United States census

Last updated

United States census
Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
FrequencyDecennial
Location(s)4600 Silver Hill Rd.
Suitland, Maryland 20746
CountryUnited States
InauguratedAugust 2, 1790;231 years ago (1790-08-02)
Most recentApril 1, 2020;16 months ago (2020-04-01)
Next eventApril 1, 2030;8 years' time (2030-04-01)
Website census.gov

The United States census (plural censuses or census) is a census that is legally mandated by the US Constitution, and takes place every 10 years. The first census after the American Revolution was taken in 1790, under Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson; there have been 23 federal censuses since that time. [1]

Contents

The most recent national census took place in 2020; the next census is scheduled for 2030. Since 2013, the Census Bureau began discussions on using technology to aid data collection starting with the 2020 census. [2] In 2020, every household received an invitation to complete the census over the Internet, by phone or by paper questionnaire. [3] [4] For years between the decennial censuses, the Census Bureau issues estimates made using surveys and statistical models, in particular, the Population Estimates Program and American Community Survey.

The United States census is a population census, which is distinct from the U.S. Census of Agriculture, which is no longer the responsibility of the Census Bureau. It is also distinct from local censuses conducted by some states or local jurisdictions.

The U.S. census is mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... according to their respective Numbers... . The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years". [lower-alpha 1] [1] Section 2 of the 14th Amendment amended Article I, Section 2 to include that the "respective Numbers" of the "several States" will be determined by "counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed.” The United States Census Bureau (officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title 13 U.S.C. § 11) is responsible for the United States census. The Bureau of the Census is part of the United States Department of Commerce.

Title 13 of the United States Code governs how the census is conducted and how its data are handled. Information is confidential as per 13 U.S.C.   § 9. The census law, coupled with the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 (Title 18 of the United States Code, Sections 3551, 3559, and 3571), provides for penalties of up to $5,000 for not responding or for willfully providing false answers to any question.

Procedure

A woman with a Hollerith pantograph punch, the keyboard is for the 1940 U.S. census population card Card puncher - NARA - 513295.jpg
A woman with a Hollerith pantograph punch, the keyboard is for the 1940 U.S. census population card
This 1940 Census publicity photo shows a census worker in Fairbanks, Alaska. The dog musher remains out of earshot to maintain confidentiality. 1940 Census - Fairbanks, Alaska.jpg
This 1940 Census publicity photo shows a census worker in Fairbanks, Alaska. The dog musher remains out of earshot to maintain confidentiality.
Census outreach flyers hang at Sure We Can - redemption center in Bushwick, Brooklyn - 2020 Flyers encouraging filling out the census hang at Sure We Can - Brooklyn, NY - 2020.jpg
Census outreach flyers hang at Sure We Can - redemption center in Bushwick, Brooklyn - 2020

Decennial U.S. census figures are based on actual counts of persons dwelling in U.S. residential structures. They include citizens, non-citizen legal residents, non-citizen long-term visitors and undocumented immigrants. The Census Bureau bases its decision about whom to count on the concept of usual residence. Usual residence, a principle established by the Census Act of 1790, is defined as the place a person lives and sleeps most of the time. The Census Bureau uses special procedures to ensure that those without conventional housing are counted; however, data from these operations are not considered to be as accurate as data obtained from traditional procedures. [5]

In instances where the bureau is unsure of the number of residents at an address after a field visit, its population characteristics are inferred from its nearest similar neighbor (hot-deck imputation). This practice has effects across many areas, but is seen by some as controversial. [6] However, the practice was ruled constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in Utah v. Evans .

