Chinese dragon

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Chinese dragon
Chinese dragon asset heraldry.svg
Grouping Mythical creature
Sub grouping Dragon
Folklore Chinese mythology
CountryChina

Due to influences by Chinese culture, the dragon was also adopted as state symbol in Vietnam. During the Nguyễn dynasty, the dragon was featured on the imperial standards. It was also featured on the coats of arms of the State of Vietnam, and later South Vietnam.

Dragon worship

Marble statue of double dragons at Jietai Temple Jietai Temple Double Dragon Statue.jpg
Marble statue of double dragons at Jietai Temple

Origin

The ancient Chinese self-identified as "the gods of the dragon" because the Chinese dragon is an imagined reptile that represents evolution from the ancestors and qi energy. [12] Dragon-like motifs of a zoomorphic composition in reddish-brown stone have been found at the Chahai site (Liaoning) in the Xinglongwa culture (6200–5400 BC). [13] The presence of dragons within Chinese culture dates back several thousands of years with the discovery of a dragon statue dating back to the fifth millennium BC from the Yangshao culture in Henan in 1987, [14] and jade badges of rank in coiled form have been excavated from the Hongshan culture circa 4700–2900 BC. [15] Some of the earliest Dragon artifacts are the pig dragon carvings from the Hongshan culture.

The coiled dragon or snake form played an important role in early Chinese culture. The character for "dragon" in the earliest Chinese writing has a similar coiled form, as do later jade dragon amulets from the Shang period. [16]

Ancient Chinese referred to unearthed dinosaur bones as dragon bones and documented them as such. For example, Chang Qu in 300 BC documents the discovery of "dragon bones" in Sichuan. [17] The modern Chinese term for dinosaur is written as 恐龍; 恐龙; kǒnglóng ('terror dragon'), and villagers in central China have long unearthed fossilized "dragon bones" for use in traditional medicines, a practice that continues today. [18]

The binomial name for a variety of dinosaurs discovered in China, Mei long , in Chinese ( 寐 mèi and 龙 lóng ) means 'sleeping dragon'. Fossilized remains of Mei long have been found in China in a sleeping and coiled form, with the dinosaur nestling its snout beneath one of its forelimbs while encircling its tail around its entire body. [19]

Mythical creature

Dragon crown, Liao dynasty Qi Dan Guan 01.jpg
Dragon crown, Liao dynasty

From its origins as totems or the stylized depiction of natural creatures, the Chinese dragon evolved to become a mythical animal. The Han dynasty scholar Wang Fu recorded Chinese myths that long dragons had nine anatomical resemblances.

The people paint the dragon's shape with a horse's head and a snake's tail. Further, there are expressions as 'three joints' and 'nine resemblances' (of the dragon), to wit: from head to shoulder, from shoulder to breast, from breast to tail. These are the joints; as to the nine resemblances, they are the following: his antlers resemble those of a stag, his head that of a camel, his eyes those of a demon, his neck that of a snake, his belly that of a clam (shen, ), his scales those of a carp, his claws those of an eagle, his soles those of a tiger, his ears those of a cow. Upon his head he has a thing like a broad eminence (a big lump), called [chimu] (尺木). If a dragon has no [chimu], he cannot ascend to the sky. [20]

Further sources give variant lists of the nine animal resemblances. Sinologist Henri Doré lists these characteristics of an authentic dragon: "The antlers of a deer. The head of a crocodile. A demon's eyes. The neck of a snake. A tortoise's viscera. A hawk's claws. The palms of a tiger. A cow's ears. And it hears through its horns, its ears being deprived of all power of hearing." [21] He notes that, "Others state it has a rabbit's eyes, a frog's belly, a carp's scales." The anatomy of other legendary creatures, including the chimera and manticore, is similarly amalgamated from fierce animals.

Yellow dragon on a black vase, Yuan dynasty Guimet porcelana china 02.JPG
Yellow dragon on a black vase, Yuan dynasty

Chinese dragons were considered to be physically concise. Of the 117 scales, 81 are of the yang essence (positive) while 36 are of the yin essence (negative). Initially, the dragon was benevolent, wise, and just, but the Buddhists introduced the concept of malevolent influence among some dragons. Just as water destroys, they said, so can some dragons destroy via floods, tidal waves, and storms. They suggested that some of the worst floods were believed to have been the result of a mortal upsetting a dragon.

Many pictures of Chinese dragons show a flaming pearl under their chin or in their claws. The pearl is associated with spiritual energy, wisdom, prosperity, power, immortality, thunder, or the moon. Chinese art often depicts a pair of dragons chasing or fighting over the flaming pearl.

Chinese dragons are occasionally depicted with bat-like wings growing out of the front limbs, but most do not have wings, as their ability to fly (and control rain/water, etc.) is mystical and not seen as a result of their physical attributes.

