Japanese people

Last updated

Japanese people
Total population
c.126 million
Japanese people around the world.svg
Regions with significant populations
Japan 122.0 million [1]
Significant Japanese diaspora in:
Brazil 2,000,000 [2] (2022)
United States 1,550,875 [3] (2020)
Canada 129,425 [4] (2021)
Philippines 120,000 [5] [6] [ better source needed ]
Peru 103,182 [7] (2021)
China 102,066 [8] (2022) note
Australia 94,942 [8] (2022) note
Mexico 86,143 [9] (2022)
Thailand 78,431 [8] (2022) note
Argentina 76,440 [10] (2020)
United Kingdom 65,022 [8] (2022) note
Germany 42,266 [8] (2022) note
South Korea 41,717 [8] (2022) note
France 36,104 [8] (2022) note
Singapore 32,743 [8] (2022) note
Malaysia 24,545 [8] (2022) note
Vietnam 21,819 [8] (2022) note
Taiwan 20,345 [8] (2022) note
Micronesia 20,000 [11] [ better source needed ] (2018)
Languages
Japanese
Religion
Primarily, in a traditional/cultural context, a mix of Shinto and Buddhism; minorities ascribe to Christianity and other religions [12] [13] [14]
Related ethnic groups
Ainu  · Ryukyuan

^ Note: For this country, only the number of residents with Japanese nationality is shown, since the number of naturalized Japanese people and their descendants is unknown.

Japanese people (Japanese: 日本人 , Hepburn: Nihonjin) are an East Asian ethnic group native to the Japanese archipelago. [15] [16] Japanese people constitute 97.6% of the population of the country of Japan. [1] Worldwide, approximately 126 million people are of Japanese descent, making them one of the largest ethnic groups. Approximately 122.0 million Japanese people are residents of Japan, [1] and there are approximately 4 million members of the Japanese diaspora, known as Nikkeijin (日系人). [17]

Contents

In some contexts, the term "Japanese people" may be used to refer specifically to the Yamato people (Yamato-minzoku) from mainland Japan; in other contexts the term may include other groups native to the Japanese archipelago, including Ryukyuan people (Ryūkyū-minzoku), who share connections with the Yamato but are often regarded as distinct, and Ainu people (Ainu-minzoku). [18] In recent decades, there has also been an increase in the number of people with both Japanese and non-Japanese roots, including half Japanese people.

History

Theories of origins

Shakoki-dogu (Zhe Guang Qi Tu Ou ) (1000-400 BC), "goggle-eyed type" figurine. Tokyo National Museum Stone statue, late Jomon period.JPG
Shakōki-dogū (遮光器土偶) (1000–400 BC), "goggle-eyed type" figurine. Tokyo National Museum

Archaeological evidence indicates that Stone Age people lived in the Japanese archipelago during the Paleolithic period between 39,000 and 21,000 years ago. [19] [20] Japan was then connected to mainland Asia by at least one land bridge, and nomadic hunter-gatherers crossed to Japan. Flint tools and bony implements of this era have been excavated in Japan. [21] [22]

In the 18th century, Arai Hakuseki suggested that the ancient stone tools in Japan were left behind by the Shukushin. Later, Philipp Franz von Siebold argued that the Ainu people were indigenous to northern Japan. [23] Iha Fuyū suggested that Japanese and Ryukyuan people have the same ethnic origin, based on his 1906 research on the Ryukyuan languages. [24] In the Taishō period, Torii Ryūzō claimed that Yamato people used Yayoi pottery and Ainu used Jōmon pottery. [23]

