Queens

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Queens
Queens County, New York
Unisphere-2 (27835155267).jpg
JFK Aerial Nov 14 2018.jpg
LaGuardia Airport.JPG
Chinatown 1.jpg
Addisleigh Park 01.JPG
Long Island City New York May 2015 panorama 3.jpg
Queensboro Bridge New York October 2016 003.jpg
Citi Field and Apple.JPG
Arthur Ashe Stadium (48613684807).jpg
Flag of Queens.svg
Seal of Queens rerendered.svg
Queens
Interactive map outlining Queens
Coordinates: 40°45′N73°52′W / 40.750°N 73.867°W / 40.750; -73.867
CountryFlag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of New York.svg  New York
County Queens (coterminous)
City New York City
Settled1683
Named for Catherine of Braganza
Government
  Type Borough (New York City)
   Borough President Donovan Richards (D)
(Borough of Queens)
   District Attorney Melinda Katz (D)
(Queens County)
Area
  Total178 sq mi (460 km2)
  Land109 sq mi (280 km2)
  Water70 sq mi (200 km2)  39%
Highest elevation
[1]
258.2 ft (78.7 m)
Population
 (2020) [2]
  Total2,405,464
  Density22,124.5/sq mi (8,542.3/km2)
Demonym Queensite [3]
GDP
[4]
  TotalUS$103.325 billion (2022)
ZIP Code prefixes
111--, 113--, 114--, 116--
Area codes 718/347/929 and 917
Website Official Website of the Queens Borough President

Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. Located on Long Island, it is the largest of the five New York City boroughs by area. It is bordered by the borough of Brooklyn at the western tip of Long Island [5] and by Nassau County to its east. Queens shares water borders with the boroughs of Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island and with New Jersey. [6]

Contents

With a population of 2,405,464 as of the 2020 census, [2] Queens is the second-most populous county in New York state, behind Kings County (Brooklyn), and is therefore also the second-most populous of the five New York City boroughs. If Queens were its own city, it would be the fourth most-populous in the U.S. after New York City itself, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Queens is the fourth-most densely populated borough in New York City and the fourth-most densely populated U.S. county. About 47% of its residents are foreign-born. [7] Queens is the most linguistically diverse place on Earth and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the United States. [8] [9] [10]

Queens was established in 1683 as one of the original 12 counties of the Province of New York. The settlement was named after the English Queen and Portuguese royal princess Catherine of Braganza (1638–1705). [11] From 1683 to 1899, the County of Queens included what is now Nassau County. Queens became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898, combining the towns of Long Island City, Newtown, Flushing, Jamaica, and western Hempstead. [12] All except Hempstead are today considered neighborhoods of Queens.

Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs of New York City. [13] It is home to both of New York City's airports: John F. Kennedy and LaGuardia. Among its landmarks are Flushing Meadows–Corona Park; Citi Field, home to the New York Mets baseball team; the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, site of the U.S. Open tennis tournament; Kaufman Astoria Studios; Silvercup Studios; and the Aqueduct Racetrack. Flushing is undergoing rapid gentrification with investment by Chinese transnational entities, [14] while Long Island City is undergoing gentrification secondary to its proximity across the East River from Manhattan.

History

Colonial and post-colonial history

Catherine of Braganza, Queen of England CatherineofBraganza1.jpg
Catherine of Braganza, Queen of England
Queens Boulevard, looking east from Van Dam Street, in 1920. The newly built IRT Flushing Line is in the boulevard's median. Queens Boulevard, New York City (1920).jpg
Queens Boulevard, looking east from Van Dam Street, in 1920. The newly built IRT Flushing Line is in the boulevard's median.

The first European settlement in the region was the Dutch, who established the colony of New Netherland. The first settlements were established in 1635 followed by further settlement at Maspeth in 1642 (ultimately unsuccessful), [15] and Vlissingen (now Flushing) in 1645. [16] Other early settlements included Newtown (now Elmhurst) in 1652 and Jamaica in 1655. However, these towns were mostly inhabited by English settlers from New England via eastern Long Island (Suffolk County) who were subject to Dutch law. [17] After the capture of the colony by the English and its subsequent renaming as New York in 1664, the area (and all of Long Island) became known as Yorkshire. [18] :xi–xii

The Flushing Remonstrance signed by colonists in 1657 is considered a precursor to the United States Constitution's provision on freedom of religion in the Bill of Rights. The signers protested the Dutch colonial authorities' persecution of Quakers in what is today the borough of Queens.

Originally, Queens County included the adjacent area now comprising Nassau County. It was an original county of New York State, one of twelve created on November 1, 1683. [18] :121–122 The county is presumed to have been named after Catherine of Braganza, since she was queen of England at the time (she was Portugal's royal princess Catarina, daughter of King John IV of Portugal). [11] The county was founded alongside Kings County (Brooklyn, which was named after her husband, King Charles II), and Richmond County (Staten Island, named after his illegitimate son, the 1st Duke of Richmond). [19] [20] [21] However, the namesake is disputed. While Catherine's title seems the most likely namesake, no historical evidence of official declaration has been found. [22] On October 7, 1691, all counties in the Colony of New York were redefined. Queens gained North and South Brother Islands as well as Huletts Island (today known as Rikers Island). [18] :268 On December 3, 1768, Queens gained other islands in Long Island Sound that were not already assigned to a county but that did not abut on Westchester County (today's Bronx County). [18] :1062–1063

Queens played a minor role in the American Revolution, as compared to Brooklyn, where the Battle of Long Island was largely fought. Queens, like the rest of what became New York City and Long Island, remained under British occupation after the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and was occupied throughout most of the rest of the Revolutionary War. Under the Quartering Act, British soldiers used, as barracks, the public inns and uninhabited buildings belonging to Queens residents. Even though many residents opposed unannounced quartering, they supported the British crown. The quartering of soldiers in private homes, except in times of war, was banned by the Third Amendment to the United States Constitution. Nathan Hale was captured by the British on the shore of Flushing Bay and hanged in Manhattan.

From 1683 until 1784, Queens County consisted of five towns: Flushing, Hempstead, Jamaica, Newtown, and Oyster Bay. On April 6, 1784, a sixth town, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead. [23] [24] The seat of the county government was located first in Jamaica, [25] but the courthouse was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks. [26] After the war, various buildings in Jamaica temporarily served as courthouse and jail until a new building was erected about 1787 (and later completed) in an area near Mineola (now in Nassau County) known then as Clowesville. [27] [28] [29]

The 1850 United States census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition and distance of the old courthouse, and several sites were in contention for the construction of a new one. [30]

In 1870, Long Island City split from the Town of Newtown, incorporating itself as a city, consisting of what had been the village of Astoria and some unincorporated areas within the town of Newtown. Around 1874, the seat of county government was moved to Long Island City from Mineola. [31] [32] [33] [34]

On March 1, 1860, the eastern border between Queens County (later Nassau County) and Suffolk County was redefined with no discernible change. [35] On June 8, 1881, North Brother Island was transferred to New York County. [36] On May 8, 1884, Rikers Island was transferred to New York County. [37]

In 1886, Lloyd's Neck, which was then part of the town of Oyster Bay and had earlier been known as Queens Village, was set off and separated from Queens County and annexed to the town of Huntington in Suffolk County. [38] [39] [40] On April 16, 1964, South Brother Island was transferred to Bronx County. [41]

Incorporation as borough

The New York City borough of Queens was authorized on May 4, 1897, by a vote of the New York State Legislature after an 1894 referendum on consolidation. [42] The eastern 280 square miles (730 km2) of Queens that became Nassau County was partitioned on January 1, 1899. [43] Queens Borough was established on January 1, 1898. [44] [45] [46]

"The city of Long Island City, the towns of Newtown, Flushing and Jamaica, and that part of the town of Hempstead, in the county of Queens, which is westerly of a straight line drawn through the middle of the channel between Rockaway Beach and Shelter Island, in the county of Queens, to the Atlantic Ocean" was annexed to New York City, [12] dissolving all former municipal governments (Long Island City, the county government, all towns, and all villages) within the new borough. [47] The areas of Queens County that were not part of the consolidation plan, [33] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] consisting of the towns of North Hempstead and Oyster Bay, and the major remaining portion of the Town of Hempstead, remained part of Queens County until they seceded to form the new Nassau County on January 1, 1899. At this point, the boundaries of Queens County and the Borough of Queens became coterminous. With consolidation, Jamaica once again became the county seat, though county offices now extend to nearby Kew Gardens also. [54]

In 1899, New York City conducted a land survey to determine the exact border of Queens between the Rockaways and Lawrence. This proved difficult because the border was defined as "middle of the channel between Rockaway Beach and Shelter Island" (now called Long Beach Island), and that particular channel had closed up by 1899. The surveyors had to determine where the channel had been when the consolidation law was written in 1894. The surveyors did so in part by speaking with local fishermen and oystermen who knew the area well. [53]

From 1905 to 1908, the Long Island Rail Road in Queens became electrified. Transportation to and from Manhattan, previously by ferry or via bridges in Brooklyn, opened up with the Queensboro Bridge finished in 1909, and with railway tunnels under the East River in 1910. From 1915 onward, much of Queens was connected to the New York City Subway system. [27] [55] With the 1915 construction of the Steinway Tunnel carrying the IRT Flushing Line between Queens and Manhattan, and the robust expansion of the use of the automobile, the population of Queens more than doubled in the 1920s, from 469,042 in 1920 to 1,079,129 in 1930. [56]

In later years, Queens was the site of the 1939 New York World's Fair and the 1964 New York World's Fair. [57] LaGuardia Airport, established on a site in northern Queens that had been a seaplane base, opened in 1939, named for mayor Fiorello La Guardia, who pushed for the development of a modern airport in New York City. [58] Idlewild Airport, in southern Queens, opened in 1948 on the site of a former golf course and was renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport in 1963. [59] In one of several notable incidents, TWA Flight 800 took off from the airport on July 17, 1996, and exploded in midair off the coast of Long Island, killing all 230 on board the Boeing 747. [60] American Airlines Flight 587 took off from the latter airport on November 12, 2001, but ended up crashing in Belle Harbor, killing all 260 on board and five people on the ground. [61] In late October 2012, much of Breezy Point was damaged by a massive six-alarm fire caused by Hurricane Sandy, the largest fire of residential homes in FDNY history, destroying 126 homes in an area where every building was damaged by either water, wind or the resulting fires. [62]