Certain American citizens living overseas are specifically excluded from being counted in the census even though they may vote. Only Americans living abroad who are “federal employees (military and civilian) and their dependents living overseas with them” are counted. “Private U.S. citizens living abroad who are not affiliated with the federal government (either as employees or their dependents) will not be included in the overseas counts. These overseas counts are used solely for reapportioning seats in the U.S. House of Representatives”. [7]

According to the Census Bureau, “Census Day” has been April 1 since 1930. Previously, from 1790 to 1820, the census counted the population as of the first Monday in August. It moved to June in 1830, (June 2 in 1890), April 15 in 1910, and January 1 in 1920. [8]

Because people are born, die, and move during the year, the census counts people where they were or expect to be living on this specific reference date in an attempt to get a coherent snapshot and avoid double counting. The actual census-taking begins before this date and extends for months thereafter. In 2020, the earliest responses were collected starting January 21 in remote parts of Alaska, and March 12 for most Americans. [9]

Applications

In addition to its primary purpose of reapportioning the House of Representatives, census data are used for a wide variety of applications, including:

Controversy

California Governor Gavin Newsom encouraging people to complete the 2020 United States census.

The Census has historically and up to the present been controversial due to its role in reapportioning political representation. [10] In the 1850s, census planners suppressed information about slavery due to pressure from Southern lawmakers. [10] The results of the 1920 census were ignored and no reapportionment took place, as rural lawmakers feared losing power to urban areas. [10] In the 1940s, census officials were involved in organizing Japanese-American internment. [10]

The Census is controversial; up to one-third of all U.S. residents do not respond to repeated reminders. However, in recent censuses, the nonresponse rate has been less than 1% (it was about 0.4% in 2010). But many experts believe the nonresponse rate could reach double digits in 2020. [11]

The Census Bureau estimates that in 1970 over six percent of African Americans went uncounted, whereas only around two percent of European Americans [12] went uncounted. Democrats often argue that modern sampling techniques should be used so that more accurate and complete data can be inferred. Republicans often argue against such sampling techniques, stating the U.S. Constitution requires an “actual enumeration” for apportionment of House seats, and that political appointees would be tempted to manipulate the sampling formulas. [13]

Groups like the Prison Policy Initiative assert that the census practice of counting prisoners as residents of prisons, not their pre-incarceration addresses, leads to misleading information about racial demographics and population numbers. [14]

The 2020 United Census drew a number of controversies and legal challenges under the Trump administration due to President Donald Trump's policies towards illegal immigration, particularly those undocumented in the country. Prior to the publication of the census, the Commerce Department stated its intention to add a question asking responders about their immigration status, which many states and activists stated would cause illegal immigrants to not respond to the Census out of fear of prosecution and lead to undercounting, affecting state representation and federal funding. [15] [16] The Supreme Court case Department of Commerce v. New York , decided in June 2019, found the rationale to add the question was arbitrary and capricious and required the department to provide a better reasoning before they could include the question on the Census. The department ultimately dropped the question by the time of the publication of the Census forms. [17] Following the decision, Trump issued an executive order directing the department to obtain citizenship data from other federal agencies rather than via the census. [18] On July 21, 2020, Trump signed a presidential memorandum ordering the exclusion of illegal immigrants from the numbers in the 2020 census that are used to apportion seats in the House of Representatives. [19]

The COVID-19 pandemic made the collection of the Census results difficult, and the department had extended the deadline to complete collection to October 31, 2020, instead of July 31, 2020. However, on August 3, 2020, the department announced its Replan Schedule that would end collection early on September 30, 2020, aware this would leave them with incomplete data that they would have to estimate total numbers to complete. This move was again challenged in the courts. While lower courts had ruled for an injunction against the department from implementing the Replan Schedule, the Supreme Court issued a stay of the injunction in October 2020, allowing the Census to be ended early. [20]

Around the same time, Trump issued a memo to the Commerce Department on July 21, 2020, instructing them that on reporting the results of the Census, to use estimates of undocumented immigrants and subtract their numbers from the totals, claiming that he had the authority to make this determination on a Constitutional and past legal basis. [11] Several legal challenges were filed, and a combined suit from 22 states and several non-governmental organizations were found against Trump, ruling that only Congress has the authority to interpret the manner of which people the Census includes. Trump petitioned to the Supreme Court which has certified the case Trump v. New York for an expedited hearing in November, given the results of the Census are required to be delivered to Congress by December 31, 2020. [21]

History

Censuses had been taken prior to the Constitution's ratification; in the early 17th century, a census was taken in Virginia, and people were counted in almost all of the British colonies that became the United States.

