1830 United States census

Last updated

1830 United States census

  1820 June 1, 1830 (1830-06-01) 1840  

Seal of the United States Marshals Service.svg
Seal of the United States Marshals Service, which administered the census
General information
CountryUnited States
Authority Office of the United States Marshal
Total population12,866,020 (Increase2.svg 33.5%)
Most populous state New York
Least populous state Delaware

The 1830 United States census, the fifth census undertaken in the United States, was conducted on June 1, 1830. The only loss of census records for 1830 involved some countywide losses in Massachusetts, Maryland, and Mississippi.


It determined the population of the 24 states to be 12,866,020, of which 2,009,043 were slaves. The center of population was about 170 miles (274 km) west of Washington, D.C. in present-day Grant County, West Virginia.

This was the first census in which a city New York recorded a population of over 200,000.

Census questions

The 1830 census asked these questions: [1]

Data availability

No microdata from the 1830 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

State rankings

01New York1,918,608
03Virginia [2] 1,220,978
05North Carolina737,987
09South Carolina581,185
14New Jersey320,823
18New Hampshire269,328
XWest Virginia [3] 176,924
23Rhode Island97,199
XDistrict of Columbia [4] 30,261

Apportionment Populations [5]

In the U.S. Constitution, Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3 states:

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. [6]

In order to correctly apportion Representatives pursuant to this Census, it was necessary for the Census to compute not only the total population of each state, but the number of free persons and slaves, and then to compute the apportionment population, or Federal number, for each state (and territory) by adding three-fifths of the slave population to the free population. (This was computed by county, so the totals for each state may be off by as many as 1.2 persons due to rounding.)

New Hampshire2693282693235269326
Rhode Island97199971851497193
New York19186081918532761918577
New Jersey3208233185692254319922
North Carolina737987492386245601639747
South Carolina581185265784315401455025
Territory of Michigan31639316073231625
Territory of Arkansas3038825812457628557
Territory of Florida34730192291550128529
District of Columbia3983433715611937389