Queens, New York City, looking south from Queensboro Bridge.jpg
Looking south from the Queensboro Bridge in Long Island City

Geography

Location of Queens (red) within New York City New York City location Queens.svg
Location of Queens (red) within New York City
Aerial view of Queens looking north from John F. Kennedy International Airport Queens aerial 2021.jpg
Aerial view of Queens looking north from John F. Kennedy International Airport

Queens is located on the far western portion of geographic Long Island and includes a few smaller islands, most of which are in Jamaica Bay, forming part of the Gateway National Recreation Area, which in turn is one of the National Parks of New York Harbor. [63] According to the United States Census Bureau, Queens County has a total area of 178 square miles (460 km2), of which 109 square miles (280 km2) is land and 70 square miles (180 km2) (39%) is water. [64]

Brooklyn, the only other New York City borough on Long Island, lies just south and west of Queens, with Newtown Creek, an estuary that flows into the East River, forming part of the border. To the west and north is the East River, across which is Manhattan to the west and The Bronx to the north. Nassau County is east of Queens on Long Island. Staten Island is southwest of Brooklyn, and shares only a three-mile-long water border (in the Outer Bay) with Queens. North of Queens are Flushing Bay and the Flushing River, connecting to the East River. The East River opens into Long Island Sound. The midsection of Queens is crossed by the Long Island straddling terminal moraine created by the Wisconsin Glacier. The Rockaway Peninsula, the southernmost part of all of Queens, sits between Jamaica Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, featuring 7 miles (11 km) of beaches. [65] [66]

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Queens has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with partial shielding from the Appalachian Mountains and moderating influences from the Atlantic Ocean. Queens receives precipitation throughout the year, with an average of 44.8 inches (114 cm) per year. In an average year, there will be 44 days with either moderate or heavy rain. [67]

An average winter will have 22 days with some snowfall, of which nine days have at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) of snowfall. [67] Summer is typically hot, humid, and wet. An average year will have 17 days with a high temperature of 90 °F (32 °C) or warmer. [67] In an average year, there are 14 days on which the temperature does not go above 32 °F (0 °C) all day. [67] Spring and autumn can vary from chilly to very warm.

The highest temperature ever recorded at LaGuardia Airport was 107 °F (42 °C) on July 3, 1966. [68] [67] The highest temperature ever recorded at John F. Kennedy International Airport was 104 °F (40 °C), also on July 3, 1966. [68] [69] LaGuardia Airport's record-low temperature was −7 °F (−22 °C) on February 15, 1943, the effect of which was exacerbated by a shortage of heating oil and coal. [67] [70] John F. Kennedy International Airport's record-low temperature was −2 °F (−19 °C), on February 8, 1963, and January 21, 1985. [69] [71] [72] On January 24, 2016, 30.5 inches (77 cm) of snow fell, which is the record in Queens. [73]

Tornadoes are generally rare; the most recent tornado, an EF0, touched down in College Point on August 3, 2018, causing minor damage. [74] Before that, there was a tornado in Breezy Point on September 8, 2012, which damaged the roofs of some homes, [75] and an EF1 tornado in Flushing on September 26, 2010. [76]

Climate data for JFK Airport, New York (1991–2020 normals, [lower-alpha 1] extremes 1948–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)71
(22)
71
(22)
85
(29)
90
(32)
99
(37)
99
(37)
104
(40)
101
(38)
98
(37)
95
(35)
80
(27)
75
(24)
104
(40)
Mean maximum °F (°C)57.7
(14.3)
58.3
(14.6)
67.5
(19.7)
77.9
(25.5)
85.6
(29.8)
92.4
(33.6)
95.2
(35.1)
91.9
(33.3)
87.9
(31.1)
79.7
(26.5)
68.9
(20.5)
60.6
(15.9)
96.8
(36.0)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C)39.5
(4.2)
41.7
(5.4)
48.7
(9.3)
58.8
(14.9)
68.4
(20.2)
78.0
(25.6)
83.6
(28.7)
82.2
(27.9)
75.8
(24.3)
64.7
(18.2)
53.8
(12.1)
44.5
(6.9)
61.6
(16.4)
Daily mean °F (°C)32.8
(0.4)
34.5
(1.4)
41.1
(5.1)
50.9
(10.5)
60.5
(15.8)
70.2
(21.2)
76.1
(24.5)
75.0
(23.9)
68.4
(20.2)
57.2
(14.0)
46.8
(8.2)
38.3
(3.5)
54.3
(12.4)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C)26.2
(−3.2)
27.4
(−2.6)
33.6
(0.9)
42.9
(6.1)
52.5
(11.4)
62.4
(16.9)
68.7
(20.4)
67.8
(19.9)
61.0
(16.1)
49.8
(9.9)
39.8
(4.3)
32.0
(0.0)
47.0
(8.3)
Mean minimum °F (°C)10.2
(−12.1)
13.3
(−10.4)
20.2
(−6.6)
32.6
(0.3)
42.9
(6.1)
52.6
(11.4)
62.8
(17.1)
60.1
(15.6)
50.0
(10.0)
37.9
(3.3)
26.9
(−2.8)
18.6
(−7.4)
8.2
(−13.2)
Record low °F (°C)−2
(−19)
−2
(−19)
7
(−14)
20
(−7)
34
(1)
45
(7)
55
(13)
46
(8)
40
(4)
30
(−1)
15
(−9)
2
(−17)
−2
(−19)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.23
(82)
2.76
(70)
3.94
(100)
3.55
(90)
3.66
(93)
3.85
(98)
3.86
(98)
4.11
(104)
3.58
(91)
3.72
(94)
3.07
(78)
3.96
(101)
43.29
(1,100)
Average snowfall inches (cm)7.5
(19)
8.6
(22)
4.3
(11)
0.6
(1.5)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.4
(1.0)
4.5
(11)
25.9
(66)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch)10.79.810.811.411.810.69.49.08.29.48.911.2121.2
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)4.63.82.50.30.00.00.00.00.00.00.22.614.0
Average relative humidity (%)64.964.463.464.169.571.571.471.771.969.167.966.368.0
Source: NOAA (relative humidity 1961–1990) [77] [78] [79]

Neighborhoods

A residential street in Jackson Heights NYC Jackson Heights 3.jpg
A residential street in Jackson Heights
Long Island City, a neighborhood in western Queens Long Island City New York May 2015 panorama 3.jpg
Long Island City, a neighborhood in western Queens
Forest Hills Gardens Forest Hills Gardens, Queens, NY.jpg
Forest Hills Gardens

Four United States Postal Service postal zones serve Queens, based roughly on those serving the towns in existence at the consolidation of the five boroughs into New York City: Long Island City (ZIP codes starting with 111), Jamaica (114), Flushing (113), and Far Rockaway (116). Also, the Floral Park post office (110), based in Nassau County, serves a small part of northeastern Queens. Each of these main post offices has neighborhood stations with individual ZIP codes, and unlike the other boroughs, these station names are often used in addressing letters. These ZIP codes do not always reflect traditional neighborhood names and boundaries; "East Elmhurst", for example, was largely coined by the USPS and is not an official community.[ citation needed ] Most neighborhoods have no solid boundaries. The Forest Hills and Rego Park neighborhoods, for instance, overlap.

Residents of Queens often closely identify with their neighborhood rather than with the borough or city. The borough is a patchwork of dozens of unique neighborhoods, each with its own distinct identity:

  1. Flushing, one of the largest neighborhoods in Queens, has a large and growing Asian community. The community consists of Chinese, Koreans, and South Asians. Asians have now expanded eastward along the Northern Boulevard axis through Murray Hill, Whitestone, Bayside, Douglaston–Little Neck, and eventually into adjacent Nassau County. [80] [81] These neighborhoods historically contained Italian Americans and Greeks, as well as Latino Americans. The busy intersection of Main Street, Kissena Boulevard, and 41st Avenue defines the center of Downtown Flushing and the Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), known as the "Chinese Times Square" or the "Chinese Manhattan". [82] [83] The segment of Main Street between Kissena Boulevard and Roosevelt Avenue, punctuated by the Long Island Rail Road trestle overpass, represents the cultural heart of the Flushing Chinatown. Housing over 25,000 individuals born in China alone, Flushing has become home to one of the largest Chinatowns, representing the largest Chinese population of any U.S. municipality other than New York City in total. [84]
  2. Howard Beach, Whitestone, and Middle Village are home to large Italian American populations.
  3. Ozone Park and South Ozone Park have large Italian, Hispanic, and Guyanese populations.
  4. Rockaway Beach has a large Irish American population.
  5. Astoria, in the northwest, is traditionally home to one of the largest Greek populations outside Greece. It also has large Spanish American and Italian American communities, and is home to a growing population of immigrants from the Middle East, South Asia, the Balkans as well as young professionals from Manhattan. Nearby Long Island City is a major commercial center and the home to Queensbridge, the largest housing project in North America.
  6. Maspeth and Ridgewood are home to many Eastern European immigrants such as Romanian, Polish, Serbian, Albanian, and other Slavic populations. Ridgewood also has a large Hispanic population.
  7. Jackson Heights and Elmhurst make up a conglomeration of Hispanic, Asian, Tibetan, and South Asian communities. Jackson Heights is also known as "Little Colombia" thanks to the gastronomical and demographic impact of Colombian people. [85]
  8. Woodside is home to a large Filipino American community and has a "Little Manila" as well a large Irish American population. Many Filipino Americans live in Hollis and Queens Village.
  9. Richmond Hill, in the south, is often thought of as "Little Guyana" for its large Guyanese community, [86] as well as Punjab Avenue (ਪੰਜਾਬ ਐਵੇਨਿਊ), or Little Punjab, for its high concentration of Punjabi people.
  10. Rego Park, Forest Hills, Kew Gardens, and Kew Gardens Hills have traditionally large Jewish populations (historically from Germany and Eastern Europe; though more recent immigrants are from Israel, Iran, and the former Soviet Union). These neighborhoods are also known for large and growing Asian communities, mainly immigrants from China.
  11. Jamaica Estates, Jamaica Hills, Hillcrest, Fresh Meadows, and Hollis Hills are also populated with many people of Jewish background. Many Asian families reside in parts of Fresh Meadows as well.
  12. Jamaica is home to large African American, Caribbean, and Central American populations. There are also middle-class African American and Caribbean neighborhoods such as Saint Albans, Queens Village, Cambria Heights, Springfield Gardens, Rosedale, Laurelton, and Briarwood along east and southeast Queens.
  13. Bellerose and Floral Park, originally home to many Irish Americans, is home to a growing South Asian population, predominantly Indian Americans.
  14. Corona and Corona Heights, once considered the "Little Italy" of Queens, was a predominantly Italian community with a strong African American community in the northern portion of Corona and adjacent East Elmhurst. From the 1920s through the 1960s, Corona remained a close-knit neighborhood. Corona today has the highest concentration of Latinos of any Queens neighborhood, with an increasing Chinese American population, located between Elmhurst and Flushing. [87]