Throughout the years, the country's needs and interests became more complicated. This meant that statistics were needed to help people understand what was happening and have a basis for planning. The content of the decennial census changed accordingly. In 1810, the first inquiry on manufactures, quantity and value of products occurred; in 1840, inquiries on fisheries were added; and in 1850, the census included inquiries on social issues, such as taxation, churches, pauperism, and crime. The censuses also spread geographically, to new states and territories added to the Union, as well as to other areas under U.S. sovereignty or jurisdiction. There were so many more inquiries of all kinds in the census of 1880 that almost a full decade was needed to publish all the results. In response to this, the census was mechanized in 1890, with tabulating machines made by Herman Hollerith. This reduced the processing time to two and a half years. [22]

For the first six censuses (1790–1840), enumerators recorded only the names of the heads of household and a general demographic accounting of the remaining members of the household. Beginning in 1850, all members of the household were named on the census. The first slave schedules were also completed in 1850, with the second (and last) in 1860. Censuses of the late 19th century also included agricultural and industrial schedules to gauge the productivity of the nation's economy. Mortality schedules (taken between 1850 and 1880) captured a snapshot of life spans and causes of death throughout the country.

The first nine censuses (1790–1870) were conducted by U.S. marshals before the Census Bureau was created. [23] Appointed U.S. marshals of each judicial district hired assistant marshals to conduct the actual enumeration. The census enumerators were typically from the village or neighbourhood and often knew the residents. Before enabling self-identification on the censuses, the U.S. Census Bureau relied on local people to have some knowledge of residents. Racial classification was made by the census enumerator in these decades, rather than by the individual.

YearTotal populationChange in populationMost populated stateMost populated cityEthnic demographics counted [24] SlavesNotes
1790 [lower-alpha 2] 3,929,326 [lower-alpha 3] Seal of Virginia (1714).png Virginia
(747,610)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(33,131)
Free white females and males, other free persons, slaves 694,280Original numbers were corrected later.
1800 [lower-alpha 4] 5,308,483 [lower-alpha 5] Increase2.svg 35% Seal of Virginia (1714).png Virginia [lower-alpha 6]
(676,682)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(60,515)
Free white females and males, other free persons, slaves893,605 [lower-alpha 7] Original numbers were corrected later.
1810 [lower-alpha 8] 7,239,881Increase2.svg 36% Seal of New York.svg New York
(959,049)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(96,373)
Free white females and males, other free persons, slaves1,191,362The authorizing act of the third census stipulated that each marshal (enumerator) must personally visit each household, rather than rely on hearsay.
1820 [lower-alpha 9] 9,638,453Increase2.svg 33% Seal of New York.svg New York
(1,372,812)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(123,706)
Free white females and males, other free persons, free people of color, slaves1,538,022
1830 [lower-alpha 10] 12,866,020Increase2.svg 33% Seal of New York.svg New York
(1,918,608)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(202,589)
Free white females and males, other free persons, free people of color, slaves2,009,043
1840 [lower-alpha 11] 17,069,453Increase2.svg 33% Seal of New York.svg New York
(2,428,921)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(312,710)
Free white females and males, other free persons, free people of color, slaves2,487,355The census estimated the population of the United States at 17,100,000. The results were tabulated by 28 clerks in the Bureau of the Census.
1850 [lower-alpha 12] 23,191,876Increase2.svg 36% Seal of New York.svg New York
(3,097,394)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(515,547)
Black, Mulatto, White3,204,313The 1850 census was a landmark year in American census-taking. It was the first year in which the census bureau attempted to record every member of every household, including women, children and slaves. Accordingly, the first slave schedules were produced in 1850. Prior to 1850, census records had only recorded the name of the head of the household and tabulated the other household members within given age groups.
1860 [lower-alpha 13] 31,443,321Increase2.svg 35% Seal of New York.svg New York
(3,880,735)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(813,669)
Indian, Chinese, Black, Mulatto, White3,953,761The results were tabulated by 184 clerks in the Bureau of the Census. This was the first census where American indigenous people officially were counted, but only those who had 'renounced tribal rules'. The figure for the nation was 40,000.
1870 [lower-alpha 14] 39,818,449 [lower-alpha 15] Increase2.svg 23% Seal of New York.svg New York
(4,382,759)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(942,292)
Indian, Chinese, Black, Mulatto, White
The first census to provide detailed information on the black population, only years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. The results are controversial, as many believed it underestimated the true population numbers, especially in New York and Pennsylvania.
1880 [lower-alpha 16] 50,189,209Increase2.svg 30% Seal of New York.svg New York
(5,082,871)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(1,206,299)
Indian, Chinese, Black, Mulatto, WhiteThe first census that permitted women to be enumerators. Also led to the discovery of Alabama paradox.
1890 [lower-alpha 17] [n 1] 62,947,714Increase2.svg 25% Seal of New York.svg New York
(6,003,174)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(1,515,301)
Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octaroon, WhiteBecause it was believed that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, the tracking of westward migration was not tabulated in the 1890 census. [25] This trend prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his milestone Frontier Thesis.

