Fish

Last updated

Contents

Fish
Temporal range: 535–0  Ma
Balantiocheilos melanopterus - Karlsruhe Zoo 02 (cropped).jpg
A cyprinid fish, the bala shark (Balantiocheilos melanopterus)
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Olfactores
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Groups included
Jawless fish
Armoured fish
Spiny sharks
Cartilaginous fish
Bony fish
Ray-finned fish
Lobe-finned fish
Cladistically included but traditionally excluded taxa
Tetrapods

A fish (pl.: fish or fishes) is an aquatic, gill-bearing vertebrate animal with swimming fins and a hard skull, but lacking limbs with digits. Fish can be grouped into the more basal jawless fish and the more common jawed fish, the latter including all living cartilaginous and bony fishes, as well as the extinct placoderms and acanthodians. Most fish are cold-blooded, their body temperature varying with the surrounding water, though some large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature. Fish can communicate acoustically with each other, such as during courtship displays.

The earliest fishes appeared during the Cambrian as small filter feeders; they continued to evolve through the Paleozoic, diversifying into many forms. The earliest fish with dedicated respiratory gills and paired fins, the ostracoderms, had heavy bony plates that served as protective exoskeletons against invertebrate predators. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian and greatly diversified during the Devonian, the "Age of Fishes".

Bony fishes, distinguished by the presence of swim bladders, emerged as the dominant group of fish after the end-Devonian extinction wiped out the apex placoderms. Bony fishes are further divided into the lobe-finned and ray-finned fishes. About 96% of all living fish species today are teleosts, a crown group of ray-finned fish that can protrude their jaws. The tetrapods, a mostly terrestrial clade of vertebrates that have dominated the top trophic levels in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems since the Late Paleozoic, evolved from lobe-finned fish during the Carboniferous, developing air-breathing lungs homologous to swim bladders. Tetrapods are usually not considered to be fish, in which case "fish" is a paraphyletic group.

Fish have been an important natural resource for people since prehistoric times, especially as food. Commercial and subsistence fishermen harvest fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in breeding cages in the ocean. Fish are caught for for recreation, or raised by fishkeepers as ornaments for private and public exhibition in aquaria and garden ponds. Fish have had a role in human culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, and as the subjects of art, books and movies.

Etymology

The word fish is inherited from Proto-Germanic, and is related to German Fisch, the Latin piscis and Old Irish īasc, though the exact root is unknown; some authorities reconstruct a Proto-Indo-European root *peysk-, attested only in Italic, Celtic, and Germanic. [1] [2] [3] [4]

Evolution

Fossil history

Dunkleosteus was a giant Devonian armoured Placoderm, c. 400 mya. Dunkleosteus profile.jpg
Dunkleosteus was a giant Devonian armoured Placoderm, c. 400 mya.

The evolution of fish began about 530 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion. At this time the early chordates developed their skull and vertebral column. [5] The first fish lineages belong to the Agnatha, or jawless fish, such as Haikouichthys . [6] During the late Cambrian, other jawless forms such as conodonts appeared. [5]

Jawed vertebrates appear in the fossil record from the Silurian, with giant armoured placoderms such as Dunkleosteus . [7] Jawed fish, too, appeared during the Silurian: [8] the cartilaginous Chondrichthyes [9] [10] and the bony Osteichthyes. [11]

During the Devonian, fish diversity greatly increased, including among the placoderms, lobe-finned fishes, and early sharks, earning the Devonian the epithet "the age of fishes". [12] [13]

Phylogeny

Fishes are a paraphyletic group, since any clade containing all fish, such as the Gnathostomata or (for bony fish) Osteichthyes, also contains the clade of tetrapods (four-limbed vertebrates, mostly terrestrial), which are not considered to be fish. [14] [15] [16] Some tetrapods, such as cetaceans and ichthyosaurs, have secondarily acquired a fish-like body shape through convergent evolution. [17] Fishes of the World comments that "it is increasingly widely accepted that tetrapods, including ourselves, are simply modified bony fishes, and so we are comfortable with using the taxon Osteichthyes as a clade, which now includes all tetrapods". [16] The biodiversity of extant fish is unevenly distributed among the various groups; teleosts, bony fishes able to protrude their jaws, make up 96% of fish species. [18] [16] The cladogram [19] shows the evolutionary relationships of all groups of living fishes (with their respective diversity [16] [20] ) and the tetrapods). [21] Extinct groups are marked with a dagger (†); groups of uncertain placement [19] are labelled with a question mark (?) and dashed lines (- - - - -).

Vertebrates

Jawless fishes (118 species: hagfish, lampreys) Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus 1758 Fig 106 (Matschie et al. 1909).svg

?