After World War II, Kotondo Hasebe and Hisashi Suzuki claimed that the origin of Japanese people was not newcomers in the Yayoi period (300 BCE – 300 CE) but the people in the Jōmon period. [25] However, Kazuro Hanihara announced a new racial admixture theory in 1984 [25] and a "dual structure model" in 1991. [26] According to Hanihara, modern Japanese lineages began with Jōmon people, who moved into the Japanese archipelago during Paleolithic times, followed by a second wave of immigration, from East Asia to Japan during the Yayoi period (300 BC). Following a population expansion in Neolithic times, these newcomers then found their way to the Japanese archipelago sometime during the Yayoi period. As a result, replacement of the hunter-gatherers was common in the island regions of Kyūshū, Shikoku, and southern Honshū, but did not prevail in the outlying islands of Okinawa and Hokkaidō, and the Ryukyuan and Ainu people show mixed characteristics. Mark J. Hudson claims that the main ethnic image of Japanese people was biologically and linguistically formed from 400 BCE to 1,200 CE. [25] Currently, the most well-regarded theory is that present-day Japanese people formed from both the Yayoi rice-agriculturalists and the various Jōmon period ethnicities. [27] However, some recent studies have argued that the Jōmon people had more ethnic diversity than originally suggested [28] or that the people of Japan bear significant genetic signatures from three ancient populations, rather than just two. [29] [30]

Jōmon and Yayoi periods

Some of the world's oldest known pottery pieces were developed by the Jōmon people in the Upper Paleolithic period, dating back as far as 16,000 years. The name "Jōmon" (縄文 Jōmon) means "cord-impressed pattern", and comes from the characteristic markings found on the pottery. The Jōmon people were mostly hunter-gatherers, but also practicized early agriculture, such as Azuki bean cultivation. At least one middle-to-late Jōmon site (Minami Mizote (南溝手), c.1200–1000 BC) featured a primitive rice-growing agriculture, relying primarily on fish and nuts for protein. The ethnic roots of the Jōmon period population were heterogeneous, and can be traced back to ancient Southeast Asia, the Tibetan plateau, ancient Taiwan, and Siberia. [27] [31] [32]

Beginning around 300 BC, the Yayoi people originating from Northeast Asia entered the Japanese islands and displaced or intermingled with the Jōmon. The Yayoi brought wet-rice farming and advanced bronze and iron technology to Japan. The more productive paddy field systems allowed the communities to support larger populations and spread over time, in turn becoming the basis for more advanced institutions and heralding the new civilization of the succeeding Kofun period.

The estimated population of Japan in the late Jōmon period was about eight hundred thousand, compared to about three million by the Nara period. Taking the growth rates of hunting and agricultural societies into account, it is calculated that about one-and-a-half million immigrants moved to Japan in the period. According to several studies, the Yayoi created the "Japanese-hierarchical society". [33] [34]

Consolidation and feudal periods

Colonial period

Location of Imperial Japan Location Japanese Empire.png
Location of Imperial Japan

During the Japanese colonial period of 1895 to 1945, the phrase "Japanese people" was used to refer not only to residents of the Japanese archipelago, but also to people from colonies who held Japanese citizenship, such as Taiwanese people and Korean people. The official term used to refer to ethnic Japanese during this period was "inland people" (内地人, naichijin). Such linguistic distinctions facilitated forced assimilation of colonized ethnic identities into a single Imperial Japanese identity. [35]

After the end of World War II, the Soviet Union classified many Nivkh people and Orok people from southern Sakhalin, who had been Japanese imperial subjects in Karafuto Prefecture, as Japanese people and repatriated them to Hokkaidō. On the other hand, many Sakhalin Koreans who had held Japanese citizenship until the end of the war were left stateless by the Soviet occupation. [36]

Language

The Japanese language is a Japonic language that is related to the Ryukyuan languages and was treated as a language isolate in the past. The earliest attested form of the language, Old Japanese, dates to the 8th century. Japanese phonology is characterized by a relatively small number of vowel phonemes, frequent gemination and a distinctive pitch accent system. The modern Japanese language has a tripartite writing system using hiragana, katakana and kanji. The language includes native Japanese words and a large number of words derived from the Chinese language. In Japan the adult literacy rate in the Japanese language exceeds 99%. [37] Dozens of Japanese dialects are spoken in regions of Japan. For now, Japanese is classified as a member of the Japonic languages or as a language isolate with no known living relatives if Ryukyuan is counted as dialects. [38]

Religion

A Shinto festival in Miki, Hyogo Omiya Hachiman Shrine Mikoshi.JPG
A Shinto festival in Miki, Hyogo