Demographics

JurisdictionPopulationLand areaDensity of population GDP
BoroughCountyCensus
(2020)
square
miles
square
km
people/
sq. mile
people/
sq. km
billions
(2022 US$) 2
Bronx
1,472,65442.2109.334,92013,482$43.7
Kings
2,736,07469.4179.739,43815,227$107.3
New York
1,694,25122.758.874,78128,872$781.0
Queens
2,405,464108.7281.522,1258,542$103.3
Richmond
495,74757.5148.98,6183,327$17.5
8,804,190302.6783.829,09511,234$1,052.8
20,215,75147,126.4122,056.8429166$1,763.5
Sources: [88] [89] [90] [91] and see individual borough articles.
Racial composition2020 [92] 2010 [93] 1990 [94] 1970 [94] 1950 [94]
White 25.8%39.7%57.9%85.3%96.5%
—Non-Hispanic22.8%27.6%48.0%n/an/a
Black or African American 16.8%19.1%21.7%13.0%3.3%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)27.8%27.5%19.5%7.7% [95] n/a
Asian 27.5%22.9%12.2%1.1%0.1%
Historical population
CensusPop.Note
1790 16,014
1800 16,9165.6%
1810 19,33614.3%
1820 21,51911.3%
1830 22,4604.4%
1840 30,32435.0%
1850 36,83321.5%
1860 57,39155.8%
1870 73,80328.6%
1880 90,57422.7%
1890 128,05941.4%
1900 152,99919.5%
1910 284,04185.6%
1920 469,04265.1%
1930 1,079,129130.1%
1940 1,297,63420.2%
1950 1,550,84919.5%
1960 1,809,57816.7%
1970 1,986,4739.8%
1980 1,891,325−4.8%
1990 1,951,5983.2%
2000 2,229,37914.2%
2010 2,230,7220.1%
2020 2,405,4647.8%
U.S. Decennial Census [96]
1790-1960 [97] 1900-1990 [97] 1990-2000 [98] 2010-2018 [7] 2020 [2]
The Elmhurst Chinatown (Ai Mu He Si Te Tang Ren Jie ) at the corner of Broadway and Dongan Avenue Bwy Elmhurst Chinatown jeh.jpg
The Elmhurst Chinatown (艾姆赫斯特 唐人街) at the corner of Broadway and Dongan Avenue
Astoria, a largely Greek-American neighborhood Astoria uncle georges.jpg
Astoria, a largely Greek-American neighborhood

At the 2020 census, 2,405,464 people lived in Queens. In 2018's American Community Survey, the population of Queens was estimated by the United States Census Bureau to have increased to 2,278,906, a rise of 2.2%. Queens' estimated population represented 27.1% of New York City's population of 8,398,748; 29.6% of Long Island's population of 7,701,172; and 11.7% of New York State's population of 19,542,209. The 2019 estimates reported a decline to 2,253,858. [99] In 2018, there were 865,878 housing units, and 777,904 households, 2.97 persons per household, and a median value of $481,300. There was an owner-occupancy rate of 44.5. [99] In the 2010 United States census, Queens recorded a population of 2,230,722. There were 780,117 households enumerated, with an average of 2.82 persons per household. The population density was 20,465.3 inhabitants per square mile (7,901.7 inhabitants/km2). There were 835,127 housing units at an average density of 7,661.7 units per square mile (2,958.2/km2).

The racial makeup of the county in 2010 was 39.7% White, 19.1% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 22.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 12.9% from other races, and 4.5% from two or more races. A total of 27.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latin American of any race. The non-Hispanic white population was 27.6%. [93] In 2019, non-Hispanic whites made up an estimated 24.4% of the population, and Blacks or African Americans were 17.3%. [99] The largest minority groups for the borough were Hispanic and Latin Americans (28.2%), and Asians (26.0%).

In Queens, residents consisted of 6.2% under 5, 13.9% 6–18, 64.2% 19–64, and 15.7% over 65. Females made up 51.5% of the population. An estimated 47.5% of residents are foreign-born in 2018. The per capita income was $28,814, and the median household income was $62,008. In 2018, 12.2% of residents lived below the poverty line.

The New York City Department of City Planning was alarmed by the negligible reported increase in population between 2000 and 2010. Areas with high proportions of immigrants and undocumented aliens are traditionally undercounted for a variety of reasons, often based on a mistrust of government officials or an unwillingness to be identified. In many cases, counts of vacant apartment units did not match data from local surveys and reports from property owners. [100]

Ethnic origins in Queens Ethnic Origins in Queens.png
Ethnic origins in Queens

As of 2023, illegal Chinese immigration to New York City, especially to Queens and its Flushing Chinatown, has accelerated. [101]

Ethnic groups

Little India in Jackson Heights 74th St shopping Jax Hts jeh.jpg
Little India in Jackson Heights
Ridgewood is home to a large Puerto Rican community Stock-De Kalb-Hart Av Historic Dist Bushwick jeh.jpg
Ridgewood is home to a large Puerto Rican community

According to a 2001 Claritas study, Queens was the most diverse county in the United States among counties of 100,000+ population. [102] A 2014 analysis by The Atlantic found Queens County to be the third most racially diverse county-equivalent in the United States—behind Aleutians West Census Area and Aleutians East Borough in Alaska—as well as the most diverse county in New York. [9] Meanwhile, a 2017 study by Axios found that, although numerous smaller counties in the United States had higher rates of diversity, Queens was the United States' most diverse populous county. [10]

In Queens, approximately 48.5% of the population was foreign born as of 2010. Within the foreign born population, 49.5% were born in Latin America, 33.5% in Asia, 14.8% in Europe, 1.8% in Africa, and 0.4% in North America. Roughly 2.1% of the population was born in Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, or abroad to American parents. In addition, 51.2% of the population was born in the United States. Approximately 44.2% of the population over 5 years of age speak English at home; 23.8% speak Spanish at home. Also, 16.8% of the populace speak other Indo-European languages at home. Another 13.5% speak a non-Indo-European Asian language or language of the Pacific Islands at home. [103]

Among the Asian population in 2010, people of Chinese ethnicity made up the largest ethnic group at 10.2% of Queens' population, with about 237,484 people; the other East and Southeast Asian groups are: Koreans (2.9%), Filipinos (1.7%), Japanese (0.3%), Thais (0.2%), Vietnamese (0.2%), and Indonesians and Burmese both make up 0.1% of the population. [104] People of South Asian descent made up 7.8% of Queens' population: Indians (5.3%), Bangladeshi (1.5%), Pakistanis (0.7%), and Nepali (0.2%). [104] In 2019, Chinese Americans remained the largest Asian ethnicity (10.9%) followed by Asian Indians (5.7%). [99] Asian Indians had estimated population of 144,896 in 2014 (6.24% of the 2014 borough population), [105] as well as Pakistani Americans, who numbered at 15,604. [106] Queens has the second largest Sikh population in the nation after California. [107]

Among the Hispanic or Latin American population, Puerto Ricans made up the largest ethnic group at 4.6%, next to Mexicans, who made up 4.2% of the population, and Dominicans at 3.9%. Central Americans made up 2.4% and are mostly Salvadorans. South Americans constitute 9.6% of Queens's population, mainly of Ecuadorian (4.4%) and Colombian descent (4.2%). [104] The 2019 American Community Survey estimated Mexicans and Puerto Ricans were equally the largest groups (4.5% each) in Queens, and Cuban Americans were the third largest single group. Other Hispanic and Latinos collectively made up 18.9% of the population. [99] The Hispanic or Latino population increased by 61% to 597,773 between 1990 and 2006 and now accounts for over 26.5% of the borough's population.

Queens has the largest Colombian population in the city, accounting for over 35.6% of the city's total Colombian population, for a total of 145,956 in 2019; [85] it also has the largest Ecuadorian population in the city, accounting for 62.2% of the city's total Ecuadorian population, for a total of 101,339. Queens has the largest Peruvian population in the city, accounting for 69.9% of the city's total Peruvian population, for a total of 30,825. Queens has the largest Salvadoran population in the city, accounting for 50.7% of the city for a total population of 25,235. The Mexican population in Queens has increased 45.7% since 2011 to 71,283, the second-highest in the city, after Brooklyn. [108]

Queens is also home to 49.6% of the city's Asian population. Among the five boroughs, Queens has the largest population of Chinese, Indian, Korean, Filipino, Bangladeshi and Pakistani Americans. Queens has the largest Asian American population by county outside the Western United States; according to the 2006 American Community Survey, Queens ranks fifth among US counties with 477,772 (21.18%) Asian Americans, behind Los Angeles County, California, Honolulu County, Hawaii, Santa Clara County, California, and Orange County, California.

Some main European ancestries in Queens as of 2000 include: Italian (8.4%), Irish (5.5%), German (3.5%), Polish (2.7%), Russian (2.3%), and Greek (2.0%). Of the European American population, Queens has the third largest Bosnian population in the United States behind only St. Louis and Chicago, numbering more than 15,000. [109] Queens is home to some 50,000 Armenian Americans. [110]

The Jewish Community Study of New York 2011, sponsored by the UJA-Federation of New York, found that about 9% of Queens residents were Jews. [111] In 2011, there were about 198,000 Jews in Queens, making it home to about 13% of all people in Jewish households in the eight-county area consisting of the Five Boroughs and Westchester, Nassau, and Suffolk counties. [111] Russian-speaking Jews make up 28% of the Jewish population in Queens, the largest in any of the eight counties. [112]

In Queens, the Black and African American population earns more than non-Hispanic whites on average. [113] Many of these Blacks and African Americans live in quiet, middle-class suburban neighborhoods near the Nassau County border, such as Laurelton and Cambria Heights, which have large Black populations whose family income is higher than average. The migration of European Americans from parts of Queens has been long ongoing with departures from Ozone Park, Woodhaven, Bellerose, Floral Park, and Flushing (most of the outgoing population has been replaced with Asian Americans). Neighborhoods such as Whitestone, College Point, North Flushing, Auburndale, Bayside, Middle Village, and Douglaston–Little Neck have not had a substantial exodus of white residents, but have seen an increase of Asian population, mostly Chinese and Korean. Queens has experienced a real estate boom making most of its neighborhoods desirable for people who want to reside near Manhattan but in a less urban setting.