The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using the new tabulating machines invented by Herman Hollerith. The net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census (the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, and the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators) was to reduce the time required to fully process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. [26] The total population, of 62,947,714, was announced after only six weeks of processing (punched cards were not used for this family, or rough, count). [27] [28] The public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was widely believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. [29]
This census is also notable for the fact it is one of only three for which the original data are no longer available. Almost all the population schedules were destroyed following a fire in 1921.

1900 [lower-alpha 18] 76,212,168Increase2.svg 21% Seal of New York.svg New York
(7,268,894)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(3,437,202)
Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Black (Negro or of Negro descent), White
1910 [lower-alpha 19] 92,228,496Increase2.svg 21% Seal of New York.svg New York
(9,113,614)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(4,766,883)
Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Black (Negro), Mulatto, White, other
1920 [lower-alpha 20] 106,021,537Increase2.svg 15% Seal of New York.svg New York
(10,385,227)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(5,620,048)
Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Hindu, Japanese, Korean, Black (Negro), Mulatto, White, otherThis was the first census that recorded a population exceeding 100 million.
1930 [lower-alpha 21] [n 2] 122,775,046Increase2.svg 13% Seal of New York.svg New York
(12,588,066)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(6,930,446)
Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Hindu, Japanese, Korean, Negro, Mexican, White, other
1940 [lower-alpha 22] 132,164,569Increase2.svg 7% Seal of New York.svg New York
(13,479,142)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(7,454,995)
Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Hindu, Japanese, Korean, Negro, White, otherThe most recent census where individuals' data have now been released to the public (by the 72-year rule).
1950 [lower-alpha 23] 150,697,361Increase2.svg 14% Seal of New York.svg New York
(14,830,192)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(7,891,957)
American Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Negro, White, otherWill be available for public inspection on April 1, 2022.
1960 [lower-alpha 24] 179,323,175Increase2.svg 19% Seal of New York.svg New York
(16,827,000)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(7,781,984)
Aleut, American Indian,Eskimo, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Negro, Hawaiian, part-Hawaiian, WhiteWill be available for public inspection on April 1, 2032.
1970 [lower-alpha 25] 203,302,031Increase2.svg 13% Seal of California.svg California
(19,953,134)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(7,894,862)
American Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Negro or Black, Hispanic origin, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, Hawaiian, White, otherThe first census that recorded a population exceeding 200 million. Will be available for public inspection on April 1, 2042.
1980 [lower-alpha 26] 226,545,805Increase2.svg 11% Seal of California.svg California
(23,667,902)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(7,071,639)
Aleut, Eskimo, American Indian, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Black or Negro, Hispanic origin, Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, Puerto Rican, Cuban, other Hispanic, Hawaiian, Guamanian, Samoan, White, otherWill be available for public inspection on April 1, 2052.
1990 [lower-alpha 27] 248,709,873Increase2.svg 10% Seal of California.svg California
(29,760,021)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(7,322,564)
Aleut, Eskimo, American Indian, Asian or Pacific Islander, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese, Asian Indian, other API, Black or Negro, Hispanic origin, Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, Puerto Rican, Cuban, other Hispanic, Hawaiian, Guamanian, Samoan, White, other raceWill be available for public inspection on April 1, 2062.
2000 [lower-alpha 28] 281,421,906Increase2.svg 13% Seal of California.svg California
(33,871,648)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(8,008,278)
American Indian, Alaska Native, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, other Asian, Black, African American, or Negro, Hispanic origin, Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, Puerto Rican, Cuban, other Hispanic, Hawaiian, Guamanian or Chamorro, Samoan, other Pacific Islander, White, other raceWill be available for public inspection on April 1, 2072.
2010 [lower-alpha 29] 308,745,538Increase2.svg 10% Seal of California.svg California
(37,253,956)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(8,175,133)
American Indian, Alaska Native, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, other Asian, Black, African American, or Negro, Hispanic origin, Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, Puerto Rican, Cuban, other Hispanic, Hawaiian, Guamanian or Chamorro, Samoan, other Pacific Islander, White, other raceThe first short-form-only census since 1940, as the decennial long form has been replaced by the American Community Survey. The first census that recorded a population exceeding 300 million. Will be available for public inspection on April 1, 2082.
2020 [lower-alpha 30] 331,449,281Increase2.svg 7% Seal of California.svg California
(39,538,223)
Seal of New York City BW.svg New York, NY
(8,804,190)
The first U.S. census to offer options to respond online or by phone, in addition to the option to respond on a paper form as with previous censuses. Will be available for public inspection on April 1, 2092.
  1. Taken one day late because June 1 was a Sunday.
  2. In the Alaska Territory, census-taking began on October 1, 1929.
Census regional marketing logo in Minnesota. Census2010LogoMN.png
Census regional marketing logo in Minnesota.