Japanese religion has traditionally been syncretic in nature, combining elements of Buddhism and Shinto (Shinbutsu-shūgō). [39] Shinto, a polytheistic religion with no book of religious canon, is Japan's native religion. Shinto was one of the traditional grounds for the right to the throne of the Japanese imperial family and was codified as the state religion in 1868 (State Shinto), but was abolished by the American occupation in 1945. Mahayana Buddhism came to Japan in the sixth century and evolved into many different sects. Today, the largest form of Buddhism among Japanese people is the Jōdo Shinshū sect founded by Shinran. [40]

A large majority of Japanese people profess to believe in both Shinto and Buddhism. [41] [42] [43] Japanese people's religion functions mostly as a foundation for mythology, traditions and neighborhood activities, rather than as the single source of moral guidelines for one's life.[ citation needed ]

A significant proportion of members of the Japanese diaspora practice Christianity; about 60% of Japanese Brazilians and 90% of Japanese Mexicans are Roman Catholics, [44] [45] while about 37% of Japanese Americans are Christians (33% Protestant and 4% Catholic). [46]

Literature

Bisque doll of Momotaro,
a character from Japanese literature and folklore Momotaro2.jpg
Bisque doll of Momotarō,
a character from Japanese literature and folklore

Certain genres of writing originated in and are often associated with Japanese society. These include the haiku, tanka, and I Novel, although modern writers generally avoid these writing styles. Historically, many works have sought to capture or codify traditional Japanese cultural values and aesthetics. Some of the most famous of these include Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji (1021), about Heian court culture; Miyamoto Musashi's The Book of Five Rings (1645), concerning military strategy; Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi (1691), a travelogue; and Jun'ichirō Tanizaki's essay "In Praise of Shadows" (1933), which contrasts Eastern and Western cultures.

Following the opening of Japan to the West in 1854, some works of this style were written in English by natives of Japan; they include Bushido: The Soul of Japan by Nitobe Inazō (1900), concerning samurai ethics, and The Book of Tea by Okakura Kakuzō (1906), which deals with the philosophical implications of the Japanese tea ceremony. Western observers have often attempted to evaluate Japanese society as well, to varying degrees of success; one of the most well-known and controversial works resulting from this is Ruth Benedict's The Chrysanthemum and the Sword (1946).

Twentieth-century Japanese writers recorded changes in Japanese society through their works. Some of the most notable authors included Natsume Sōseki, Jun'ichirō Tanizaki, Osamu Dazai, Fumiko Enchi, Akiko Yosano, Yukio Mishima, and Ryōtarō Shiba. Popular contemporary authors such as Ryū Murakami, Haruki Murakami, and Banana Yoshimoto have been translated into many languages and enjoy international followings, and Yasunari Kawabata and Kenzaburō Ōe were awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Arts

The print Red Fuji from Katsushika Hokusai's series, Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji [Fu Yue San Shi Liu Jing Kai Feng Kuai Qing ] -South Wind, Clear Sky (Gaifu kaisei), also known as Red Fuji, from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjurokkei) MET DP141062.jpg
The print Red Fuji from Katsushika Hokusai's series, Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji

Decorative arts in Japan date back to prehistoric times. Jōmon pottery includes examples with elaborate ornamentation. In the Yayoi period, artisans produced mirrors, spears, and ceremonial bells known as dōtaku. Later burial mounds, or kofun, preserve characteristic clay figures known as haniwa, as well as wall paintings.

Beginning in the Nara period, painting, calligraphy, and sculpture flourished under strong Confucian and Buddhist influences from China. Among the architectural achievements of this period are the Hōryū-ji and the Yakushi-ji, two Buddhist temples in Nara Prefecture. After the cessation of official relations with the Tang dynasty in the ninth century, Japanese art and architecture gradually became less influenced by China. Extravagant art and clothing were commissioned by nobles to decorate their court, and although the aristocracy was quite limited in size and power, many of these pieces are still extant. After the Tōdai-ji was attacked and burned during the Genpei War, a special office of restoration was founded, and the Tōdai-ji became an important artistic center. The leading masters of the time were Unkei and Kaikei.[ citation needed ]

Painting advanced in the Muromachi period in the form of ink wash painting under the influence of Zen Buddhism as practiced by such masters as Sesshū Tōyō. Zen Buddhist tenets were also incorporated into the tea ceremony during the Sengoku period. During the Edo period, the polychrome painting screens of the Kanō school were influential thanks to their powerful patrons (including the Tokugawa clan). Popular artists created ukiyo-e , woodblock prints for sale to commoners in the flourishing cities. Pottery such as Imari ware was highly valued as far away as Europe.