Languages

According to the office of the New York State Comptroller in 2000, 138 languages are spoken in the borough. [114] The 2021 American Community Survey by the United States Census Bureau, found that – of those over the age of five residing in Queens – 54.53% spoke a language other than English in the home. The following tables shows the 15 most common non-English languages in Queens, with the most prominent being Spanish, Chinese, and Bengali.

    
Language
Ages 5+
 %
Source →
12345678910111213141516
English non-English Spanish Chinese Bengali Korean Tagalog Russian Haitian Polish Italian Greek Arabic Punjabi UrduHindi French
1,000,1161,199,561516,251205,37184,34941,42030,42728,01324,92822,34221,27319,74916,26916,13915,76913,17612,384
45.47%54.53%23.47%9.34%3.83%1.88%1.38%1.27%1.13%1.02%0.97%0.9%0.74%0.73%0.72%0.6%0.56%
"2021 American Community Survey: LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME"". United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2023.

Religion

Rocket Thrower (1963) at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park Unisphere Fountains - The Rocket Thrower 01.jpg
Rocket Thrower (1963) at Flushing Meadows–Corona Park

In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Queens was the Diocese of Brooklyn, with 677,520 Roman Catholics worshiping at 100 parishes, followed by an estimated 81,456 Muslims with 57 congregations, 80,000 Orthodox Jews with 110 congregations, 33,325 non-denominational Christian adherents with 129 congregations, 28,085 AME Methodists with 14 congregations, 24,250 Greek Orthodox with 6 congregations, 16,775 Hindus with 18 congregations, 13,989 AoG Pentecostals with 64 congregations, 13,507 Seventh-day Adventists with 45 congregations, and 12,957 Mahayana Buddhists with 26 congregations. Altogether, 49.4% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information. [115] In 2014, Queens had 738 religious organizations, the thirteenth most out of all U.S. counties. [116]

Culture

Queens has been the center of the punk rock movement, particularly in New York; Ramones originated out of Forest Hills, [117] it has also been the home of such notable artists as Tony Bennett, Francis Ford Coppola, Paul Simon, and Robert Mapplethorpe.

Queens Poet Laureates (generally, 3-year appointments):

Queens has notably fostered African American culture, with establishments such as The Afrikan Poetry Theatre and the Black Spectrum Theater Company catering specifically to African Americans in Queens. [119] [120] In the 1940s, Queens was an important center of jazz; such jazz luminaries as Louis Armstrong, Charlie Parker, and Ella Fitzgerald took up residence in Queens, seeking refuge from the segregation they found elsewhere in New York. [121] Additionally, many notable hip-hop acts hail from Queens, including Nas, Run-D.M.C., Kool G Rap, A Tribe Called Quest, LL Cool J, MC Shan, Mobb Deep, 50 Cent, Nicki Minaj, Tony Yayo, Tragedy Khadafi, N.O.R.E., Lloyd Banks, Capone, Ja Rule, Heems of Das Racist and Action Bronson.

Queens hosts various museums and cultural institutions that serve its diverse communities. They range from the historical (such as the John Bowne House) to the scientific (such as the New York Hall of Science), from conventional art galleries (such as the Noguchi Museum) to unique graffiti exhibits (such as 5 Pointz). Queens's cultural institutions include, but are not limited to:

The travel magazine Lonely Planet also named Queens the top destination in the country for 2015 for its cultural and culinary diversity. [122] Stating that Queens is "quickly becoming its hippest" but that "most travelers haven't clued in... yet," [123] the Lonely Planet stated that "nowhere is the image of New York as the global melting pot truer than Queens." [124]

Food

The cuisine available in Queens reflects its vast cultural diversity. The cuisine of a particular neighborhood often represents its demographics; for example, Astoria hosts many Greek restaurants, in keeping with its traditionally Greek population. [125] Jackson Heights is known for its prominent Indian cuisine and also many Latin American eateries. [126]

The Queens Night Market in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, operating since 2015 on Saturdays from April to October (with a break from late August to mid-September), offers samples of food capped at $6 from dozens of countries with attendance of up to 20,000 a night. [127] [128] [129]

Economy

JetBlue's corporate headquarters in Queens Jetblue Metlife 27-01 QPN jeh.jpg
JetBlue's corporate headquarters in Queens

Queens has the second-largest economy of New York City's five boroughs, following Manhattan. In 2004, Queens had 15.2% (440,310) of all private-sector jobs in New York City and 8.8% of private-sector wages. In 2012, private-sector employment increased to 486,160. [130] Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs, with occupations spread relatively evenly across the health care, retail trade, manufacturing, construction, transportation, and film and television production sectors, such that no single sector is overwhelmingly dominant. [13]

The diversification in Queens' economy is reflected in a large amount of employment in the export-oriented portions of its economy—such as transportation, manufacturing, and business services—that serve customers outside the region. This accounts for more than 27% of all Queens jobs and offers an average salary of $43,727, 14% greater than that of jobs in the locally oriented sector.

Long Island City is one of New York City's fastest-growing neighborhoods. Queens Plaza May 26 2017.jpg
Long Island City is one of New York City's fastest-growing neighborhoods.

The borough's largest employment sector—trade, transportation, and utilities—accounted for nearly 30% of all jobs in 2004; in 2012, its largest employment sector became health care and social services. [130] Queens is home to two of the three major New York City area airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport. These airports are among the busiest in the world, leading the airspace above Queens to be the most congested in the country. This airline industry is particularly important to the economy of Queens, providing almost one-quarter of the sector's employment and more than 30% of the sector's wages.

Education and health services were the next largest sector in Queens and comprised almost 24% of the borough's jobs in 2004; in 2012, transportation and warehousing, and retail were the second largest at 12% each. [130] The manufacturing and construction industries in Queens are among the largest of the city and accounted for nearly 17% of the borough's private sector jobs in 2004. Comprising almost 17% of the jobs in Queens is the information, financial activities, and business and professional services sectors in 2004.

As of 2003, Queens had almost 40,000 business establishments. Small businesses act as an important part of the borough's economic vitality with two-thirds of all businesses employing between one and four people.

Several large companies have their headquarters in Queens, including watchmaker Bulova, based in East Elmhurst; internationally renowned piano manufacturer Steinway & Sons in Astoria; Glacéau, the makers of Vitamin Water, headquartered in Whitestone; and JetBlue Airways, an airline based in Long Island City.

Long Island City is a major manufacturing and back-office center. Flushing is a major commercial hub for Chinese American and Korean American businesses, while Jamaica is the major civic and transportation hub for the borough.

Sports

Citi Field, the home of the New York Mets Citi Field and Apple.JPG
Citi Field, the home of the New York Mets
Arthur Ashe Stadium during the 2014 US Open US Open 2014 (15048888245).jpg
Arthur Ashe Stadium during the 2014 US Open

Queens is home of the New York Mets of Major League Baseball. [132] Founded in 1962 as an expansion team, the Mets have won 2 World Series championships and 5 National League pennants. Citi Field is a 41,922-seat stadium opened in April 2009 in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park that is the home ballpark of the Mets. [133] Shea Stadium, the former home of the Mets and the New York Jets of the National Football League, as well as the temporary home of the New York Yankees and the New York Giants Football Team stood where Citi Field's parking lot is now located, operating from 1964 to 2008. [134] Queens is the future home of the new stadium for New York City FC of Major League Soccer, which is expected to be completed in 2027. [135]

The U.S. Open tennis tournament has been played since 1978 at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, located just south of Citi Field. [136] With a capacity of 23,771, Arthur Ashe Stadium is the biggest tennis stadium in the world. [137] The U.S. Open was formerly played at the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills. [138] South Ozone Park is the home of Aqueduct Racetrack, which is operated by the New York Racing Association, and offers Thoroughbred horse racing from late October/early November through April. [139] (The Belmont Park racetrack and the adjacent UBS Arena (home of the New York Islanders of the National Hockey League) sit entirely in Nassau County, just over the City line; however, small sections of the properties of both venues are in Queens, as is the Belmont Park station of the Long Island Rail Road.)

Government

United States presidential election results for Queens County, New York [140] [141] [142]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.%No.%No.%
2020 212,66526.92%569,03872.03%8,2781.05%
2016 149,34121.76%517,22075.35%19,8322.89%
2012 118,58919.92%470,73279.08%5,9241.00%
2008 155,22124.25%480,69275.09%4,2240.66%
2004 165,95427.41%433,83571.66%5,6030.93%
2000 122,05221.95%416,96775.00%16,9723.05%
1996 107,65021.05%372,92572.94%30,7216.01%
1992 157,56128.34%349,52062.87%48,8758.79%
1988 217,04939.70%325,14759.47%4,5330.83%
1984 285,47746.38%328,37953.34%1,7220.28%
1980 251,33344.81%269,14747.98%40,4437.21%
1976 244,39638.95%379,90760.54%3,2000.51%
1972 426,01556.34%328,31643.42%1,7560.23%
1968 306,62040.03%410,54653.60%48,7466.36%
1964 274,35133.59%541,41866.28%1,0590.13%
1960 367,68845.07%446,34854.71%1,8630.23%
1956 471,22359.86%315,89840.13%1440.02%
1952 450,61057.11%331,21741.98%7,1940.91%
1948 323,45950.58%268,74242.02%47,3427.40%
1944 365,36555.33%292,94044.36%2,0710.31%
1940 323,40652.68%288,02446.91%2,5240.41%
1936 162,79733.02%320,05364.92%10,1592.06%
1932 136,64134.32%244,74061.47%16,7604.21%
1928 158,50545.87%184,64053.43%2,4110.70%
1924 100,79353.57%58,40231.04%28,97415.40%
1920 94,36068.71%35,29625.70%7,6685.58%
1916 34,67050.54%31,35045.70%2,5753.75%
1912 9,20116.49%28,07650.32%18,52133.19%
1908 19,42044.13%20,34246.22%4,2469.65%
1904 14,09641.44%18,15153.36%1,7705.20%
1900 12,32343.94%14,74752.58%9763.48%
1896 18,69458.03%11,98037.19%1,5394.78%
1892 11,70441.71%15,19554.15%1,1614.14%
1888 11,01745.95%12,68352.90%2751.15%
1884 8,44543.80%10,36753.76%4712.44%
1880 8,15143.73%10,39155.74%990.53%
1876 6,97040.99%9,99458.77%410.24%
1872 6,08351.74%5,65548.10%190.16%
1868 4,97343.77%6,38856.23%00.00%
1864 4,28444.24%5,40055.76%00.00%
1860 3,74946.05%4,39253.95%00.00%
1856 1,88627.73%2,39435.20%2,52137.07%
1852 2,20943.06%2,90456.61%170.33%
1848 2,44453.66%1,31028.76%80117.59%
1844 2,54748.07%2,75151.93%00.00%
1840 2,52249.70%2,55050.26%20.04%
1836 1,39945.82%1,65454.18%00.00%
1832 1,40045.83%1,65554.17%00.00%
1828 1,37954.98%1,12945.02%00.00%
Party affiliation of Queens registered voters
Party2005200420032002200120001999199819971996
Democratic 62.94%62.5262.8562.7962.9962.5262.3062.2762.2862.33
Republican 14.60%14.6614.9715.0415.2815.6916.4716.7416.9317.20
Other3.88%3.933.943.863.373.303.103.203.022.78
No affiliation18.58%18.8918.2418.3118.3618.4918.1317.7917.7717.69
Queens County Courthouse was built in 1938 and houses the borough's Supreme Court, Surrogate Court, and County Clerk. Queens County Courthouse by David Shankbone.jpg
Queens County Courthouse was built in 1938 and houses the borough's Supreme Court, Surrogate Court, and County Clerk.