Textile with dragon design, Yuan dynasty Kesi fragment with dragon design on purple ground, China, Yuan dynasty, 1200s-1300s AD, textile - Tokyo National Museum - Tokyo, Japan - DSC08441.jpg
Textile with dragon design, Yuan dynasty

This description accords with the artistic depictions of the dragon down to the present day. The dragon has also acquired an almost unlimited range of supernatural powers. It is said to be able to disguise itself as a silkworm, or become as large as our entire universe. It can fly among the clouds or hide in water (according to the Guanzi). It can form clouds, can turn into water, can change color as an ability to blend in with their surroundings, as an effective form of camouflage or glow in the dark (according to the Shuowen Jiezi ).

In many other countries, folktales speak of the dragon having all the attributes of the other 11 creatures of the zodiac, this includes the whiskers of the Rat, the face and horns of the Ox, the claws and teeth of the Tiger, the belly of the Rabbit, the body of the Snake, the legs of the Horse, the goatee of the Goat, the wit of the Monkey, the crest of the Rooster, the ears of the Dog, and the snout of the Pig.

In some circles, it is considered bad luck to depict a dragon facing downwards, as it is seen as disrespectful to place a dragon in such manner that it cannot ascend to the sky. Also, depictions of dragons in tattoos are prevalent as they are symbols of strength and power, especially criminal organisations where dragons hold a meaning all on their own. As such, it is believed that one must be fierce and strong enough, hence earning the right to wear the dragon on his skin, lest his luck be consumed by the dragons.[ citation needed ]

According to an art historian John Boardman, depictions of Chinese Dragon and Indian Makara might have been influenced by Kētos in Greek Mythology possibly after contact with silk-road images of the Kētos as Chinese dragon appeared more reptilian and shifted head-shape afterwards. [22]

Ruler of weather and water

A dragon seen floating among clouds, on a golden canteen made during the 15th century, Ming dynasty Golden canteen with dragon, Ming Dynasty.jpg
A dragon seen floating among clouds, on a golden canteen made during the 15th century, Ming dynasty

Chinese dragons are strongly associated with water and weather in popular religion. They are believed to be the rulers of moving bodies of water, such as waterfalls, rivers, or seas. The Dragon God is the dispenser of rain as well as the zoomorphic representation of the yang masculine power of generation. [23] In this capacity as the rulers of water and weather, the dragon is more anthropomorphic in form, often depicted as a humanoid, dressed in a king's costume, but with a dragon head wearing a king's headdress.

There are four major Dragon Kings, representing each of the Four Seas: the East Sea (corresponding to the East China Sea), the South Sea (corresponding to the South China Sea), the West Sea (sometimes seen as the Qinghai Lake and beyond), and the North Sea (sometimes seen as Lake Baikal).

Because of this association, they are seen as "in charge" of water-related weather phenomena. In premodern times, many Chinese villages (especially those close to rivers and seas) had temples dedicated to their local "dragon king". In times of drought or flooding, it was customary for the local gentry and government officials to lead the community in offering sacrifices and conducting other religious rites to appease the dragon, either to ask for rain or a cessation thereof.

The King of Wuyue in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was often known as the "Dragon King" or the "Sea Dragon King" because of his extensive hydro-engineering schemes which "tamed" the sea.

In coastal regions of China, Korea, Vietnam, traditional legends and worshipping of whales (whale gods) as the guardians of people on the sea have been referred to Dragon Kings after the arrival of Buddhism. [24]

Symbol of imperial authority

Bronze dragon, Qing dynasty A047.jpg
Bronze dragon, Qing dynasty
Double dragons on a piece of textile, Qing dynasty MET DP12019.jpg
Double dragons on a piece of textile, Qing dynasty

According to Chinese legend, both Chinese primogenitors, the earliest Door and the Yellow Emperor (Huangdi), were closely related to 'Long' (Chinese dragon). At the end of his reign, the first legendary ruler, the Yellow Emperor, was said to have been immortalized into a dragon that resembled his emblem, and ascended to Heaven. The other legendary ruler, the Yan Emperor, was born by his mother's telepathy with a mythical dragon. Since the Chinese consider the Yellow Emperor and the Yan Emperor as their ancestors, they sometimes refer to themselves as "the descendants of the dragon". This legend also contributed towards the use of the Chinese dragon as a symbol of imperial power.[ citation needed ]

Dragons (usually with five claws on each foot) were a symbol for the emperor in many Chinese dynasties. During the Qing dynasty, the imperial dragon was colored yellow or gold, and during the Ming dynasty it was red. [25] The imperial throne was referred to as the Dragon Throne . During the late Qing dynasty, the dragon was even adopted as the national flag. Dragons are featured in carvings on the stairs and walkways of imperial palaces and imperial tombs, such as at the Forbidden City in Beijing.