Thelodonti, †Conodonta, †Anaspida Sphenonectris turnernae white background.jpg ConodontZICA.png Lasanius NT small.jpg

Galeaspida Galeaspids NT.jpg

Osteostraci Cephalaspis Lyellii.jpg

Jawed

Placodermi Dunkleosteus intermedius.jpg

?

Acanthodii Diplacanthus reconstructed.jpg

Cartilaginous fishes (>1,100 species: sharks, rays, chimaeras) Notorynchus cepedianus (Broadnose sevengill shark).gif

Osteichthyes
Lobe-finned fish
Rhipidistia

Tetrapoda (>38,000 species, not considered fish: amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals) Salamender (PSF).png

Dipnoi (6 species: lungfish) Lepidosiren paradoxa2.jpg

Actinistia (2 species: coelacanths) Coelacanth-bgiu.png

Ray-finned fish

Cladistia (14 species: bichirs, reedfish) Polypterus bichir.jpg

Actinopteri

Chondrostei (27 species: sturgeons, paddlefish) Acipenser gueldenstaedtii.jpg

Neopterygii
Holostei

Ginglymodi (7 species: gars, alligator gars) Lepisosteus platostomus.jpg

Halecomorphi (2 species: bowfin, eyetail bowfin) Amia calva.jpg

Teleostei (>32,000 species) Engraulis ringens.jpg

vertebrates

Taxonomy

Fishes (without tetrapods) are a paraphyletic group and for this reason, the class Pisces seen in older reference works is no longer used in formal classifications. Traditional classification divides fish into three extant classes (Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, and Osteichthyes), and with extinct forms sometimes classified within those groups, sometimes as their own classes. [22]

Fish account for more than half of vertebrate species. As of 2016, there are over 32,000 described species of bony fish, over 1,100 species of cartilaginous fish, and over 100 hagfish and lampreys. A third of these fall within the nine largest families; from largest to smallest, these are Cyprinidae, Gobiidae, Cichlidae, Characidae, Loricariidae, Balitoridae, Serranidae, Labridae, and Scorpaenidae. About 64 families are monotypic, containing only one species. [16]

Diversity

Fish range in size from the huge 16-metre (52 ft) whale shark [23] to some tiny teleosts only 8-millimetre (0.3 in), such as the cyprinid Paedocypris progenetica [24] and the stout infantfish. [25]

Swimming performance varies from fish such as tuna, salmon, and jacks that can cover 10–20 body-lengths per second to species such as eels and rays that swim no more than 0.5 body-lengths per second. [26]

A typical fish is cold-blooded, has a streamlined body for rapid swimming, extracts oxygen from water using gills, has two sets of paired fins, one or two dorsal fins, an anal fin and a tail fin, jaws, skin covered with scales, and lays eggs. Each criterion has exceptions, creating a wide diversity in body shape and way of life. For example, some fast-swimming fish are warm-blooded, while some slow-swimming fish have abandoned streamlining in favour of other body shapes. [27]

Ecology

Habitats

Different fish species are adapted to a wide variety of freshwater and marine habitats. Fish habitat diversity.svg
Different fish species are adapted to a wide variety of freshwater and marine habitats.

Fish species are roughly divided equally between marine (oceanic) and freshwater ecosystems. Coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific constitute the center of diversity for marine fishes, whereas continental freshwater fishes are most diverse in large river basins of tropical rainforests, especially the Amazon, Congo, and Mekong basins. More than 5,600 fish species inhabit Neotropical freshwaters alone, such that Neotropical fishes represent about 10% of all vertebrate species on the Earth. Exceptionally rich sites in the Amazon basin, such as Cantão State Park, can contain more freshwater fish species than occur in all of Europe. [28]

Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams (e.g., char and gudgeon) to the abyssal and even hadal depths of the deepest oceans (e.g., cusk-eels and snailfish), although none have been found in the deepest 25% of the ocean. [29] The deepest living fish in the ocean so far found is a cusk-eel, Abyssobrotula galatheae , recorded at the bottom of the Puerto Rico trench at 8,370 m (27,460 ft). [30] [31]

In terms of temperature, Jonah's icefish live in cold [lower-alpha 1] waters of the Southern Ocean, including under the Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf at a latitude of 79°S, [33] while desert pupfish live in desert springs, streams, and marshes, sometimes highly saline, with water temperatures as high as 36 C. [34] [35]

A few fish live mostly on land or lay their eggs on land near water. [36] Mudskippers feed and interact with one another on mudflats and go underwater to hide in their burrows. [37] A single undescribed species of Phreatobius has been called a true "land fish" as this worm-like catfish strictly lives among waterlogged leaf litter. [38] [39] Cavefish of multiple families live in underground lakes, underground rivers or aquifers. [40]