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Queens has been governed by the New York City Charter that provides for a strong mayor–council system. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in Queens. The Queens Library is governed by a 19-member Board of Trustees, appointed by the Mayor of New York City and the Borough President of Queens.

Since 1990 the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Queens' Borough President is Donovan Richards, elected in November 2020 as a Democrat. Queens Borough Hall is the seat of government and is located in Kew Gardens.

The Democratic Party holds most public offices. Sixty-three percent of registered Queens voters are Democrats. Local party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development. Controversial political issues in Queens include development, noise, and the cost of housing.

Each of the city's five counties has its criminal court system and District Attorney, the chief public prosecutor who is directly elected by popular vote. Richard A. Brown, who ran on both the Republican and Democratic Party tickets, was the District Attorney of Queens County from 1991 to 2018. The new DA as of January 2020 is Melinda Katz. [144] Queens has 12 seats on the New York City Council, the second-largest number among the five boroughs. It is divided into 14 community districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for residents.

Although Queens is heavily Democratic, it is considered a swing county in New York politics. Republican political candidates who do well in Queens usually win citywide or statewide elections. Republicans such as former Mayors Rudolph Giuliani and Michael Bloomberg won majorities in Queens. Republican State Senator Serphin Maltese represented a district in central and southern Queens for twenty years until his defeat in 2008 by Democratic City Councilman Joseph Addabbo, Jr. In 2002, Queens voted against incumbent Republican Governor of New York George Pataki in favor of his Democratic opponent, Carl McCall by a slim margin. [145]

On the national level, Queens has not voted for a Republican candidate in a presidential election since 1972, when Queens voters chose Richard Nixon over George McGovern. Since the 1996 presidential election, Democratic presidential candidates have received over 70% of the popular vote in Queens. [146] Since the election of Donald Trump, Queens has become known in the United States for its surge in progressive politics and grassroots campaigning. [147]

Federal representation

As of 2024, five Democrats represent Queens in the United States House of Representatives. [148]

Housing

The borough's diverse housing ranges from high-rise apartment buildings in some areas of western and central Queens, such as Forest Hills, Jackson Heights, Flushing, Astoria, and Long Island City; to lower-rise neighborhoods in the eastern part of the borough. [150] [151] There were 911,957 housing units in 2022 [152] at an average density of 8,388 units per square mile (3,239/km2). Affordable rental and co-operative housing units throughout the borough were created under the Mitchell–Lama Housing Program. [153] Public housing is administered by the New York City Housing Authority, which accounts for more than 30,000 residents in more than 15,300 units in 2023. [154]

Education

Elementary and secondary education

Elementary and secondary school education in Queens is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Non-charter public schools in the borough are managed by the New York City Department of Education, [155] the largest public school system in the United States. Most private schools are affiliated with or identify themselves with the Roman Catholic or Jewish religious communities. Townsend Harris High School is a Queens public magnet high school for the humanities consistently ranked as among the top 100 high schools in the United States. One of the nine Specialized High Schools in New York City is located in Queens. Located in the York College, City University of New York Campus in Jamaica, the Queens High School for the Sciences at York College, which emphasizes both science and mathematics, ranks as one of the best high schools in both the state and the country. It is one of the smallest Specialized High Schools that requires an entrance exam, the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test. The school has a student body of around 400 students.

Postsecondary institutions

LaGuardia Community College in Long Island City, Queens LaGuardia CC E jeh.jpg
LaGuardia Community College in Long Island City, Queens
Queens College is part of the City University of New York. Rosenthal Faisal.jpg
Queens College is part of the City University of New York.

Queens Public Library

A branch of the Queens Public Library in Flushing QPL Flushing jeh.JPG
A branch of the Queens Public Library in Flushing

The Queens Public Library is the public library system for the borough and one of three library systems serving New York City. Dating back to the foundation of the first Queens library in Flushing in 1858, the Queens Public Library is one of the largest public library systems in the United States. Separate from the New York Public Library, it is composed of 63 branches throughout the borough. In the fiscal year 2001, the Library achieved a circulation of 16.8 million. The Library has maintained the highest circulation of any city library in the country since 1985 and the highest circulation of any library in the nation since 1987. The Library maintains collections in many languages, including Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Russian, Haitian Creole, Polish, and six Indic languages, as well as smaller collections in 19 other languages.

Transportation

According to 2011–2015 ACS microdata, 38% of Queens households did not own a car; the citywide rate is 55%. [157]

Vehicles for hire

As of 2019, the city had about 80,000 for-hire vehicles, of which, two-thirds were ride-hailUber, Lyft, Via, and Juno. [158] Until the COVID-19 pandemic, the ride-hail car offered a ride-share option. There are about 13,500 traditional taxis (yellow cabs with medallions) in the city, 7,676 boro taxis, 38,791 black cars, 21,932 livery cars, 288 commuter vans, and 2,206 paratransit vehicles.

Roundtrip car sharing

Zipcar, and others, entered New York City market in 2002 offering roundtrip car sharing from private locations, mostly from parking garages. In 2018, the city partnered with the roundtrip car share companies, led by Zipcar, to launch the nation's larges on-street car-sharing program with the greatest take-up in The Bronx and in Queens – Jackson Heights, Jamaica, and Far Rockaway. [159] [160] [161] [162] [163] In 2020, during beginning throes of the COVID-19 pandemic, Enterprise CarShare suspended service in New York City. Among the traditional car rental locations in Queens, both international airports harbor larger fleets, conveniently close to Queens residents.

Micromobility

Citi Bike – a docked-bike and e-bike sharing company had, as of July 2019, 169,000 annual subscribers. In 2021, the Department of Transportation and Citi Bike announced that, as part of its Phase 3 expansion, it was doubling its service area to 70 square miles and tripling the number of bikes to 40,000. The expansion includes 52 new docking stations in Astoria, as well as new stations in Sunnyside and Woodside. [164]

Non-docked e-moped service was launched in the city by Revel in 2019. Companies such as Bird, Lime, VeoRide introduced non-docked e-scooter-sharing in 2021. [165]

Airports

John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States JFK Plane Queue.jpg
John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States
A multibillion-dollar reconstruction of LaGuardia Airport was announced in July 2015. LaGuardia Airport.JPG
A multibillion-dollar reconstruction of LaGuardia Airport was announced in July 2015.
Airline Revenue Passengers
at Queens Airports

2019 → pre-COVID-19 pandemic


Domestic
International
Rank*
Total
   JFK    28,233,791   34,317,281   62,551,072
   LGA
28,875,041
2,209,853

31,084,894
    Total
57,108,83236,527,13493,635,966
2020 → mid-COVID-19 pandemic
   JFK    8,267,666   8,362,976   16,630,642
   LGA
7,853,368
391,824

8,245,192
    Total
16,121,0348,754,80024,875,834
    *National rank for international passengers
     (enplanements + deplanements) [167] [168]

Queens has crucial importance in international and interstate air traffic, with two of the New York metropolitan area's three major airports located there. John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), in 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, served 62.6 million passengers (enplanements + deplanements) – 34.3 million of which were international, ranking it the busiest airport in the United States by international passenger traffic. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the United States imposed travel restrictions, first, in January 2020, on travelers from China and, in the following months, on travelers from other countries. 2020 annual passenger traffic at JFK dropped to 16.6 million (−73.4%) – 8.4 million (−73.4%) of which were international, still ranking it the busiest airport in the United States by international passenger traffic. [167] [168]

JFK is owned by the City of New York and managed, since 1947, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The airport's runways and six terminals cover an area of 4,930 acres (2,000 ha) on Jamaica Bay in southeastern Queens. [169] The airport's original official name was New York International Airport, although it was commonly known as Idlewild, with the name changed to Kennedy in December 1963 to honor the assassination of John F. Kennedy, November 22, 1963. [170]

LaGuardia Airport is located in East Elmhurst, in northern Queens, on Flushing Bay. Originally opened in 1939, the airport's two runways and four terminals cover 680 acres (280 ha), serving 28.4 million passengers in 2015. [171] In 2014, citing outdated conditions in the airport's terminals, Vice President Joe Biden compared LaGuardia Airport to a "third world country". [172] In 2015, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began a $4 billion project to renovate LaGuardia Airport's terminals and entryways. The project is expected to be complete by 2021. [166]

Public transportation

46th Street - Bliss Street subway station NYCSub 7 station view.jpg
46th Street – Bliss Street subway station
Flushing - Main Street LIRR station Bombardier M7 7799 enters Flushing.jpg
Flushing – Main Street LIRR station

Subways

Queens is served by the New York City Subway, with 81 stations located within the borough. [173] Two physical lines — the IRT Flushing Line and the IND Queens Boulevard Line — serve as the primary east-west trunk lines in the borough, with all services on the two lines continuing across the East River into Manhattan. Two additional lines are wholly within Queens: the BMT Astoria Line, which serves the neighborhoods of Astoria and Ditmars–Steinway, and the IND Rockaway Line, which provides access to John F. Kennedy International Airport and the Rockaways. In addition, five other New York City Subway lines — the BMT Jamaica Line, BMT Myrtle Avenue Line, BMT/IND Archer Avenue Line, IND Crosstown Line, and IND Fulton Street Line — run between Brooklyn and Queens.