In some Chinese legends, an emperor might be born with a birthmark in the shape of a dragon. For example, one legend tells the tale of a peasant born with a dragon birthmark who eventually overthrows the existing dynasty and founds a new one; another legend might tell of the prince in hiding from his enemies who is identified by his dragon birthmark.[ citation needed ]

In contrast, the Empress of China was often identified with the Chinese phoenix.

Modern belief

Worship of the Dragon God is celebrated throughout China with sacrifices and processions during the fifth and sixth moons, and especially on the date of his birthday the thirteenth day of the sixth moon. [23] A folk religious movement of associations of good-doing in modern Hebei is primarily devoted to a generic Dragon God whose icon is a tablet with his name inscribed, for which it has been named the "movement of the Dragon Tablet". [26]

Depictions of the dragon

The C-shaped jade totem of Hongshan culture (c. 4700-2920 B.C.) C-shaped jade dragon.jpg
The C-shaped jade totem of Hongshan culture (c. 4700–2920 B.C.)
Jade-carved dragon ornament from the Warring States period (403 BC-221 BC). Warring States-Han Jade Dragon 29.jpg
Jade-carved dragon ornament from the Warring States period (403 BC–221 BC).
Jade dragon, Warring States period Configuration of Bird, Dragon, and Snake, China, Warring States period, 4th-3rd century BC, nephrite - Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University - DSC00754.jpg
Jade dragon, Warring States period

Neolithic depictions

Dragons or dragon-like depictions have been found extensively in neolithic-period archaeological sites throughout China. Some of earliest depictions of dragons were found at Xinglongwa culture sites. Yangshao culture sites in Xi'an have produced clay pots with dragon motifs. A burial site Xishuipo in Puyang which is associated with the Yangshao culture shows a large dragon mosaic made out of clam shells. [27] The Liangzhu culture also produced dragon-like patterns. The Hongshan culture sites in present-day Inner Mongolia produced jade dragon objects in the form of pig dragons which are the first 3-dimensional representations of Chinese dragons. [28]

One such early form was the pig dragon. It is a coiled, elongated creature with a head resembling a boar. [29] The character for "dragon" in the earliest Chinese writing has a similar coiled form, as do later jade dragon amulets from the Shang dynasty. A snake-like dragon body painted on red pottery wares was discovered at Taosi (Shanxi) from the second phase of the Longshan Culture, and a dragon-like object coated with approximately 2000 pieces of turquoise and jade was discovered at Erlitou. [13]

Classical depictions

Detail of an embroidered silk gauze ritual garment from a 4th-century BC Zhou era tomb at Mashan, Hubei province, China. The flowing, curvilinear design incorporates dragons, phoenixes, and tigers. Chinese silk, 4th Century BC.JPG
Detail of an embroidered silk gauze ritual garment from a 4th-century BC Zhou era tomb at Mashan, Hubei province, China. The flowing, curvilinear design incorporates dragons, phoenixes, and tigers.

Chinese literature and myths refer to many dragons besides the famous long. The linguist Michael Carr analyzed over 100 ancient dragon names attested in Chinese classic texts. [30] Many such Chinese names derive from the suffix -long:

  • Tianlong (Chinese :天龍; pinyin :tiānlóng; Wade–Giles :t'ien-lung; lit. 'heavenly dragon'), celestial dragon that guards heavenly palaces and pulls divine chariots; also a name for the constellation Draco
  • Shenlong (神龍; shénlóng; shen-lung; 'god dragon'), thunder god that controls the weather, appearance of a human head, dragon's body, and drum-like stomach
  • Fuzanglong (伏藏龍; fúcánglóng; fu-ts'ang-lung; 'hidden treasure dragon'), underworld guardian of precious metals and jewels, associated with volcanoes
  • Dilong (地龍; dìlóng; ti-lung; 'earth dragon'), controller of rivers and seas; also a name for earthworm
  • Yinglong (應龍; yìnglóng; ying-lung; 'responding dragon'), winged dragon associated with rains and floods, used by Yellow Emperor to kill Chi You
  • Jiaolong (蛟龍; jiāolóng; chiao-lung; 'crocodile dragon'), hornless or scaled dragon, leader of all aquatic animals
  • Panlong (蟠龍; pánlóng; p'an-lung; 'coiled dragon'), lake dragon that has not ascended to heaven
  • Huanglong (黃龍; huánglóng; huang-lung; 'yellow dragon'), hornless dragon symbolizing the emperor
  • Feilong (飛龍; fēilóng; fei-lung; 'flying dragon'), winged dragon that rides on clouds and mist; also a name for a genus of pterosaur (compare Feilong kick and Fei Long character)
  • Qinglong (青龍; qīnglóng; ch'ing-lung; ' Azure Dragon '), the animal associated with the East in the Chinese Four Symbols, mythological creatures in the Chinese constellations
  • Qiulong (虯龍; qíulóng; ch'iu-lung; 'curling dragon'), contradictorily defined as both "horned dragon" and "hornless dragon"
  • Zhulong (燭龍; zhúlóng; chu-lung; 'torch dragon') or Zhuyin (燭陰; zhúyīn; chu-yin; 'illuminating darkness') was a giant red draconic solar deity in Chinese mythology. It supposedly had a human's face and snake's body, created day and night by opening and closing its eyes, and created seasonal winds by breathing. (Note that this zhulong is different from the similarly named Vermilion Dragon or the Pig dragon).
  • Chilong (螭龍 or 魑龍; chīlóng; ch'ih-lung; 'demon dragon'), a hornless dragon or mountain demon