Parasites and predators

Like other animals, fish suffer from parasites. Some species use cleaner fish to remove external parasites. The best known of these are the bluestreak cleaner wrasses of coral reefs in the Indian and Pacific oceans. These small fish maintain cleaning stations where other fish congregate and perform specific movements to attract the attention of the cleaners. [41] Cleaning behaviors have been observed in a number of fish groups, including an interesting case between two cichlids of the same genus, Etroplus maculatus , the cleaner, and the much larger E. suratensis . [42]

Fish occupy many trophic levels in freshwater and marine food webs. Fish at the higher levels are predatory, and a substantial part of their prey consists of other fish. [43] In addition, mammals such as dolphins and seals feed on fish, alongside birds such as gannets and cormorants. [44]

Anatomy and physiology

Anatomy and locomotion

The body of a typical fish is adapted for efficient swimming by alternately contracting paired sets of muscles on either side of the backbone. These contractions form S-shaped curves that move down the body. As each curve reaches the tail fin, force is applied to the water, moving the fish forward. The other fins act as control surfaces like an aircraft's flaps, enabling the fish to steer in any direction. [45]

Since body tissue is denser than water, fish must compensate for the difference or they will sink. Many bony fish have an internal organ called a swim bladder that allows them to adjust their buoyancy by increasing or decreasing the amount of gas it contains. [46]

The scales of fish provide protection from predators at the cost of adding stiffness and weight. [47] Fish scales are often highly reflective; this silvering provides camouflage in the open ocean. Because the water all around is the same colour, reflecting an image of the water offers near-invisibility. [48]

Circulation

The fish heart pumps blood to the gills, where it picks up oxygen. The blood then flows without further pumping to the body, from where it returns to the heart. Fish gill respiration.jpg
The fish heart pumps blood to the gills, where it picks up oxygen. The blood then flows without further pumping to the body, from where it returns to the heart.

Fish have a closed-loop circulatory system. The heart pumps the blood in a single loop throughout the body; for comparison, the mammal heart has two loops, one for the lungs to pick up oxygen, one for the body to deliver the oxygen. In fish, the heart pumps blood through the gills. Oxygen-rich blood then flows without further pumping, unlike in mammals, to the body tissues. Finally, oxygen-depleted blood returns to the heart. [49]

Respiration

Gills

Fish exchange gases using gills on either side of the pharynx. Gills consist of comblike structures called filaments. Each filament contains a capillary network that provides a large surface area for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. Fish exchange gases by pulling oxygen-rich water through their mouths and pumping it over their gills. Capillary blood in the gills flows in the opposite direction to the water, resulting in efficient countercurrent exchange. The gills push the oxygen-poor water out through openings in the sides of the pharynx. Cartilaginous fish have multiple gill openings: sharks usually have five, sometimes six or seven pairs; they often have to swim to oxygenate their gills. Bony fish have a single gill opening on each side, hidden beneath a protective bony cover or operculum. They are able to oxygenate their gills using muscles in the head. [50]

Air breathing

Some 400 species of fish in 50 families can breathe air, enabling them to live in oxygen-poor water or to emerge on to land. [51] The ability of fish to do this is potentially limited by their single-loop circulation, as oxygenated blood from their air-breathing organ will mix with deoxygenated blood returning to the heart from the rest of the body. Lungfish, bichirs, ropefish, bowfins, snakefish, and the African knifefish have evolved to reduce such mixing, and to reduce oxygen loss from the gills to oxygen-poor water. Bichirs and lungfish have tetrapod-like paired lungs, requiring them to surface to gulp air, and making them obligate air breathers. Many other fish, including inhabitants of rock pools and the intertidal zone, are facultative air breathers, able to breathe air when out of water, as may occur daily at low tide, and to use their gills when in water. Some coastal fish like rockskippers and mudskippers choose to leave the water to feed in habitats temporarily exposed to the air. [51] Some catfish absorb air through their digestive tracts. [52]

Digestion

The digestive system consists of a tube, the gut, leading from the mouth to the anus. The mouth of most fishes contains teeth to grip prey or crush the food. An esophagus carries foot to the stomach where food may be stored and partially digested. A sphincter, the pylorus, releases food to the intestine at intervals. Many fish have finger-shaped pouches, pyloric caeca, around the pylorus, of doubtful function. The pancreas secretes enzymes into the intestine to digest the food; other enzymes are secreted directly by the intestine itself. The liver produces bile which helps to break up fat into an emulsion which can be absorbed in the intestine. [53]

Excretion

Most fish release their nitrogenous wastes as ammonia. This may be excreted through the gills or filtered by the kidneys. Salt is excreted by the rectal gland. [54] Saltwater fish tend to lose water by osmosis; their kidneys return water to the body, and produce a concentrated urine. The reverse happens in freshwater fish: they tend to gain water osmotically, and produce a dilute urine. Some fish have kidneys able to operate in both freshwater to saltwater. [55]