The A, G, J/Z, and M routes connect Queens to Brooklyn without going through Manhattan first. The F, N, and R trains connect Queens and Brooklyn via Manhattan, while the E, W, and 7/<7> trains connect Queens to Manhattan only. The L train briefly enters Queens at Halsey Street, connecting Queens to either Brooklyn or both Brooklyn and Manhattan, depending on the direction. [173] In addition, the Rockaway Park Shuttle operates strictly in the neighborhoods of Rockaway Park and Broad Channel. [173]

Long Island Rail Road

The Long Island Rail Road, also part of the MTA, operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, including holidays – carrying an average of 301,000 customers a day (80 million a year, adjusting downward for weekends) on about 735 scheduled trains. [174] It is the busiest commuter rail hub in the United States. Most of its branches originate or terminate at Penn Station. All but one of its branches (the Port Washington Branch) pass through Jamaica. The New York City area served by the LIRR is called the City Terminal Zone. Within that zone, Queens has stations in Long Island City, Hunterspoint Avenue (in Long Island City), Bayside, Forest Hills, Flushing, Woodside, and Kew Gardens – 22 Queens stations, in all. There are also several stations where LIRR passengers can transfer to the subway.

Sunnyside Yard is used to store Amtrak intercity and NJ Transit commuter trains from Penn Station in Manhattan. The US$11.1 billion East Side Access project, which will bring LIRR trains to Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan, opened in 2023; this project created a new train tunnel beneath the East River, connecting Long Island City in Queens with the East Side of Manhattan. [175] [176]

JFK AirTrain

The elevated AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road along the Van Wyck Expressway; [177] a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems. [178] [179] Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport itself in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities, and this project would accommodate the new AirTrain connection. [166]

MTA buses

2019 bus ridership, citywide, on the MTA system, was 2.2 million per average weekday – about 678 million for the year. In Queens, the Q58 and Q44 Select Bus Service were the seventh and tenth, respectively, citywide, busiest local lines in 2019. [180] In addition to regular bus lines serving LaGuardia Airport, the MTA offers two Select Bus Services, regular fare, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The M60 – terminals A, B, C, D – to and from Manhattan via Grand Central Parkway and the Triborough Bridge – in Harlem, along 125th Street (with a stop at the 125th Street Metro-North station), ending in Morningside Heights on the Upper West Side, a few blocks south of Columbia University. The Q70 – terminals B, C, D – through Queens, ending in Woodside at 61st Street and Roosevelt Avenue. Overall, about 100 local bus routes operate within Queens, and another 20 express routes shuttle commuters between Queens and Manhattan, under the MTA New York City Bus and MTA Bus brands. [181]

Proposed streetcar

A streetcar line connecting Queens with Brooklyn was proposed by the city in February 2016. [182] [183] The planned timeline originally called for service to begin around 2024. [184] In September 2020, Mayor de Blasio deferred decisions on the project to after the 2021 New York City mayoral election. [185]

Water transit

Newtown Creek with the Midtown Manhattan skyline in the background Small tankers unload in Newtown Creek jeh.jpg
Newtown Creek with the Midtown Manhattan skyline in the background

New York Water Taxi operates service across the East River from Hunters Point in Long Island City to Manhattan at 34th Street and south to Pier 11 at Wall Street. In 2007, limited weekday service was begun between Breezy Point, the westernmost point in the Rockaways, to Pier 11 via the Brooklyn Army Terminal. Summertime weekend service provides service from Lower Manhattan and southwest Brooklyn to the peninsula's Gateway beaches.

In the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012, ferry operator SeaStreak began running a city-subsidized ferry service between a makeshift ferry slip at Beach 108th Street and Beach Channel Drive in Rockaway Park and piers in Manhattan and Brooklyn. [186] The service was extended multiple times. [187] finally ending on October 31, 2014. [188]

In February 2015, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced that the city government would begin a citywide ferry service called NYC Ferry to extend ferry transportation to communities in the city that have been traditionally underserved by public transit. [189] [190] The ferry opened in May 2017, [191] [192] with the Queens neighborhoods of Rockaway and Astoria served by their eponymous routes. A third route, the East River Ferry, serves Hunter's Point South. [193]

Roads

Highways

Air Train JFK path above the Van Wyck Expressway Air Train JFK Van Wyck jeh.jpg
Air Train JFK path above the Van Wyck Expressway

Queens is traversed by three trunk east–west highways. The Long Island Expressway (Interstate 495) runs from the Queens Midtown Tunnel on the west through the borough to Nassau County on the east. The Grand Central Parkway, whose western terminus is the Triborough Bridge, extends east to the Queens/Nassau border, where the roadway continues as the Northern State Parkway. The Belt Parkway begins at the Gowanus Expressway in Brooklyn, and extends east into Queens, past Aqueduct Racetrack and JFK Airport. On its eastern end at the Queens/Nassau border, it splits into the Southern State Parkway which continues east, and the Cross Island Parkway which turns north. [194]

There are also several major north–south highways in Queens, including the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (Interstate 278), the Van Wyck Expressway (Interstate 678), the Clearview Expressway (Interstate 295), and the Cross Island Parkway. [194]

Queens has six state highways that run west–east largely on surface roads. From north to south, they are New York State Route 25A (Northern Boulevard), New York State Route 25B (Hillside Avenue), New York State Route 25 (Queens Boulevard, Hillside Avenue, and Braddock Avenue), New York State Route 24 (Hempstead Avenue), and New York State Route 27 (Conduit Avenue). The only state highway that primarily uses an expressway is New York State Route 878, which uses the Nassau Expressway in southern Queens. [194]

Streets

Cross-street signs for a single-named boulevard and a co-named avenue in Queens Parsons jewel.jpg
Cross-street signs for a single-named boulevard and a co-named avenue in Queens

The streets of Queens are laid out in a semi-grid system, with a numerical system of street names (similar to Manhattan and the Bronx). Nearly all roadways oriented north–south are "Streets", while east–west roadways are "Avenues", beginning with the number 1 in the west for Streets and the north for Avenues. In some parts of the borough, several consecutive streets may share numbers (for instance, 72nd Street followed by 72nd Place and 72nd Lane, or 52nd Avenue followed by 52nd Road, 52nd Drive, and 52nd Court), often confusing non-residents. [195] Also, incongruous alignments of street grids, unusual street paths due to geography, or other circumstances often lead to the skipping of numbers (for instance, on Ditmars Boulevard, 70th Street is followed by Hazen Street which is followed by 49th Street). Numbered roads tend to be residential, although numbered commercial streets are not rare. A fair number of streets that were country roads in the 18th and 19th centuries (especially major thoroughfares such as Northern Boulevard, Queens Boulevard, Hillside Avenue, and Jamaica Avenue) carry names rather than numbers, typically though not uniformly called "Boulevards" or "Parkways".

Queens house numbering was designed to provide convenience in locating the address itself; the first half of a number in a Queens address refers to the nearest cross street, the second half refers to the house or lot number from where the street begins from that cross street, followed by the name of the street itself. For example, to find an address in Queens, 14-01 120th Street, one could ascertain from the address structure itself that the listed address is at the intersection of 14th Avenue and 120th Street and that the address must be closest to 14th Avenue rather than 15th Avenue, as it is the first lot on the block. This pattern does not stop when a street is named, assuming that there is an existing numbered cross-street. For example, Queens College is situated at 65–30 Kissena Boulevard, and is so named because the cross-street closest to the entrance is 65th Avenue. [195]

Many of the village street grids of Queens had only worded names, some were numbered according to local numbering schemes, and some had a mix of words and numbers. In the early 1920s, a "Philadelphia Plan" was instituted to overlay one numbered system upon the whole borough. The Topographical Bureau, Borough of Queens, worked out the details. Subway stations were only partly renamed, and some, including those along the IRT Flushing Line ( 7 and <7> trains), now share dual names after the original street names. [196] In 2012, some numbered streets in the Douglaston Hill Historic District were renamed to their original names, with 43rd Avenue becoming Pine Street. [197]

The Rockaway Peninsula does not follow the same system as the rest of the borough and has its own numbering system. Streets are numbered in ascending order heading west from near the Nassau County border, and are prefixed with the word "Beach." Streets at the easternmost end, however, are nearly all named. Bayswater, which is on Jamaica Bay, has its numbered streets prefixed with the word "Bay" rather than "Beach". Another deviation from the norm is Broad Channel; it maintains the north–south numbering progression but uses only the suffix "Road", as well as the prefixes "West" and "East", depending on location relative to Cross Bay Boulevard, the neighborhood's major through street. Broad Channel's streets were a continuation of the mainland Queens grid in the 1950s; formerly the highest-numbered avenue in Queens was 208th Avenue rather than today's 165th Avenue in Howard Beach & Hamilton Beach. The other exception is the neighborhood of Ridgewood, which for the most part shares a grid and house numbering system with the Brooklyn neighborhood of Bushwick. The grid runs east–west from the LIRR Bay Ridge Branch right-of-way to Flushing Avenue; and north–south from Forest Avenue in Ridgewood to Bushwick Avenue in Brooklyn before adjusting to meet up with the Bedford-Stuyvesant grid at Broadway. All streets on the grid have names.

Bridges and tunnels

The Triborough Bridge connects Queens with Manhattan and The Bronx. Hell Gate and Triborough Bridges New York City Queens.jpg
The Triborough Bridge connects Queens with Manhattan and The Bronx.

Queens is connected to the Bronx by the Bronx–Whitestone Bridge, the Throgs Neck Bridge, the Triborough Bridge (also known as the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge), and the Hell Gate Bridge. Queens is connected to Manhattan Island by the Triborough Bridge, the Queensboro Bridge, and the Queens–Midtown Tunnel, as well as to Roosevelt Island by the Roosevelt Island Bridge.