In theater, Noh is a traditional, spare dramatic form that developed in tandem with kyōgen farce. In stark contrast to the restrained refinement of noh, kabuki, an "explosion of color", uses every possible stage trick for dramatic effect. Plays include sensational events such as suicides, and many such works were performed both in kabuki and in bunraku puppet theater.[ citation needed ]

Since the Meiji Restoration, Japanese art has been influenced by many elements of Western culture. Contemporary decorative, practical, and performing arts works range from traditional forms to purely modern modes. Products of popular culture, including J-pop, J-rock, manga, and anime have found audiences around the world.

Citizenship

Article 10 of the Constitution of Japan defines the term "Japanese" based upon Japanese nationality (citizenship) alone, without regard for ethnicity. [47] The Government of Japan considers all naturalized and native-born Japanese nationals with a multi-ethnic background "Japanese", and in the national census the Japanese Statistics Bureau asks only about nationality, so there is no official census data on the variety of ethnic groups in Japan. While this has contributed to or reinforced the widespread belief that Japan is ethnically homogeneous, as shown in the claim of former Japanese Prime Minister Tarō Asō that Japan is a nation of "one race, one civilization, one language and one culture", [48] some scholars have argued that it is more accurate to describe the country of Japan as a multiethnic society. [49] [50]

Children born to international couples receive Japanese nationality when one parent is a Japanese national. However, Japanese law states that children who are dual citizens must choose one nationality before the age of 20. [51] [52] Studies estimate that 1 in 30 children born in Japan are born to interracial couples, and these children are sometimes referred to as hāfu (half Japanese). [53]

Diaspora

The Japantown Peace Plaza during the Northern California Cherry Blossom Festival Japantown SF Peace Plaza during 2010 NCCBF 2010-04-18 3.JPG
The Japantown Peace Plaza during the Northern California Cherry Blossom Festival

The term Nikkeijin (日系人) is used to refer to Japanese people who emigrated from Japan and their descendants.

Emigration from Japan was recorded as early as the 15th century to the Philippines and Borneo, [54] [55] [56] [57] and in the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of traders from Japan also migrated to the Philippines and assimilated into the local population. [58] :pp. 52–3 However, migration of Japanese people did not become a mass phenomenon until the Meiji era, when Japanese people began to go to the United States, Brazil, Canada, the Philippines, China, and Peru. There was also significant emigration to the territories of the Empire of Japan during the colonial period, but most of these emigrants and settlers repatriated to Japan after the end of World War II in Asia. [59]

According to the Association of Nikkei and Japanese Abroad, there are about 4.0 million Nikkeijin living in their adopted countries. [17] The largest of these foreign communities are in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Paraná. [60] There are also significant cohesive Japanese communities in the Philippines, [61] East Malaysia, Peru, the U.S. states of Hawaii, California, and Washington, and the Canadian cities of Vancouver and Toronto. Separately, the number of Japanese citizens living abroad is over one million according to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ainu people</span> Ethnic group in Japan and Russia

The Ainu are an ethnic group of related indigenous peoples native to northern Japan, including Hokkaido and Northeast Honshu, as well as the land surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, such as Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, the Kamchatka Peninsula, and the Khabarovsk Krai; they have occupied these areas known to them as "Ainu Mosir", since before the arrival of the modern Japanese and Russians. These regions are often referred to as Ezo (蝦夷) in historical Japanese texts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ryukyuan people</span> Japonic ethnic group native to the Ryukyu islands