Fewer Chinese dragon names derive from the prefix long-:

  • Longwang (龍王; lóngwáng; lung-wang; ' Dragon Kings ') divine rulers of the Four Seas
  • Longma (龍馬; lóngmǎ; lung-ma; 'dragon horse'), emerged from the Luo River and revealed ba gua to Fu Xi

Some additional Chinese dragons are not named with long, for instance,

  • Hong (; hóng; hung; 'rainbow'), a two-headed dragon or rainbow serpent
  • Shen (; shèn; shen; 'giant clam'), a shapeshifting dragon or sea monster believed to create mirages
  • Bashe (巴蛇; bāshé; pa-she; 'ba snake') was a giant python-like dragon that ate elephants
  • Teng (; téng; t'eng) or Tengshe (腾蛇; 騰蛇; téngshé; t'eng-she; lit. "soaring snake") is a flying dragon without legs

Chinese scholars have classified dragons in diverse systems. For instance, Emperor Huizong of the Song dynasty canonized five colored dragons as "kings".

  • The Azure Dragon [Qinglong青龍] spirits, most compassionate kings.
  • The Vermilion Dragon [Zhulong朱龍 or Chilong赤龍] spirits, kings that bestow blessings on lakes.
  • The Yellow Dragon [Huanglong黃龍] spirits, kings that favorably hear all petitions.
  • The White Dragon [Bailong白龍] spirits, virtuous and pure kings.
  • The Black Dragon [Xuanlong玄龍 or Heilong黑龍] spirits, kings dwelling in the depths of the mystic waters. [31]

With the addition of the Yellow Dragon of the Center to Azure Dragon of the East, these Vermilion, White, and Black Dragons coordinate with the Four Symbols, including the Vermilion Bird of the South, White Tiger of the West, and Black Tortoise of the North.

Nine sons of the dragon

Pulao on a bell in Wudang Palace, Yangzhou Yangzhou - Wudang Palace - bell - pulao - P1070199.JPG
Pulao on a bell in Wudang Palace, Yangzhou
Qianlong era Bixi near Marco Polo Bridge, Beijing LugouQiao-Qianlong-bridge-rebuilding-stele-3610.JPG
Qianlong era Bixi near Marco Polo Bridge, Beijing

Several Ming dynasty texts list what were claimed as the Nine Offspring of the Dragon (龍生九子), and subsequently these feature prominently in popular Chinese stories and writings. The scholar Xie Zhaozhe  [ zh ] (1567–1624) in his work Wu Za Zu Wuzazu  [ zh ] (c. 1592) gives the following listing, as rendered by M.W. de Visser:

A well-known work of the end of the sixteenth century, the Wuzazu 五雜俎 , informs us about the nine different young of the dragon, whose shapes are used as ornaments according to their nature.

  • The [ pú láo 蒲牢 ], four leg small form dragon class which like to scream, are represented on the tops of bells, serving as handles.
  • The [qiú niú 囚牛 ], which like music, are used to adorn musical instruments.
  • The [ chī wěn 蚩吻 ], which like swallowing, are placed on both ends of the ridgepoles of roofs (to swallow all evil influences).
  • The [cháo fēng 嘲風 ], beasts-like dragon which like adventure, are placed on the four corners of roofs.
  • The [yá zì 睚眦 ], which like to kill, are engraved on sword guards.
  • The [xì xì 屓屭 ], which have the shape of the [chī hǔ 螭虎 (One kind small form dragon)], and are fond of literature, are represented on the sides of grave-monuments.
  • The [bì àn 狴犴 ], which like litigation, are placed over prison gates (in order to keep guard).
  • The [suān ní 狻猊 ], which like to sit down, are represented upon the bases of Buddhist idols (under the Buddhas' or Bodhisattvas' feet).
  • The [ bì xì 贔屭 ], also known as [bà xià 霸下 ], finally, big tortoises which like to carry heavy objects, are placed under grave-monuments.