While most of the Queens/Brooklyn border is on land, the Kosciuszko Bridge crosses the Newtown Creek connecting Maspeth to Greenpoint, Brooklyn. The Pulaski Bridge connects McGuinness Boulevard in Greenpoint to 11th Street, Jackson Avenue, and Hunters Point Avenue in Long Island City. The J. J. Byrne Memorial Bridge (a.k.a. Greenpoint Avenue Bridge) connects the sections of Greenpoint Avenue in Greenpoint and Long Island City. A lesser bridge connects Grand Avenue in Queens to Grand Street in Brooklyn.

The Cross Bay Veterans Memorial Bridge, built in 1939, traverses Jamaica Bay to connect the Rockaway Peninsula to Broad Channel and the rest of Queens. [198] Constructed in 1937, the Marine Parkway–Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge links Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn's longest thoroughfare, with Jacob Riis Park and the western end of the Peninsula. [199] Both crossings were built and continue to be operated by what is now known as MTA Bridges and Tunnels. The IND Rockaway Line parallels the Cross Bay, has a mid-bay station at Broad Channel which is just a short walk from the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, now part of Gateway National Recreation Area and a major stop on the Atlantic Flyway.

Notable people

Many public figures have grown up or lived in Queens. [200] Donald Trump, a businessman who became the 45th President of the United States, was born in Jamaica Hospital Medical Center and raised at 81-15 Wareham Place in Jamaica Estates, later moving to Midland Parkway. [201] [202] [203] He was preceded in the White House by former First Lady Nancy Reagan, who lived in Flushing as a child. [204] Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President, lived at Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay from the mid-1880s until he died; [205] the area was considered part of Queens until the formation of neighboring Nassau County in 1899.

Musicians raised in the borough include Nas, LL Cool J, N.O.R.E, Nicki Minaj, [206] 50 Cent, the Ramones, Nina Sky, A Tribe Called Quest, Ace Frehley of KISS, Mobb Deep, Onyx, Ja Rule, Lloyd Banks, Tony Yayo, Run–D.M.C., Pepa of Salt-N-Pepa, [207] Lil Tecca, Rich The Kid, Action Bronson, Nadia Ali, [208] and Tony Bennett. [209] Jazz greats Louis Armstrong and Norman Mapp both resided in Corona, as well as folk rock duo Simon & Garfunkel [210] and guitarists Scott Ian and Johnny Ramone. [211] K-pop rapper Mark Lee from the boy group NCT grew up in Queens before moving to Canada. Madonna, from 1979 to 1980, lived in Corona as a member of the band Breakfast Club. [212] Actors and actresses such as Adrien Brody, [213] Zoe Saldaña, Lucy Liu, [214] John Leguizamo, Susan Sarandon, and Idina Menzel [215] were born or raised in Queens. Actress Mae West also lived in Queens. [216] Writers from Queens include John Guare ( The House of Blue Leaves ) and Laura Z. Hobson ( Gentleman's Agreement ). Mafia boss John Gotti lived in Queens for many years. [217] Richard Feynman, a scientist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, was born in Queens and grew up in Far Rockaway. [218] Lee "Q" O'Denat, founder of WorldStarHipHop was from Hollis.

Queens has also been home to athletes such as professional basketball player Rafer Alston [219] Basketball players Kareem Abdul-Jabbar [lower-alpha 2] [220] and Metta World Peace [lower-alpha 3] [221] were both born in Queens, as were Olympic athletes Bob Beamon [222] and Dalilah Muhammad. [223] Tennis star John McEnroe [224] was born in Douglaston. Hall of Fame baseball pitcher Whitey Ford grew up in Astoria. [225] Journalist Marie Colvin was a native of Queens.

Queens has also served as a setting for various fictional characters, including Peter Parker / Spider-Man from Marvel Comics. He grew up in Forest Hills with his Aunt May and Uncle Ben, [226] and Archie Bunker of All in the Family , who lived at the fictional 704 Hauser Street in Astoria. [227]

The Cemetery Belt

Several large cemeteries in Queens – St. Michaels, Luthern, Calvary, Cypress Hill, Mt. Olivet and Mt. Zion – together with several in Brooklyn are collectively known as The Cemetery Belt. There are about five million burials in the borough and Calvary, with about 3 million burials, [228] has the largest number of interments of any cemetery in the United States.[ citation needed ]

See also

Notes

  1. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  2. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar was born Lew Alcindor ( Ferdinand Lewis Alcindor, Jr.).
  3. Born Ron Artest.