Brain

Diagram of rainbow trout brain, from above Fish brain.png
Diagram of rainbow trout brain, from above

Fish have small brains relative to body size compared with other vertebrates, typically one-fifteenth the brain mass of a similarly-sized bird or mammal. [56] However, some fish have relatively large brains, notably mormyrids and sharks, which have brains about as large for their body weight as birds and marsupials. [57] At the front of the brain are the olfactory lobes, a pair of structures that receive and process signals from the nostrils via the two olfactory nerves.Fish that hunt primarily by smell, such as hagfish and sharks, have very large olfactory lobes. Behind these is the telencephalon, which in fish deals mostly with olfaction. Together these structures form the forebrain.Connecting the forebrain to the midbrain is the diencephalon; it works with hormones and homeostasis.The pineal body is just above the diencephalon; it detects light, maintains circadian rhythms, and controls color changes.The midbrain contains the two optic lobes. These are very large in species that hunt by sight, such as rainbow trout and cichlids.The hindbrain controls swimming and balance.The single-lobed cerebellum is the biggest part of the brain; it is small in hagfish and lampreys, but very large in mormyrids, processing their electrical sense.The brain stem or myelencephalon controls some muscles and body organs, and governs respiration and osmoregulation. [56]

Sensory systems

The lateral line system is a network of sensors in the skin which detects gentle currents and vibrations, and senses the motion of nearby fish, whether predators or prey. [58] This can be considered both a sense of touch and of hearing. Blind cave fish navigate almost entirely through the sensations from their lateral line system. [59] Some fish, such as catfish and sharks, have the ampullae of Lorenzini, electroreceptors that detect weak electric currents on the order of millivolt. [60] Vision in fishes is an important sensory system. Fish eyes are similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates like birds and mammals, but have a more spherical lens. Their retinas generally have both rods and cones (for scotopic and photopic vision); most species have colour vision. Some fish can see ultraviolet, while others can see polarized light. Amongst jawless fish, the lamprey has well-developed eyes, while the hagfish has only primitive eyespots. [61] Hearing too is an important sensory system in fish. Fish sense sound using their lateral lines and otoliths in their ears, inside their heads. Some can detect sound through the swim bladder. [62] Some fish, including salmon, are capable of magnetoreception; when the axis of a magnetic field is changed around a circular tank of young fish, they reorient themselves in line with the field. [63] [64] The mechanism of fish magnetoreception remains unknown; [65] experiments in birds imply a quantum radical pair mechanism. [66]

Cognition

The cognitive capacities of fish include self-awareness, as seen in mirror tests. Manta rays and wrasses placed in front of a mirror repeatedly check whether their reflection's behavior mimics their body movement. [67] [68] [69] Choerodon wrasse, archerfish, and Atlantic cod can solve problems and invent tools. [70] The monogamous cichlid Amatitlania siquia exhibits pessimistic behavior when prevented from being with its partner. [71] Fish orient themselves using landmarks; they may use mental maps based on multiple landmarks. Fish are able to learn to traverse mazes, showing that they possess spatial memory and visual discrimination. [72]

Electrogenesis

The elephantnose fish is a weakly electric fish which generates an electric field with its electric organ and then uses its electroreceptive organs to locate objects by the distortions they cause in its electric field. Electroreception system in Elephantfish.svg
The elephantnose fish is a weakly electric fish which generates an electric field with its electric organ and then uses its electroreceptive organs to locate objects by the distortions they cause in its electric field.

Electric fish such as elephantfishes, the African knifefish, and electric eels have some of their muscles adapted to generate electric fields. They use the field to locate and identify objects such as prey in the waters around them, which may be turbid or dark. [74] Strongly electric fish like the electric eel can in addition use their electric organs to generate shocks powerful enough to stun their prey. [75]

Endothermy

Most fish are exclusively cold-blooded or ectothermic. However, the Scombroidei are warm-blooded (endothermic), including the billfishes and tunas. [76] The opah, a lampriform, uses whole-body endothermy, generating heat with its swimming muscles to warm its body while countercurrent exchange minimizes heat loss. [77] Among the cartilaginous fishes, sharks of the families Lamnidae (such as the great white shark) and Alopiidae (thresher sharks) are endothermic. The degree of endothermy varies from the billfishes, which warm only their eyes and brain, to the bluefin tuna and the porbeagle shark, which maintain body temperatures more than 20 °C (68 °F) above the ambient water. [76] [78] [79]

Reproduction and life-cycle

Salmon fry hatching from the egg, keeping its yolk sac Salmonlarvakils.jpg
Salmon fry hatching from the egg, keeping its yolk sac