The Ryukyuan people are a Ryukyuan-speaking East Asian ethnic group native to the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan. Administratively, they live in either the Okinawa Prefecture or the Kagoshima Prefecture within Japan. They speak one of the Ryukyuan languages, considered to be one of the two branches of the Japonic language family, the other being Japanese and its dialects. Hachijō is sometimes considered by linguists to constitute a third branch.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yayoi period</span> Japanese historical period from 200 BCE to 300 CE

The Yayoi period started in the late Neolithic period in Japan, continued through the Bronze Age, and towards its end crossed into the Iron Age.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Culture of Japan</span> Overview of the cultural traditions and values of Japan

The culture of Japan has changed greatly over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia and other regions of the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Japonic languages</span> Language family of Japan

Japonic or Japanese–Ryukyuan, sometimes also Japanic, is a language family comprising Japanese, spoken in the main islands of Japan, and the Ryukyuan languages, spoken in the Ryukyu Islands. The family is universally accepted by linguists, and significant progress has been made in reconstructing the proto-language, Proto-Japonic. The reconstruction implies a split between all dialects of Japanese and all Ryukyuan varieties, probably before the 7th century. The Hachijō language, spoken on the Izu Islands, is also included, but its position within the family is unclear.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yamato people</span> Ethnic group native to Japan

The Yamato people or the Wajin is a term to describe the ethnic group that comprises over 98% of the population of Japan. Genetic and anthropometric studies has showed that the Yamato are an admixture of the migratory Kofun and Yayoi, who arrived from mainland East and Southeast Asia via the Korean Peninsula, as well as the indigenous Jōmon that were already living on the Japanese archipelago for thousands of years prior.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Japanese Paleolithic</span> Period of human inhabitation in Japan predating the development of pottery

The Japanese Paleolithic period is the period of human inhabitation in Japan predating the development of pottery, generally before 10,000 BC. The starting dates commonly given to this period are from around 40,000 BC; although any date of human presence before 35,000 BC is controversial, with artifacts supporting a pre-35,000 BC human presence on the archipelago being of questionable authenticity. The period extended to the beginning of the Mesolithic Jōmon period, or around 14,000 BC.

Hāfu is a Japanese language term used to refer to a person of half Japanese and half non-Japanese ancestry. A loanword from English, the term literally means "half," a reference to the individual's non-Japanese heritage. The word can also be used to describe anyone with mixed-racial ancestry in general. As Japan is considered one of the most homogeneous societies on the planet, children who have one non-Japanese parent are called hāfu Japanese and often face prejudice and discrimination from Japanese citizens of full Japanese descent. Hāfu individuals are well represented in Japanese media and abroad, and recent studies in the 2010s estimate that 1 in 30 children born in Japan are born to interracial couples.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yayoi people</span> Ancestors of the Japanese people

The Yayoi people were an ancient ethnicity that immigrated to the Japanese archipelago during the Yayoi period and are characterized through Yayoi material culture. Some argue for an earlier start of the Yayoi period, between 1000 and 800 BC, but this date is controversial. The people of the Yayoi culture are regarded as the spreaders of agriculture and the Japonic languages throughout the whole archipelago, and were characterized by both local Jōmon hunter-gatherer and mainland Asian migrant ancestry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jōmon people</span> Early inhabitants of prehistoric Japan

Jōmon people is the generic name of the indigenous hunter-gatherer population that lived in the Japanese archipelago during the Jōmon period. They were united through a common Jōmon culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity.

The classification of the Japonic languages and their external relations is unclear. Linguists traditionally consider the Japonic languages to belong to an independent family; indeed, until the classification of Ryukyuan and eventually Hachijō as separate languages within a Japonic family rather than as dialects of Japanese, Japanese was considered a language isolate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Xu Fu</span> Chinese alchemist and explorer

Xu Fu (Hsu Fu; Chinese: 徐福 or 徐巿; pinyin: Xú Fú; Wade–Giles: Hsu2 Fu2; Japanese: 徐福 Jofuku or 徐巿 Jofutsu; Korean: 서복 Seo Bok or 서불 Seo Bul) was a Chinese alchemist and explorer. He was born in 255 BC in Qi, an ancient Chinese state, and disappeared at sea in 210 BC. He served as a court sorcerer in Qin Dynasty China. Later, he was sent by Qin Shi Huang to the eastern seas twice to look for the elixir of life. His two journeys occurred between 219 BC and 210 BC. It was believed that the fleet included 60 barques with soldiers, ship crewmen, and 3,000 boys and 3,000 girls, and craftsmen of different fields. After he embarked on a second mission in 210 BC, he never returned.