Further, the same author enumerates nine other kinds of dragons, which are represented as ornaments of different objects or buildings according to their liking prisons, water, the rank smell of newly caught fish or newly killed meat, wind and rain, ornaments, smoke, shutting the mouth (used for adorning key-holes), standing on steep places (placed on roofs), and fire. [32]

The Sheng'an waiji (升庵外集) collection by the poet Yang Shen (楊慎, 1488–1559) gives different 5th and 9th names for the dragon's nine children: the tāo tiè ( 饕餮 ), form of beasts, which loves to eat and is found on food-related wares, and the jiāo tú ( 椒圖 ), which looks like a conch or clam, does not like to be disturbed, and is used on the front door or the doorstep. Yang's list is bì xì, chī wěn or cháo fēng, pú láo, bì àn, tāo tiè, qiú niú, yá zì, suān ní, and jiāo tú. In addition, there are some sayings including [bā xià 𧈢𧏡 ], Hybrid of reptilia animal and dragon, a creature that likes to drink water, and is typically used on bridge structures. [33]

The oldest known attestation of the "children of the dragon" list is found in the Shuyuan zaji (菽園雜記, Miscellaneous records from the bean garden) by Lu Rong (1436–1494); however, he noted that the list enumerates mere synonyms of various antiques, not children of a dragon. [34] The nine sons of the dragon were commemorated by the Shanghai Mint in 2012's year of the dragon with two sets of coins, one in silver, and one in brass. Each coin in the sets depicts one of the 9 sons, including an additional coin for the father dragon, which depicts the nine sons on the reverse. [35] It's also a Chinese idiom, which means among brothers each one has his good points.[ citation needed ]

Dragon claws

Five-clawed dragon on porcelain ball, Qing dynasty Qing Porcelain, Qianlong Reign 101.jpg
Five-clawed dragon on porcelain ball, Qing dynasty
Reverse of bronze mirror, 8th century, Tang dynasty, showing a dragon with three toes on each foot Freer SacklerDSCF8044.JPG
Reverse of bronze mirror, 8th century, Tang dynasty, showing a dragon with three toes on each foot

Early Chinese dragons are depicted with two to five claws. Different countries that adopted the Chinese dragon have different preferences; in Mongolia and Korea, four-clawed dragons are used, while in Japan, three-clawed dragons are common. [36] In China, three-clawed dragons were popularly used on robes during the Tang dynasty. [37] The usage of the dragon motif was codified during the Yuan dynasty, and the five-clawed dragons became reserved for use by the emperor while the princes used four-clawed dragons. [6] Phoenixes and five-clawed two-horned dragons may not be used on the robes of officials and other objects such as plates and vessels in the Yuan dynasty. [6] [38] It was further stipulated that for commoners, "it is forbidden to wear any cloth with patterns of Qilin, Male Fenghuang (Chinese phoenix), White rabbit, Lingzhi, Five-Toe Two-Horn Dragon, Eight Dragons, Nine Dragons, 'Ten thousand years', Fortune-longevity character and Golden Yellow etc." [39]

The Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty emulated the Yuan dynasty rules on the use of the dragon motif and decreed that the dragon would be his emblem and that it should have five claws. The four-clawed dragon would be used typically for imperial nobility and certain high-ranking officials. The three-clawed dragon was used by lower ranks and the general public (widely seen on various Chinese goods in the Ming dynasty). The dragon, however, was only for select royalty closely associated with the imperial family, usually in various symbolic colors, while it was a capital offense for anyone—other than the emperor himself—to ever use the completely gold-colored, five-clawed Long dragon motif. Improper use of claw number or colors was considered treason, punishable by execution of the offender's entire clan. During the Qing dynasty, the Manchus initially considered three-clawed dragons the most sacred and used that until 1712 when it was replaced by five-clawed dragons, and portraits of the Qing emperors were usually depicted with five-clawed dragons. [40]

In works of art that left the imperial collection, either as gifts or through pilfering by court eunuchs (a long-standing problem), where practicable, one claw was removed from each set, as in several pieces of carved lacquerware, [41] for example the well known Chinese lacquerware table in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. [42]

Cultural references

Number nine

The number nine is special in China as it is seen as number of the heaven, and Chinese dragons are frequently connected with it. For example, a Chinese dragon is normally described in terms of nine attributes and usually has 117 (9×13) scales–81 (9×9) Yang and 36 (9×4) Yin. This is also why there are nine forms of the dragon and there are 9 sons of the dragon (see Classical depictions above). The Nine-Dragon Wall is a spirit wall with images of nine different dragons, and is found in imperial Chinese palaces and gardens. Because nine was considered the number of the emperor, only the most senior officials were allowed to wear nine dragons on their robes—and then only with the robe completely covered with surcoats. Lower-ranking officials had eight or five dragons on their robes, again covered with surcoats; even the emperor himself wore his dragon robe with one of its nine dragons hidden from view.