The primary reproductive organs are paired testicles and ovaries. [80] Eggs are released from the ovary to the oviducts. [81] Over 97% of fish, including salmon and goldfish, are oviparous, meaning that the eggs are shed into the water and develop outside the mother's body. [82] The eggs are usually fertilized outside the mother's body, with the male and female fish shedding their gametes into the surrounding water. In a few oviparous fish, such as the skates, fertilization is internal: the male uses an intromittent organ to deliver sperm into the female's genital opening of the female. [83] Marine fish release large numbers of small eggs into the open water column. Newly hatched young of oviparous fish are planktonic larvae. They have a large yolk sac and do not resemble juvenile or adult fish. The larval period in oviparous fish is usually only some weeks, and larvae rapidly grow and change in structure to become juveniles. During this transition, larvae must switch from their yolk sac to feeding on zooplankton prey. [83] Some fish such as surf-perches, splitfins, and lemon sharks are viviparous or live-bearing, meaning that the mother retains the eggs and nourishes the embryos via a structure analogous to the placenta to connect the mother's blood supply with the embryo's. [83]

Defenses against disease

Fish have both non-specific and immune defenses against disease. Non-specific defenses include the skin and scales, as well as the mucus layer secreted by the epidermis that traps and inhibits the growth of microorganisms. If pathogens breach these defenses, the innate immune system can mount an inflammatory response that increases blood flow to the infected region and delivers white blood cells that attempt to destroy pathogens, non-specifically. Specific defenses respond to particular antigens, such as proteins on the surfaces of pathogenic bacteria, recognised by the adaptive immune system. [84] Immune systems evolved in deuterostomes as shown in the cladogram. [85]

Deuterostomes

  Echinoderms, hemichordates, cephalochordates, urochordates

   Vertebrates

  Jawless fishes

   VLR adaptive immunity   

  Jawed fishes and tetrapods

  V(D)J adaptive immunity   
   innate immunity   

Immune organs vary by type of fish. The jawless fish have lymphoid tissue within the anterior kidney, and granulocytes in the gut. They have their own type of adaptive immune system; it makes use of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) to generate immunity to a wide range of antigens, The result is much like that of jawed fishes and tetrapods, but it may have evolved separately. [85] All jawed fishes have an adaptive immune system with B and T lymphocytes bearing immunoglobulins and T cell receptors respectively. This makes use of Variable–Diversity–Joining rearrangement (V(D)J) to create immunity to a wide range of antigens. This system evolved once and is basal to the jawed vertebrate clade. [85] Cartilaginous fish have three specialized organs that contain immune system cells: the epigonal organs around the gonads, Leydig's organ within the esophagus, and a spiral valve in their intestine, while their thymus and spleen have similar functions to those of the same organs in the immune systems of tetrapods. [86] Teleosts have lymphocytes in the thymus, and other immune cells in the spleen and other organs. [87] [88]

Behavior

Shoaling and schooling

Fish such as these trumpetfishes school for safety from predators, and to spawn. Banco de peces trompeta (Macroramphosus scolopax), islas Azores, Portugal, 2020-07-27, DD 40.jpg
Fish such as these trumpetfishes school for safety from predators, and to spawn.

A shoal is a loosely organised group where each fish swims and forages independently but is attracted to other members of the group and adjusts its behaviour, such as swimming speed, so that it remains close to the other members of the group. A school is a much more tightly organised group, synchronising its swimming so that all fish move at the same speed and in the same direction. [90] Schooling is sometimes an antipredator adaptation, offering improved vigilance against predators. It is often more efficient to gather food by working as a group, and individual fish optimise their strategies by choosing to join or leave a shoal. When a predator has been noticed, prey fish respond defensively, resulting in collective shoal behaviours such as synchronised movements. Responses do not consist only of attempting to hide or flee; antipredator tactics include for example scattering and reassembling. Fish also aggregate in shoals to spawn. [89]

Communication

Fish communicate by transmitting sounds, acoustic signals, to each other. This is most often in the context of feeding, aggression or courtship. [91] The sounds emitted vary with the species and stimulus involved. Fish can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder. [92]

French grunt fish makes sounds by grinding its teeth. French grunts - Haemulon flavolineatum.jpg
French grunt fish makes sounds by grinding its teeth.