Respondent confidentiality

One purpose of the census is to divide the house seats by population. Furthermore, as with any Census Bureau survey, the data provides a beginning for the allocation of resources. In addition, collected data are used in aggregate for statistical purposes. [30] Replies are obtained from individuals and establishments only to enable the compilation of such general statistics. The confidentiality of these replies is very important. By law, no one—neither the census takers nor any other Census Bureau employee—is permitted to reveal identifiable information about any person, household, or business.

By law (Pub.L.   95–416 , 92  Stat.   915 , enacted October 5, 1978), individual decennial census records are sealed for 72 years, [31] a number chosen in 1952 [32] as slightly higher than the average female life expectancy, 71.6. [33] The individual census data most recently released to the public is the 1940 census, released on April 2, 2012. Aggregate census data are released when available.

Historical FBI use of data

Under the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), using primarily census records, compiled (1939–1941) the Custodial Detention Index ("CDI") on citizens, enemy aliens, and foreign nationals, who might be dangerous. The Second War Powers Act of 1941 repealed the legal protection of confidential census data, which was not restored until 1947. This information facilitated the internment of Japanese-Americans, following the Japanese attack on the U.S. at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and the internment of Italian- and German-Americans following the United States' entry into World War II. [34] [35]

In 1980, four FBI agents went to the Census Bureau's Colorado Springs office with warrants to seize census documents, but were forced to leave with nothing. Courts upheld that no agency, including the FBI, has access to census data. [36]

Data analysis

The census records data specific to individual respondents are not available to the public until 72 years after a given census was taken, but aggregate statistical data derived from the census are released as soon as they are available. Every census up to and including 1940 is currently available to the public and can be viewed on microfilm released by the National Archives and Records Administration, the official keeper of archived federal census records. Complete online census records can be accessed for no cost from National Archives facilities and many libraries, [37] and a growing portion of the census is freely available from non-commercial online sources. [38] [39] [40]

Census microdata for research purposes are available for all censuses from 1790 forward except for 1890 through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS), and scanned copies of each of the decennial census questionnaires are available online from many websites. Computerized aggregate data describing the characteristics of small geographic areas for the entire period from 1790 to 2010 are available from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

Regions and divisions

US Census Bureau Population Regions US Census geographical region map.png
US Census Bureau Population Regions

The bureau recognizes four census regions within the United States and further organizes them into nine divisions. These regions are groupings of states that subdivide the United States for the presentation of data. They should not be construed as necessarily being thus grouped owing to any geographical, historical, or cultural bonds.