There are a number of places in China called "Nine Dragons", the most famous being Kowloon (in Cantonese) in Hong Kong. The part of the Mekong in Vietnam is known as Cửu Long, with the same meaning.

Chen Rong - Nine Dragons.jpg
A close up view of one full dragon (and the tail end and claw of another) from the Nine Dragons handscroll painted in 1244 by Song dynasty artist Chen Rong

Chinese zodiac

The Azure Dragon of the East Wadang-qinglong.jpg
The Azure Dragon of the East

The Dragon is one of the 12 animals in the Chinese zodiac which is used to designate years in the Chinese calendar. It is thought that each animal is associated with certain personality traits. Dragon years are usually the most popular to have children. [43] There are more people born in Dragon years than in any other animal years of the zodiac. [44]

Constellations

The Azure Dragon (Qing Long, 青龍) is considered to be the primary of the four celestial guardians, the other three being the Zhu Que —朱雀 (Vermilion Bird), Bai Hu —白虎 (White Tiger), Xuan Wu —玄武 (Black Tortoise-like creature). In this context, the Azure Dragon is associated with the East and the element of Wood.

Dragonboat racing

Dragon boats racing in Hong Kong (14th century painting) Yuan Yi Ming Lin Wang Zhen Peng Jin Ming Chi Tu Juan -Dragon Boat Regatta on Jinming Lake MET DP204603.jpg
Dragon boats racing in Hong Kong (14th century painting)

At special festivals, especially the Duanwu Festival, dragon boat races are an important part of festivities. Typically, these are boats paddled by a team of up to 20 paddlers with a drummer and steersman. The boats have a carved dragon as the head and tail of the boat. Dragon boat racing is also an important part of celebrations outside of China, such as at Chinese New Year. A similar racing is popular in India in the state of Kerala called Vallamkali and there are records on Chinese traders visiting the seashores of Kerala centuries back (Ibn Batuta).[ citation needed ]

Dragon dancing

On auspicious occasions, including Chinese New Year and the opening of shops and residences, festivities often include dancing with dragon puppets. These are "life sized" cloth-and-wood puppets manipulated by a team of people, supporting the dragon with poles. They perform choreographed moves to the accompaniment of drums, drama, and music. They also wore good clothing made of silk.

Dragon and Fenghuang

Fenghuang (simplified Chinese :凤凰; traditional Chinese :鳳凰; pinyin :fènghuáng; Wade–Giles :fêng4-huang2), known in Japanese as Hō-ō or Hou-ou, are phoenix-like birds found in East Asian mythology that reign over all other birds. In Chinese symbolism, it is a feminine entity that is paired with the masculine Chinese dragon, as a visual metaphor of a balanced and blissful relationship, symbolic of both a happy marriage and a regent's long reign.

Dragon as nāga

Phra Maha Chedi Chai Mongkol Naga emerging from mouth of Makara Phra Maha Chedi Chai Mongkol Naga emerging from mouth of Makara.jpg
Phra Maha Chedi Chai Mongkol Naga emerging from mouth of Makara

In many Buddhist countries, the concept of the nāga has been merged with local traditions of great and wise serpents or dragons, as depicted in this stairway image of a multi-headed nāga emerging from the mouth of a Makara in the style of a Chinese dragon at Phra Maha Chedi Chai Mongkol on the premises of Wat Pha Namthip Thep Prasit Vararam in Thailand's Roi Et Province Nong Phok District.[ citation needed ]

Dragons and tigers

The tiger is considered to be the eternal rival to the dragon, thus various artworks depict a dragon and tiger fighting an epic battle. A well used Chinese idiom to describe equal rivals (often in sports nowadays) is "Dragon versus Tiger". In Chinese martial arts, "Dragon style" is used to describe styles of fighting based more on understanding movement, while "Tiger style" is based on brute strength and memorization of techniques.[ citation needed ]

Dragons and botany

'Dragon's-Claw Elm', Fengtai, 1908 Ulmus pumila 'Pendula', 1908.jpg
'Dragon's-Claw Elm', Fengtai, 1908

The elm cultivar Ulmus pumila 'Pendula', from northern China, called 'Weeping Chinese Elm' in the West, is known locally as Lung chao yü shu ('Dragon's-claw elm') owing to its branching. [45] [46]

Chinese dragon
Dragon (Chinese characters).svg
"Dragon" in oracle bone script (top left), bronze script (top right), seal script (middle left), Traditional (middle right), Japanese new-style ( shinjitai , bottom left), and Simplified (bottom right) Chinese characters

Regional variations across Asia

Wall tile depicting the Azure Dragon of the East, Ilkhanate BLW Wall-tile with Dragon.jpg
Wall tile depicting the Azure Dragon of the East, Ilkhanate
Mural depicting the Azure Dragon of the East in a Goryeo tomb ceongryong joseongojeogdobo.jpg
Mural depicting the Azure Dragon of the East in a Goryeo tomb

While depictions of the dragon in art and literature are consistent throughout the cultures in which it is found, there are some regional differences.