Some fish produce sounds by rubbing or grinding their bones together. These sounds are stridulatory. In Haemulon flavolineatum , the French grunt fish, as it produces a grunting noise by grinding its teeth together, especially when in distress. The grunts are at a frequency of around 700 Hz, and last approximately 47 milliseconds. [92] The longsnout seahorse, Hippocampus reidi produces two categories of sounds, 'clicks' and 'growls', by rubbing their coronet bone across the grooved section of their neurocranium. [93] Clicks are produced during courtship and feeding, and the frequencies of clicks were within the range of 50 Hz-800 Hz. The frequencies are at the higher end of the range during spawning, when the female and male fishes were less than fifteen centimeters apart. Growls are produced when the H. reidi are stressed. The 'growl' sounds consist of a series of sound pulses and are emitted simultaneously with body vibrations. [94]

Some fish species create noise by engaging specialized muscles that contract and cause swimbladder vibrations. Oyster toadfish produce loud grunts by contracting sonic muscles along the sides of the swim bladder. [95] Female and male toadfishes emit short-duration grunts, often as a fright response. [96] In addition to short-duration grunts, male toadfishes produce "boat whistle calls". [97] These calls are longer in duration, lower in frequency, and are primarily used to attract mates. [97] The sounds emitted by the O. tao have frequency range of 140 Hz to 260 Hz. [97] The frequencies of the calls depend on the rate at which the sonic muscles contract. [98] [95]

The red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus , produces drumming sounds by vibrating its swimbladder. Vibrations are caused by the rapid contraction of sonic muscles that surround the dorsal aspect of the swimbladder. These vibrations result in repeated sounds with frequencies from 100 to >200 Hz. S. ocellatus produces different calls depending on the stimuli involved, such as courtship or a predator's attack. Females do not produce sounds, and lack sound-producing (sonic) muscles. [99]

Conservation

The 2006 IUCN Red List names 1,173 fish species that are threatened with extinction. [100] Included are species such as Atlantic cod, [101] Devil's Hole pupfish, [102] coelacanths, [103] and great white sharks. [104] Because fish live underwater they are more difficult to study than terrestrial animals and plants, and information about fish populations is often lacking. However, freshwater fish seem particularly threatened because they often live in relatively small water bodies. For example, the Devil's Hole pupfish occupies only a single 3 by 6 metres (10 by 20 ft) pool. [105]

Overfishing

Collapse of the Atlantic northwest cod fishery Time series for collapse of Atlantic northwest cod.png
Collapse of the Atlantic northwest cod fishery

Overfishing is a major threat to edible fish such as cod and tuna. [106] [107] Overfishing eventually causes population (known as stock) collapse because the survivors cannot produce enough young to replace those removed. Such commercial extinction does not mean that the species is extinct, merely that it can no longer sustain a fishery. A well-studied example of fishery collapse is the Pacific sardine Sadinops sagax caerulues fishery off the California coast. From a 1937 peak of 800,000 tonnes the catch steadily declined to only 24000 tonnes in 1968, after which the fishery was no longer economically viable. [108]

Fisheries scientists and the fishing industry have different views on the resiliency of fisheries to intensive fishing. In places such as Scotland, Newfoundland, and Alaska the fishing industry is a major employer, so governments are predisposed to support it. [109] [110] On the other hand, scientists and conservationists push for stringent protection, warning that many stocks could be wiped out within fifty years. [111] [112]

Habitat destruction

A key stress on both freshwater and marine ecosystems is habitat degradation including water pollution, the building of dams, removal of water for use by humans, and the introduction of exotic species. [113] An example of a fish that has become endangered because of habitat change is the pallid sturgeon, a North American freshwater fish that lives in rivers damaged by human activity. [114]

Invasive species

Introduction of invasive species occurs in many habitats. The Mediterranean Sea has become a major 'hotspot' of invasive species since the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. A thousand marine species of all sorts – fishes, seaweeds, invertebrates – originating from the Red Sea and more broadly from the Indo-Pacific have crossed the Canal from south to north to settle in the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Nowadays many of these tropical or Lessepsian migrants, have extended their range towards the west, obviously favoured by the general warming of the Mediterranean. The resulting change in biodiversity is without precedent in human memory and is accelerating: a long-term cross-Basin survey engaged by the Mediterranean Science Commission recently documented that in just twenty years, from 2001 till 2021, no less than 107 alien fish species have reached the Mediterranean from both the tropical Atlantic and the Red Sea, which is more than the total recorded during the whole 130 preceding years. [115]

Deliberate introductions of species with market potential are another frequent vector. The predatory Nile perch was introduced into Lake Victoria in the 1960s; it went on to exterminate the lake's 500 endemic cichlid species. Some of them now survive in captive breeding programmes, but others are probably extinct. [116]

Importance to humans

Economic

A trawler hauling in a large catch of cod, 2016 Trawlers overfishing cod.jpg
A trawler hauling in a large catch of cod, 2016