City rankings

RankCityStatePopulation [7] Region (2016) [8]
01 New York New York 202,589 Northeast
02 Baltimore Maryland 80,620 South
03 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 80,462 Northeast
04 Boston Massachusetts 61,392 Northeast
05 New Orleans Louisiana 46,082 South
06 Charleston South Carolina 30,289 South
07 Northern Liberties Pennsylvania 28,872 Northeast
08 Cincinnati Ohio 24,831 Midwest
09 Albany New York 24,209 Northeast
10 Southwark Pennsylvania 20,581 Northeast
11 Washington District of Columbia 18,826 South
12 Providence Rhode Island 16,833 Northeast
13 Richmond Virginia 16,060 South
14 Salem Massachusetts 13,895 Northeast
15 Kensington Pennsylvania 13,394 Northeast
16 Portland Maine 12,598 Northeast
17 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 12,568 Northeast
18 Brooklyn New York 12,406 Northeast
19 Troy New York 11,556 Northeast
20 Spring Garden Pennsylvania 11,140 Northeast
21 Newark New Jersey 10,953 Northeast
22 Louisville Kentucky 10,341 South
23 New Haven Connecticut 10,180 Northeast
24 Norfolk Virginia 9,814 South
25 Rochester New York 9,207 Northeast
26 Charlestown Massachusetts 8,783 Northeast
27 Buffalo New York 8,668 Northeast
28 Georgetown District of Columbia 8,441 South
29 Utica New York 8,323 Northeast
30 Petersburg Virginia 8,322 South
31 Alexandria District of Columbia 8,241 South
32 Portsmouth New Hampshire 8,026 Northeast
33 Newport Rhode Island 8,010 Northeast
34 Lancaster Pennsylvania 7,704 Northeast
35 New Bedford Massachusetts 7,592 Northeast
36 Gloucester Massachusetts 7,510 Northeast
37 Savannah Georgia 7,303 South
38 Nantucket Massachusetts 7,202 Northeast
39 Hartford Connecticut 7,074 Northeast
40 Smithfield Rhode Island 6,857 Northeast
41 Moyamensing Pennsylvania 6,822 Northeast
42 Springfield Massachusetts 6,784 Northeast
43 Augusta Georgia 6,710 South
44 Wilmington Delaware 6,628 South
45 Lowell Massachusetts 6,474 Northeast
46 Newburyport Massachusetts 6,375 Northeast
47 Lynn Massachusetts 6,138 Northeast
48 Cambridge Massachusetts 6,072 Northeast
49 Taunton Massachusetts 6,042 Northeast
50 Lexington Kentucky 6,026 South
51 Reading Pennsylvania 5,856 Northeast
52 Nashville Tennessee 5,566 South
53 Warwick Rhode Island 5,529 Northeast
54 Dover New Hampshire 5,449 Northeast
55 Hudson New York 5,392 Northeast
56 Roxbury Massachusetts 5,247 Northeast
57 Marblehead Massachusetts 5,149 Northeast
58 Middletown New Jersey 5,128 Northeast
59 Middleborough Massachusetts 5,008 Northeast
60 St. Louis Missouri 4,977 Midwest
61 Groton Connecticut 4,805 Northeast
62 Plymouth Massachusetts 4,758 Northeast
63 Lynchburg Virginia 4,630 South
64 Andover Massachusetts 4,530 Northeast
65 Auburn New York 4,486 Northeast
66 Frederick Maryland 4,427 South
67 New London Connecticut 4,335 Northeast
68 Harrisburg Pennsylvania 4,312 Northeast
69 Danbury Connecticut 4,311 Northeast
70 Schenectady New York 4,268 Northeast
71 Evesham New Jersey 4,239 Northeast
72 Danvers Massachusetts 4,228 Northeast
73 York Pennsylvania 4,216 Northeast
74 Worcester Massachusetts 4,173 Northeast
75 Fall River Massachusetts 4,158 Northeast
76 Dorchester Massachusetts 4,074 Northeast
77 Beverly Massachusetts 4,073 Northeast
78 Norwalk Connecticut 3,972 Northeast
79 Woodbridge New Jersey 3,969 Northeast
80 Trenton New Jersey 3,925 Northeast
81 Haverhill Massachusetts 3,896 Northeast
82 Orange New Jersey 3,887 Northeast
83 Coventry Rhode Island 3,851 Northeast
84 Gilmanton New Hampshire 3,816 Northeast
85 Greenwich Connecticut 3,801 Northeast
86 New Bern North Carolina 3,796 South
87 Wilmington North Carolina 3,791 South
88 South Amboy New Jersey 3,782 Northeast
89 Concord New Hampshire 3,720 Northeast
90 Carlisle Pennsylvania 3,707 Northeast
91 Cumberland Rhode Island 3,675 Northeast
92 South Kingstown Rhode Island 3,663 Northeast
93 Pittsfield Massachusetts 3,559 Northeast
94 Easton Pennsylvania 3,529 Northeast
95 Burlington Vermont 3,526 Northeast
96 North Providence Rhode Island 3,503 Northeast
97 Elizabeth New Jersey 3,455 Northeast
98 Saddle Brook New Jersey 3,399 Northeast
99 Hagerstown Maryland 3,371 South
100 Franklin, Somerset County New Jersey 3,352 Northeast

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  1. "Library Bibliography Bulletin 88, New York State Census Records, 1790–1925". New York State Library. October 1981. pp. 43 (p.49 of PDF).
  2. Total Virginia population represented here, including future state of West Virginia.
  3. Between 1790 and 1860, the state of West Virginia was part of Virginia; the data presented here reflects the present-day boundary.
  4. The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790. The territory that formed that federal capital was originally donated by both Maryland and Virginia; however, the Virginia portion was returned by Congress in 1846.
  5. U.S. Census Bureau. "1830 Census: Abstract of the returns of the Fifth Census".
  6. "The Constitution of the United States: A Transcription". National Archives and Records Administration. November 4, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
  7. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  8. "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.

Further reading