For more information on peculiarities in the depiction of the dragon in East Asian, South Asian, and Southeast Asian cultures, see:

Dragons related to the Chinese dragon
Dragons similar to the Chinese dragon

Architecture

Textile

Painting

Metalwork

Jade

Ceramics

Modern artwork

See also

Porcelain jar depicting a red dragon, Qing dynasty Qing Porcelain, Kangxi Reign 43.jpg
Porcelain jar depicting a red dragon, Qing dynasty

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A dragon is a reptile-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary considerably through regions, but dragons in western cultures since the High Middle Ages have often been depicted as winged, horned, four-legged, and capable of breathing fire. Dragons in eastern cultures are usually depicted as wingless, four-legged, serpentine creatures with above-average intelligence. Commonalities between dragons' traits are often a hybridization of feline, avian, and reptilian features. Scholars believe huge extinct or migrating crocodiles bear the closest resemblance, especially when encountered in forested or swampy areas, and are most likely the template of modern Oriental dragon imagery.

Chinese mythology Myths and practices of the Chinese people

Chinese mythology is mythology that has been passed down in oral form or recorded in literature in the geographic area now known as Greater China. Chinese mythology includes many varied myths from regional and cultural traditions. Much of the mythology involves exciting stories full of fantastic people and beings, the use of magical powers, often taking place in an exotic mythological place or time. Like many mythologies, Chinese mythology has in the past been believed to be, at least in part, a factual recording of history. Along with Chinese folklore, Chinese mythology forms an important part of Chinese folk religion. Many stories regarding characters and events of the distant past have a double tradition: ones which present a more historicized or euhemerized version and ones which present a more mythological version.

Qilin Legendary creature in Chinese mythology

The qilin is a legendary hooved chimerical creature that appears in Chinese mythology, and is said to appear with the imminent arrival or passing of a sage or illustrious ruler. Qilin are a specific type of the lin mythological family of one-horned beasts. The qilin also appears in the mythologies of other cultures, such as Japanese and Korean mythology, where it is known as the kirin, and Vietnamese mythology, where it is known as the kỳ lân.

<i>Fenghuang</i> Chinese mythological bird

Fènghuáng are mythological birds found in Sinospheric mythology that reign over all other birds. The males were originally called fèng and the females huáng, but such a distinction of gender is often no longer made and they are blurred into a single feminine entity so that the bird can be paired with the Chinese dragon, which is traditionally deemed male.

Longmu Goddess in Chinese Mythology

In Chinese mythology, Longmu, transliterated as Lung Mo in Cantonese, was a Chinese woman who was deified as a goddess after raising five infant dragons. Longmu and her dragons developed a strong bond for each other and have thus become an example of filial devotion and parental love, an important virtue in Chinese culture.

Yinglong

Yinglong is a winged dragon and rain deity in ancient Chinese mythology.

Japanese dragon Serpentine creature in Japanese mythology

Japanese dragons are diverse legendary creatures in Japanese mythology and folklore. Japanese dragon myths amalgamate native legends with imported stories about dragons from China, Korea and the Indian subcontinent. The style and appearance of the dragon was heavily influenced by the Chinese dragon, especially the three-clawed long (龍) dragons which were introduced in Japan from China in ancient times. Like these other East Asian dragons, most Japanese ones are water deities associated with rainfall and bodies of water, and are typically depicted as large, wingless, serpentine creatures with clawed feet. The modern Japanese language has numerous "dragon" words, including indigenous tatsu from Old Japanese ta-tu, Sino-Japanese ryū or ryō from Chinese lóng, nāga ナーガ from Sanskrit nāga, and doragon ドラゴン from English "dragon".

Vietnamese dragon

Vietnamese dragons are symbolic creatures in Vietnamese folklore and mythology. According to an ancient origin myth, the Vietnamese people are descended from a dragon and a fairy. The dragon was symbolic of bringing rain, essential for agriculture. It represents the emperor, the prosperity and power of the nation. Similar to the Chinese dragon, the Vietnamese dragon is the symbol of yang, representing the universe, life, existence, and growth.

Yellow Dragon Figure in Chinese religion and mythology

The Yellow Dragon is the zoomorphic incarnation of the Yellow Emperor of the center of the universe in Chinese religion and mythology.