U.S. census Regions
Region 1: Northeast Region 2: Midwest Region 3: South Region 4: West

See also

Notes

  1. Constitution of the United States
  2. August 2, 1790
  3. The number originally published in 1790 was 3,893,635.
  4. August 4, 1800
  5. The numbers originally published in 1800 was 5,172,312.
  6. At the time of the 1800 Census, the territory donated to form the District of Columbia was still being administered by the states of Maryland and Virginia. The state of Maryland included the population of the District under its control within its own return. The population of the District of Columbia within Maryland was 8,144 persons, including 5,672 whites, 400 free blacks, and 2,472 enslaved persons.
  7. The number originally published in 1800 was 875,626.
  8. August 6, 1810
  9. August 7, 1820
  10. June 1, 1830
  11. June 1, 1840
  12. June 1, 1850
  13. June 1, 1860
  14. June 1, 1870
  15. The number originally published in 1870 was 38,555,983.
  16. June 1, 1880
  17. June 2, 1890
  18. June 1, 1900
  19. April 15, 1910
  20. January 1, 1920
  21. April 1, 1930
  22. April 1, 1940
  23. April 1, 1950
  24. April 1, 1960
  25. April 1, 1970
  26. April 1, 1980
  27. April 1, 1990
  28. April 1, 2000
  29. April 1, 2010
  30. April 1, 2020

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The United States census of 1870 was the ninth United States census. It was conducted by the Census Bureau from June 1, 1870 to August 23, 1871. The 1870 census was the first census to provide detailed information on the African-American population, only five years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. The total population was 38,925,598 with a resident population of 38,558,371 individuals, a 22.6% increase from 1860. The 1870 census' population estimate was controversial, as many believed it underestimated the true population numbers, especially in New York and Pennsylvania.

1900 United States census National census

The United States census of 1900, conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1900, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21.01% from the 62,979,766 persons enumerated during the 1890 census.

1920 United States census National census

The United States census of 1920, conducted by the Census Bureau during one month from January 5, 1920, determined the resident population of the United States to be 106,021,537, an increase of 15.0 percent over the 92,228,496 persons enumerated during the 1910 census.

1930 United States census National census

The United States census of 1930, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 census.

1940 United States census National census

The United States census of 1940, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 122,775,046 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, and information about wages. This census introduced sampling techniques; one in 20 people were asked additional questions on the census form. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939. This was the first census in which every state (48) had a population greater than 100,000.

1950 United States census National census

The United States census of 1950, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 150,697,361, an increase of 14.5 percent over the 131,669,275 persons enumerated during the 1940 census. This was the first census in which:

2020 United States census 24th national census of the United States, taken on April 1, 2020

The United States census of 2020 was the twenty-fourth decennial United States Census. Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2020. Other than a pilot study during the 2000 census, this was the first US census to offer options to respond online or by phone, in addition to the option to respond on a paper form as with previous censuses. The census recorded a resident population of 331,449,281, an increase of 7.4%, or 22,703,743, over the preceding decade. The growth rate was the second-lowest ever recorded, and the net increase was the sixth highest in history. This is also the first census where each of the top 10 most populous states recorded a population of over 10 million people.

Department of Commerce v. New York, No. 18–966, 588 U.S. ___ (2019), was a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States dealing with the 2020 United States Census. The case revolved around the decision of the United States Census Bureau under the Trump administration to include a question asking whether respondents are United States citizens or not on the standard census questionnaire sent to all households. Such a question had been purposely omitted from this "short form" since the 1950 Census as officials and sociologists widely fear it would reduce participation in the census. It has been used on the "long form" American Community Survey sent to a subset of households and used for statistical estimation.

References

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Further reading