Japanese prehistoric art is a wide-ranging category, spanning over the Jōmon and Yayoi periods, and the entire Japanese archipelago. Including Hokkaidō in the north, and the Ryukyu Islands in the south which were, politically, not part of Japan until the late 19th century.

Ko-Shintō (古神道) refers to the animistic religion of Jōmon period Japan, which is the alleged basis of modern Shinto. The search for traces of Koshintō began with the "Restoration Shinto" in the Edo period, which goal was to remove any foreign ideas and worldviews from Shinto. Some movements which claim to have discovered this primeval way of thought are Oomoto, Izumo-taishakyo.

Among the several native ethnic groups of Japan, the predominant group are the Yamato Japanese, who trace their origins back to the Yayoi period and have held political dominance since the Asuka period. Other historical ethnic groups have included the Ainu, the Ryukyuan people, the Emishi, and the Hayato; some of whom were dispersed or absorbed by other groups. Ethnic groups that inhabited the Japanese islands during prehistory include the Jomon people and lesser-known Paleolithic groups. In more recent history, a number of immigrants from other countries have made their home in Japan. According to census statistics in 2018, 97.8% of the population of Japan are Japanese, with the remainder being foreign nationals residing in Japan. The number of foreign workers has been increasing dramatically in recent years, due to the aging population and the lack of labor force. A news article in 2018 states that approximately 1 out of 10 young people residing in Tokyo are foreign nationals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ōdai Yamamoto I Site</span>

The Ōdai Yamamoto I Site is a Jōmon archaeological site in the town of Sotogahama, Aomori Prefecture, in the Tōhoku region of northern Japan. Excavations in 1998 uncovered forty-six earthenware fragments which have been dated as early as 14,500 BC ; this places them among the earliest pottery currently known. As the earliest in Japan, this marks the transition from the Japanese Paleolithic to Incipient Jōmon. Other pottery of a similar date has been found at Gasya and Khummi on the lower Amur River. Such a date puts the development of pottery before the warming at the end of the Pleistocene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jōmon period</span> Japanese prehistorical period

In Japanese history, the Jōmon period is the time between c. 14,000 and 300 BC, during which Japan was inhabited by a diverse hunter-gatherer and early agriculturalist population united through a common Jōmon culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity. The name "cord-marked" was first applied by the American zoologist and orientalist Edward S. Morse, who discovered sherds of pottery in 1877 and subsequently translated it into Japanese as Jōmon. The pottery style characteristic of the first phases of Jōmon culture was decorated by impressing cords into the surface of wet clay and is generally accepted to be among the oldest in the world.

In population genetics, research has been done on the genetic origins of modern Japanese people.

Ryukyuan culture are the cultural elements of the indigenous Ryukyuan people, an ethnic group native to Okinawa Prefecture and parts of Kagoshima Prefecture in southwestern Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of religion in Japan</span> History of religion in Japan

The history of religion in Japan has been characterized by the predominance of animistic religions practiced by its mainland, Ryukyuan, and Ainu inhabitants. In addition, on the Yamato-dominated mainland, Mahayana Buddhism has also played a profoundly important role. Throughout the Japanese middle ages, many different schools of Buddhism flourished, such as Tendai, Shingon, Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren, and others. With time, Shinto and Buddhism gradually became intertwined with each other in Japanese culture, rather than being viewed as mutually exclusive. The first conclusive appearance of western religions in Japan was Christianity, which had been introduced by European travelers beginning in 1549. In the period between 1614 and 1889, Christianity and all other foreign religions were banned and its adherents persecuted, with Buddhism being co-opted by the Tokugawa authorities as a means to keep the population in check through the danka system.

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