Color in Chinese culture Values ascribed to colors in Chinese cultural tradition

Color in Chinese culture refers to the certain values that Chinese culture attaches to colors, like which colors are considered auspicious (吉利) or inauspicious (不利). The Chinese word for "color" is yánsè (顏色). In Classical Chinese, the character (色) more accurately meant "color in the face", or "emotion". It was generally used alone and often implied sexual desire or desirability. During the Tang Dynasty, the word yánsè came to mean all color. A Chinese idiom which is used to describe many colors, Wǔyánliùsè (五顏六色), can also mean colors in general.

<i>Chiwen</i>

Chiwen is a Chinese dragon, and in Chinese mythology is one of the 9 sons of the dragon. He is depicted in imperial roof decorations and other ornamental motifs in traditional Chinese architecture and art.

Teng (mythology)

Teng or Tengshe is a flying dragon in Chinese mythology.

Dragon robes, also known as gunlongpao or longpao for short, is a form of everyday clothing which had a Chinese dragon, called long (龙), as the main decoration; it was worn by the emperors of China. Dragon robes were also adopted by the rulers of neighbouring countries, such as Korea, Vietnam, and the Ryukyu Kingdom.

Chinese art by medium and technique

Much traditional Chinese art was made for the imperial court, often to be then redistributed as gifts. As well as Chinese painting, sculpture and Chinese calligraphy, there are a great range of what may be called decorative or applied arts. Chinese fine art is distinguished from Chinese folk art, which differs in its style and purpose. This article gives an overview of the many different applied arts of China.

Crane in Chinese mythology Motif in Chinese mythology

Cranes are an important motif in Chinese mythology. There are various myths involving cranes, and in Chinese mythology cranes are generally symbolically connected with the idea of longevity. In China, the crane mythology is associated with the divine bird worship in the animal totemism; cranes have a spiritual meaning where they are a form of divine bird which travels between heaven and man's world. Cranes regularly appears in Chinese arts such as paintings, tapestry, and decorative arts; they are also often depicted carrying the souls of the deceased to heaven. The souls of the deceased is often depicted riding the back of a crane when to heaven. The crane is the second most important bird after the fenghuang, the symbol of the empress, in China.

Hanfu Traditional dress of the Han people

Hanfu is the traditional styles of clothing worn by the Han Chinese. There are several representative styles of hanfu, such as the ruqun, the aoqun, the beizi and the shenyi, and the shanku.

Mangfu, also known as mangpao, huayi, and Python robe in English, is a type of Hanfu robe decorated with a python embroidery, called mang, although the python embroidery is not a python as defined in the dictionary but a four-clawed Chinese dragon-like creature. The mangfu was derived from the dragon robe in order to differentiate monarchs and subjects; i.e. only the Emperor is allowed to wear dragon (5-claws) while his subjects wears mang. Mangfu were worn in the Ming and Qing dynasties. They had special status among the Chinese court clothing: they were only second to the dragon robe; their use were restricted; and they were clothing which could only be awarded by the Chinese Emperor in the Ming and Qing dynasties, becoming "a sign of imperial favour". People who were bestowed with mangfu could not exchange it with or gifted it to other people. They were worn by members of the imperial family below of crown prince, by military and civil officials, and by Official wives. As an official clothing, the mangfu were worn by officials during celebration occasions and ceremonial events. They could also be bestowed by the Emperor to people who performed extraordinary services to the empire as rewards, to the members of the Grand Secretariat and to prominent Daoist patriarchs, imperial physicians, tributary countries and local chiefs whose loyalty were considered crucial to secure the borders. The mangfu is also used as a theatrical costume in Chinese opera, it is typically found in the form of a round-necked robe.

Qizhuang Traditional Manchu clothing

Qizhuang, also known as Manfu and commonly referred as Manchu clothing in English, is the traditional clothing of the Manchu people. Qizhuang in the broad sense refers to the clothing system of the Manchu people, which includes their whole system of attire used for different occasions with varying degrees of formality. The term qizhuang can also be used to refer to the informal dress of the Manchu women, chenyi, which is a one-piece long robe with no slits on either sides. In the Manchu tradition, the outerwear of both men and women includes a full-length robe with a jacket or a vest while short coats and trousers are worn as inner garments.

Lishui (sea-waves) Chinese diagonal sea-waves decorative pattern used in textile and clothing

Lishui or shuijiao is a set of parallel diagonal, multicoloured sea-waves/line patterns. It originated in China where it was used by the Qing dynasty court prior to the mid-18th century. Lishui represents the deep sea under which the ocean surges and waves; it is therefore typically topped with "still water", which is represented by concentric semicircle patterns which runs horizontally. Lishui was used to decorate garments, including the bottom hem and cuffs of some of the court clothing of the Qing dynasty. It could be used to decorate as wedding dress items. It is also used to decorate Chinese opera costumes, typically on the bottom hem of the costumes. It was also adopted in some court clothing of the Nguyen dynasty in Vietnam under the influence of the Qing dynasty.

References

Citations

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Sources