Throughout history, humans have used fish as a food source for dietary protein. Historically and today, most fish harvested for human consumption has come by means of catching wild fish. However, fish farming, which has been practiced since about 3,500 BCE in ancient China, [117] is becoming increasingly important in many nations. Overall, about one-sixth of the world's protein is estimated to be provided by fish. [118] Fishing is accordingly a large global business which provides income for millions of people. [118] The Environmental Defense Fund has a guide on which fish are safe to eat, given the state of pollution in today's world, and which fish are obtained in a sustainable way. [119] As of 2020, over 65 million tonnes (Mt) of marine fish and 10 Mt of freshwater fish were captured, while some 50 Mt of fish, mainly freshwater, were farmed. Of the marine species captured in 2020, anchoveta represented 4.9 Mt, Alaska pollock 3.5 Mt, skipjack tuna 2.8 Mt, and Atlantic herring and yellowfin tuna 1.6 Mt each; eight more species had catches over 1 Mt. [120]

Recreation

Fish have been recognized as a source of beauty for almost as long as used for food, appearing in cave art, being raised as ornamental fish in ponds, and displayed in aquariums in homes, offices, or public settings. Recreational fishing is fishing primarily for pleasure or competition; it can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is fishing for profit, or artisanal fishing, which is fishing primarily for food. The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod, reel, line, hooks, and any one of a wide range of baits. Recreational fishing is particularly popular in North America and Europe and state, provincial, and federal government agencies actively management target fish species. [121] [122]

Culture

Fish themes have symbolic significance in many religions. In ancient Mesopotamia, fish offerings were made to the gods from the very earliest times. [123] Fish were also a major symbol of Enki, the god of water. [123] Fish frequently appear as filling motifs in cylinder seals from the Old Babylonian (c. 1830 BC – c. 1531 BC) and Neo-Assyrian (911–609 BC) periods. [123] Starting during the Kassite Period (c. 1600 BC – c. 1155 BC) and lasting until the early Persian Period (550–30 BC), healers and exorcists dressed in ritual garb resembling the bodies of fish. [123] During the Seleucid Period (312–63 BC), the legendary Babylonian culture hero Oannes was said to have dressed in the skin of a fish. [123] Fish were sacred to the Syrian goddess Atargatis [124] and, during her festivals, only her priests were permitted to eat them. [124] In the Book of Jonah, the central figure, a prophet named Jonah, is swallowed by a giant fish after being thrown overboard by the crew of the ship he is travelling on. [125] Early Christians used the ichthys , a symbol of a fish, to represent Jesus. [124] [126] [124] [126] Among the deities said to take the form of a fish are Ika-Roa of the Polynesians, Dagon of various ancient Semitic peoples, the shark-gods of Hawaiʻi and Matsya of the Hindus. The astrological symbol Pisces is based on a constellation of the same name, but there is also a second fish constellation in the night sky, Piscis Austrinus. [127]

Fish feature prominently in art, in movies such as Finding Nemo and books such as The Old Man and the Sea . Large fish, particularly sharks, have frequently been the subject of horror movies and thrillers, notably the novel Jaws , in turn parodied in Shark Tale and Snakehead Terror . Piranhas are shown in a similar light to sharks in films such as Piranha . [128]

See also

Notes

  1. The temperature is often around 0 C. The freezing point of seawater at the surface is -1.85 C, falling to -2.62 C at a depth of 1000 metres. However, the water can be supercooled somewhat below these temperatures. [32]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chondrichthyes</span> Class of jawed cartilaginous fishes

Chondrichthyes is a class of jawed fish that contains the cartilaginous fish or chondrichthyians, which all have skeletons primarily composed of cartilage. They can be contrasted with the Osteichthyes or bony fish, which have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue. Chondrichthyes are aquatic vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, placoid scales, conus arteriosus in the heart, and a lack of opecula and swim bladders. Within the infraphylum Gnathostomata, cartilaginous fishes are distinct from all other jawed vertebrates.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Osteichthyes</span> Diverse group of fish with skeletons of bone rather than cartilage

Osteichthyes, commonly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse superclass of vertebrate animals that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue. They can be contrasted with the Chondrichthyes, which have skeletons primarily composed of cartilage. The vast majority of extant fish are members of Osteichthyes, which is an extremely diverse and abundant group consisting of 45 orders, over 435 families and 28,000 species. It is the largest class of vertebrates in existence today.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gnathostomata</span> Infraphylum of vertebrates

Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates. Gnathostome diversity comprises roughly 60,000 species, which accounts for 99% of all living vertebrates, including humans. In addition to opposing jaws, living gnathostomes have true teeth, paired appendages, the elastomeric protein of elastin, and a horizontal semicircular canal of the inner ear, along with physiological and cellular anatomical characters such as the myelin sheaths of neurons, and an adaptive immune system that has the discrete lymphoid organs of spleen and thymus, and uses V(D)J recombination to create antigen recognition sites, rather than using genetic recombination in the variable lymphocyte receptor gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sarcopterygii</span> Class of fishes