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    2. Manhattan: Washington Heights, James Gordon Bennett Park at West 183rd Street & Fort Washington Avenue: 265.05 feet (80.8 m) (plaque).
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  19. Room, Adrian (1933–2010). Place Names of the World. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
    1. LCCN   96-38011; ISBN   0-7864-0172-9; OCLC   1023788128(all editions).
  20. Antos, Jason D. ( Jason D. Antonopoulos; born 1981) (2009). Queens. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) LCCN   2008-925020; ISBN   978-0-7385-6308-4; OCLC   1065560700(all editions).
    1. Via Google Books (preview only). p. 12.
    2. Via Google Books (preview only). p. 12.
  21. Mushabac, Jane Esther; Wigan, Angela Harman (maiden; born 1943; married to composer Mel W. Marvin) (1999) [1997]. A Short and Remarkable History of New York City (entry: "1683").{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
    1. 1st printing →. New York: City & Company (publisher). 1997. p. 19. → Note: City & Company, founded by Helene Silver in 1994, was sold in 2002 to Rizzoli International Publications. The company name, as a New York entity, has been inactive since 2009. ISBN   978-1-8854-9250-0; OCLC   37464494.
    2. LCCN   99-4688; ISBN   0-8232-1984-4; OCLC   1252727441(all editions).
  22. Lippincott, Erin Elisa (January 27, 2002). "Neighborhood Report – Kew Gardens – A Borough President's Goal: Dethroning the Queen of Queens". The New York Times . Vol. 151, no. 52011. p. 8 (section 14). Retrieved August 3, 2017. ProQuest   431958925 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest   2231393915 (online; US Newsstream) ( "permalink" . The New York Times via TimesMachine.
  23. Greenspan, Walter Perry (1945–2012). "Geographic History of Queens County" . Retrieved December 23, 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
    Greenspan, formerly a commodities analyst, was, for the last ten years of his life, active with Metro New York Genealogy. In the 1980s, he was, among other things, Presidident of the New York Chapter of the Futures Industry Association.
  24. French, John Homer (1824–1888) (1860). "Queens County". Gazeteer of the State of New York (towns in Queens County). Syracuse: R. Pearsall Smith (publisher). Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2007 via Wayback Machine.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  25. "Early Five Borough's History". Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved December 30, 2007 via Wayback Machine.
    "When Queens County was created the courts were transferred from Hempstead to Jamaica Village and a County Court was erected. When the building became too small for its purposes and the stone meeting house had been erected, the courts were held for some years in that edifice. Later a new courthouse was erected and used until the seat of justice was removed to North Hempstead."
  26. McCurdy, John Gilbert (2019). Quarters – The Accommodation of the British Army and the Coming of the American Revolution. Cornell University Press. LCCN   2019-2331 (print); LCCN   2019-4115 (ebook); ISBN   978-1-5017-3661-2 (PDF); ISBN   978-1-5017-3662-9 (ebook); ISBN   978-1-501-73660-5 (cloth); OCLC   1137756892(all editions).
    1. Via Google Books.
    2. Via Google Books.
  27. 1 2 Seyfried, Vincent Francis (1918–2012); Peterson, Jon Alvah, PhD (December 17, 2007). "Historical Essay: A Thumbnail View". Cultural Affairs (official history page of the Queens Borough President's office). Archived from the original on December 18, 2007 via Wayback Machine.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) OCLC   640142399 , 639544317.
       "From the final withdrawal of the British in November 1783, until the 1830s, Queens continued as an essentially Long Island area of farms and villages. The location of the county government in Mineola (in present-day Nassau County) underscores the island orientation of that era. The population grew hardly at all, increasing only from 5,791 in 1800 to 7,806 in 1830, suggesting that many younger sons moved away, seeking fortunes where land was not yet so fully taken up for farming."
       "Even more crucial to future development was the opening of the Queensboro Bridge in 1909. This span ended the isolation of the borough's road system at precisely the time when mass use of the automobile was getting underway in the United States."
  28. Seyfried, Vincent Francis (1987) [1983]. Peterson, Jon Alvah (ed.). A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens. New York: Department of History, Queens College, City University of New York.
    1. 1983 ed. – A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens and Its Neighborhoods: Bibliography, Chronology, and Other Aids (70 pages). OCLC   1251870218(all editions).
    2. 1987 ed. – A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens, New York City: Historical Sketches, Population Data, Chronologies, Bibliography, and Other Aids (59 pages). OCLC   18097590.
  29. Local Government Handbook. New York State Department of State, Division of Local Government Services.
    1. 5th ed. (PDF). 2008. pp. 2 (chapter 1), 37 (chapter 4), 40 (chapter 5), 59 (chapter 7). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 7, 2009 via Wayback Machine. .
    2. 6th ed. (PDF). 2009. pp. 2 (chapter 1), 38 (chapter 4), 40 (chapter 5) via New York State Library. OCLC   48479815(all editions).
    3. 6th ed. (2011 reprint) (PDF). 2011. pp. 2 (chapter 1), 37 (chapter 4), 40 (chapter 5) via New York State Library. OCLC   756917598.
    4. 7th ed. (7.0.0) (PDF). March 13, 2018. pp. 3 (chapter 1.1), 46 (chapter 5.2), 70 (chapter 7.1) via New York State Library. OCLC   1091629067.
    5. 7th ed (7.0.0) (PDF). November 16, 2018. pp. 3 (chapter 1.1), 46 (chapter 5.2), 70 (chapter 7.1). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2021. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
    "The 1777 New York State Constitution, Article XXXVI, confirmed land grants and municipal charters granted by the English Crown prior to October 14, 1775. Chapter 64 of the Laws of 1788 organized the state into towns and cities." ... "The basic composition of the counties was set in 1788 when the State Legislature divided all of the counties then existing into towns. Towns, of course, were of earlier origin, but in that year they acquired a new legal status as components of the counties."
  30. "The Queens County Court-House Question – A New Building to be Erected at Mineola" (PDF). The New York Times . Vol. 21, no. 6375. February 25, 1872. p. 4 (columns 6 & 7). Retrieved November 11, 2012. ( "permalink" . The New York Times via TimesMachine.
  31. Newsday; Amon, Rhoda (née Rhoda Sher; 1923–2008) (February 22, 1998). "Our History – Our Towns – Nassau" (series) "Mineola: First Farmers, Then Lawyers" (All eds.). p. 50 (section H). Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2012 via Wayback Machine.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) ProQuest   279117006 (hardcopy; US Newsstream).
    "That was the year when the "Old Brig" courthouse was vacated after 90 years of housing lawbreakers. The county court moved from Mineola to Long Island City."
  32. Queens Tribune, The (2004). Patchwork of Cultures: "A Queens Timeline" (Special ed.). Archived from the original on November 9, 2007. Retrieved December 23, 2007 via Wayback Machine. LCCN sn89071405 ; ISSN   1521-2122; OCLC   1097098828 , 1023128279.
    "1874 – Queens County Courthouse and seat of county government moved from Mineola (in present-day Nassau County) to Long Island City."
  33. 1 2 Newsday; Mohan, Geoffrey A. (March 29, 1998). "Long Island, Our History: Eastern Factions of Queens Win the Fight to Separate After Six Decades of Wrangling – Nassau's Difficult Birth". Melville, New York. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved December 31, 2007. North Hempstead, Oyster Bay and the rest of Hempstead were excluded from the vote.
    Access via Newspapers.com
    1. Nassau ed. . Vol. 58. March 29, 1998. pp. A14–A15, A47–A48.
    2. Suffolk ed. . Vol. 58, no. 207. March 28, 1998. pp. A16–A17, A53–A54.
  34. New York Times, The (February 9, 1874). "The New Queens County Court-House" (PDF). Vol. 23, no. 6988. p. 8 (column 7). Retrieved November 11, 2012. (hardcopy; US Newsstream); (online; US Newsstream) ( "permalink" . The New York Times via TimesMachine. ( "link" via Newspapers.com.
  35. Laws of the State of New York, Passed at the Eighty-Third Session of the Legislature. New York and Albany: Weed, Parsons & Company (printer) → Edward Thurlow Weed (1797–1882). 1860. OCLC   7747915 , 1039520875.
    1. Chapter 530. pp. 1074–1076 via Google Books (New York State Legislature).
  36. Laws of the State of New York, Passed at the One Hundred and Fourth Session of the Legislature (3 volumes). New York and Albany: Weed, Parsons & Company (printer) → Edward Thurlow Weed (1797–1882). 1881. OCLC   7747915 , 85363749.
  37. Laws of the State of New York, Passed at the One Hundred and Seventh Session of the Legislature. New York and Albany: Banks & Brothers (A. Bleecker Banks). 1884. OCLC   61190473.
  38. Laws of the State of New York, Passed at the One Hundred and Ninth Session of the Legislature. New York and Albany: Banks & Brothers (A. Bleecker Banks). 1886. OCLC   61190482.
  39. Beers, Frederick William (1839–1933), cartographer (supervisor) (1873). Atlas of Long Island, New York – From Recent and Actual Surveys and Records (192 pages, including 98 color maps, folded). New York: Beers, Comstock & Cline (publisher). Charles Hart (1824–1914) (printer). Louis E. Neuman (1835–1902) (engraver). Retrieved September 1, 2021 via New York Public Library, Digital Collections and the Library of Congress.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) LCCN   2016-430357; OCLC   994815013(all editions), 953568433 & 13964902 (microfilm).
  40. "Lloyd Harbor – A Brief History". Incorporated Village of Lloyd Harbor, Suffolk County, NY (website host). Archived from the original on April 27, 2009. Retrieved April 9, 2009 via Wayback Machine.
  41. Laws of the State of New York Passed at the One Hundred and Eighty-Seventh Session of the Legislature (convened January 8, 1964, and adjourned April 25, 1964; 2 volumes). 1964. OCLC   61226271(all editions).
    1. Vol. 2. Chapter 578. Laws of New York. 1777. p. 1606 via HathiTrust (UCLA School of Law).
  42. Laws of the State of New York, Passed at the One Hundred Twentieth Session of the Legislature. New York and Albany: Banks & Brothers (A. Bleecker Banks). 1897. OCLC   61190319.
    1. Vol. 3: Chapter 378; Section 2: "Division Into Boroughs". p. 2 via Google Books (New York State Legislature).
  43. Laws of the State of New York Passed at the One Hundred and Twenty-First Session of the Legislature (begun January 5, 1898, and ended March 31, 1898; 2 volumes). Albany: James B. Lyon (printer). 1898.
    1. Vol. 2. Chapter 588. Section 1. pp. 1336–1337 via Google Books (NYPL).
  44. "Inventing Gotham – New York City and the American Dream: Consolidation". Mapsites.net (a virtual tour of New York City constructed for and by eleventh and twelfth grade students at the Fieldston School in The Bronx). Fieldston School, Department of History. n.d. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved December 28, 2007 via Mapsites.net (Wayback Machine).
    1. Illustration & editorial: Brooklyn Daily Eagle, The (November 5, 1894). "The Lady or the Tiger?" (anti-consolidation editorial – illustration by Orrin Welch Simons; 1867–1930). Vol. 54, no. 307. p. 19. Retrieved September 8, 2021 via Newspapers.com.
    2. Document A: 1834: General Jeremiah Johnson (1766–1852)
    3. Document B: 1834: Consolidation Committee of the State legislature
    4. Document C: 1849: The New York Tribune (a Republican newspaper)
    5. Document D: Andrew Haswell Green (1820–1903)
    6. Document E: Popular joke
    7. Document F: 1894: Puck magazine
    8. Document G: 1896: Rev. Richard Salter Storrs (1821–1900)
    9. Document H: 1893: St. Clair McKelway (1905–1980), editor of the Brooklyn Eagle
    10. Document I: Consolidation League
    11. Document J: League of Loyal Citizens
    12. Document K: The New York Times, May 1, 1888
    13. Document L: 1894: Results of the Consolidation Referendum
  45. "The State Vote Canvassed – Official Announcement of the Result of the Election – Morton's Plurality 156,108 and Saxton's 127,483 – The Detailed Vote for Greater New-York" (PDF). The New York Times . Vol. 44, no. 13515. December 15, 1894. p. 9 (Section 2; column 4). Retrieved December 28, 2007. → The area included a radius of twenty miles (32 km), with the New York City Hall as a center to circumscribe it. Alternative access → "permalink" . The New York Times via TimesMachine.
  46. Sullivan, James; Williams, Melvin E.; Conklin, Edwin P.; Fitzpatrick, Benedict, eds. (1927). "Chapter IV. Growth and Achievement.". History of New York State, 1523–1927 (PDF). Vol. 1. New York City, Chicago: Lewis Historical Publishing Co. p.  342. hdl:2027/miua.1262471.0001.001. Wikidata   Q114149635.
  47. NYG&B Newsletter; Macy, Harry Jr. (Winter 1998) [ Updated June 2011 ]. Before the Five-Borough City: Queens. New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. p. 6. Archived from the original on July 3, 2009. Retrieved May 9, 2009 via bklyn-genealogy-info.com.
    This map shows the boundaries of the former towns and the former city within the present Borough of Queens.
  48. "Of Interest to Politicians" . The New York Times . Vol. 63, no. 13435. September 13, 1894. p. 9 (column 6). Retrieved January 28, 2008 via TimesMachine. ( permalink ).
       "The question of the Greater New-York, which is also to be submitted to the people at this coming election, involves the proposition to unite in one city the following cities, counties, and towns: New York City, Long Island City, in Queens County; the County of Kings, (Brooklyn;) the County of Richmond, (S.I.;) the towns of Flushing, Newtown, Jamaica, in Queens County; the town of Westchester, in Westchester County, and all that portion of the towns of East Chester and Pelham which lies south of a straight line drawn from a point where the northerly line of the City of New-York meets the centre line of the Bronx River, to the middle of the channel between Hunter's and Glen Islands, in Long Island Sound, and that part of the town of Hempstead, in Queens County, which is westerly of a straight line drawn from the south-easterly point of the town of Flushing in a straight line to the Atlantic Ocean."
  49. "Vote for Greater New-York – Commissioners Offer Arguments for a Mighty City" . The New York Times . Vol. 44, no. 13463. October 16, 1894. p. 9 (column 3). Retrieved December 28, 2007. ( "permalink" . The New York Times via TimesMachine.
  50. "New-York's Place in Danger – Consolidation Defeated, She Must Yield to Chicago" . The New York Times . Vol. 64, no. 13479. November 4, 1894. p. 2 (columns 2 & 3). Retrieved December 28, 2007 via TimesMachine. ( permalink ).
  51. "Greater New-York in Doubt – The City Vote Is for It and Brooklyn Is Uncertain" . The New York Times . Vol. 64, no. 13483. November 8, 1894. p. 1 (column 3). Retrieved December 28, 2007 via TimesMachine. ( permalink ) ( also accessible via Newspapers.com .).
    "The increase in area and population that New-York will acquire if consolidation becomes a fact will become evident by a glance at the following table ... "

    Area
    in
    square
    miles
    Pop-
    ulation
    38.851,801,739
    66.39992,364
    57.1953,452
    20.2418,182
    Queens County:
       Flushing
    29.6519,803
     *Part of the town of Hempstead
    17.8617,756
       Jamaica
    33.5014,441
    7.1430,506
       Newtown
    21.3217,549

    25.63
    ....
        Total area
    317.77  2,965,792
       *Estimated
    "The townships in Queens County that are to be included in the Greater New-York have not been heard from yet ... "
  52. "Report Favors Consolidation – An Argument Against the Claims of the Resubmissionists" . The New York Times . Vol. 45, no. 13887. February 22, 1896. p. 1. Retrieved December 28, 2007 via TimesMachine. ( permalink ).
  53. 1 2 "The East City Line Fixed – Its Base Found in the Sand of a Closed Beach Channel". The New York Times . Vol. 48, no. 15317. February 12, 1899. p. 15 (column 5). Retrieved December 28, 2007. ( "permalink" . The New York Times via TimesMachine.) ( link via Newspapers.com.
  54. "The Coming Greater City – Benefits to Long Island and Villages Under Its Control". The New York Times . Vol. 45, no. 13977. June 7, 1896. p. 16 (columns 1 & 2). Retrieved December 23, 2007. ( "permalink" . The New York Times via TimesMachine. (