagan rewards upstate loyalists with leadership posts". Capitol Confidential.
  136. Miller, Rick. "Sen. Catharine Young, with farming roots, excited over opportunity in new Cornell position". Olean Times Herald. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  137. Williams, Zach (July 1, 2019). "Turncoat turns back: Simcha Felder joins Democratic state Senate majority". City & State New York.
  138. Reisman, Nick (July 1, 2019). "Felder Joins Senate Dem Fold". NYstateofpolitics.com. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  139. Williams, Zach (January 3, 2020). "Republicans flee the state Senate". City & State New York. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
  140. Reisman, Nick (June 19, 2020). "Robert Ortt Elected Senate Minority Leader". Spectrum News. Archived from the original on July 3, 2020. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  141. Reisman, Nick (June 16, 2020). "Senate Minority Leader Flanagan To Resign June 28". Spectrum News. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  142. Lovett, Kenneth. "Heading into NYS Senate majority, Stewart-Cousins puts diverse team together". nydailynews.com.
  143. 1 2 "Senate Leadership - Majority Conference". NYSenate.gov. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
  144. "Senators, Committees, and other Legislative Groups". NYSenate.gov. Retrieved February 5, 2020.