Sarcopterygii — sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii — is a taxon of the bony fish known as the lobe-finned fish or sarcopterygians, characterised by prominent muscular limb buds (lobes) within the fins, which are supported by articulated appendicular skeletons. This is in contrast to the other clade of bony fish, the Actinopterygii, which have only skin-covered bony spines (lepidotrichia) supporting the fins.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bichir</span> Family of archaic-looking ray-finned fishes

Bichirs and the reedfish comprise Polypteridae, a family of archaic ray-finned fishes and the only family in the order Polypteriformes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bowfin</span> Bony fish related to gars in the infraclass Holosteii

The bowfin is a bony fish, native to North America. Common names include mudfish, mud pike, dogfish, grindle, grinnel, swamp trout, and choupique. It is regarded as a relict, being one of only two surviving species of the Halecomorphi, a group of fish that first appeared during the Early Triassic, around 250 million years ago. The bowfin is often considered a "primitive fish" because they have retained some morphological characteristics of their early ancestors. It is one of two species in the genus Amia, along with Amia ocellicauda, the eyespot bowfin. The closest living relatives of bowfins are gars, with the two groups being united in the clade Holostei.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Teleost</span> Infraclass of fishes

Teleostei, members of which are known as teleosts, is, by far, the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and contains 96% of all extant species of fish. Teleosts are arranged into about 40 orders and 448 families. Over 26,000 species have been described. Teleosts range from giant oarfish measuring 7.6 m (25 ft) or more, and ocean sunfish weighing over 2 t, to the minute male anglerfish Photocorynus spiniceps, just 6.2 mm (0.24 in) long. Including not only torpedo-shaped fish built for speed, teleosts can be flattened vertically or horizontally, be elongated cylinders or take specialised shapes as in anglerfish and seahorses.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fish anatomy</span> Study of the form or morphology of fishes

Fish anatomy is the study of the form or morphology of fish. It can be contrasted with fish physiology, which is the study of how the component parts of fish function together in the living fish. In practice, fish anatomy and fish physiology complement each other, the former dealing with the structure of a fish, its organs or component parts and how they are put together, such as might be observed on the dissecting table or under the microscope, and the latter dealing with how those components function together in living fish.

Hemiramphidae is a family of fishes that are commonly called halfbeaks, spipe fish or spipefish. They are a geographically widespread and numerically abundant family of epipelagic fish inhabiting warm waters around the world. The halfbeaks are named for their distinctive jaws, in which the lower jaws are significantly longer than the upper jaws. The similar viviparous halfbeaks have often been included in this family.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Double-lined mackerel</span> Species of fish

The double-lined mackerel, is a species of Spanish mackerel in the family Scombridae. This species is sometimes also called the scad mackerel.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shark anatomy</span>

Shark anatomy differs from that of bony fish in a variety of ways. Variation observed within shark anatomy is a potential result of speciation and habitat variation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marine vertebrate</span> Marine animals with a vertebrate column

Marine vertebrates are vertebrates that live in marine environments. These are the marine fish and the marine tetrapods. Vertebrates are a subphylum of chordates that have a vertebral column (backbone). The vertebral column provides the central support structure for an internal skeleton. The internal skeleton gives shape, support, and protection to the body and can provide a means of anchoring fins or limbs to the body. The vertebral column also serves to house and protect the spinal cord that lies within the column.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Diversity of fish</span> Fish species categorized by various characteristics

Fish are very diverse animals and can be categorised in many ways. Although most fish species have probably been discovered and described, about 250 new ones are still discovered every year. According to FishBase about 34,800 species of fish had been described as of February 2022, which is more than the combined total of all other vertebrate species: mammals, amphibians, reptiles and birds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fish scale</span> Rigid covering growing atop a fishs skin

A fish scale is a small rigid plate that grows out of the skin of a fish. The skin of most jawed fishes is covered with these protective scales, which can also provide effective camouflage through the use of reflection and colouration, as well as possible hydrodynamic advantages. The term scale derives from the Old French escale, meaning a shell pod or husk.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fish fin</span> Bony skin-covered spines or rays protruding from the body of a fish

Fins are moving appendages protruding from the body of fish that interact with water to generate thrust and help the fish swim. Apart from the tail or caudal fin, fish fins have no direct connection with the spine and are supported only by muscles.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Evolution of fish</span> Origin and diversification of fish through geologic time

The evolution of fish began about 530 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion. It was during this time that the early chordates developed the skull and the vertebral column, leading to the first craniates and vertebrates. The first fish lineages belong to the Agnatha, or jawless fish. Early examples include Haikouichthys. During the late Cambrian, eel-like jawless fish called the conodonts, and small mostly armoured fish known as ostracoderms, first appeared. Most jawless fish are now extinct; but the extant lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. Lampreys belong to the Cyclostomata, which includes the extant hagfish, and this group may have split early on from other agnathans.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fish gill</span> Organ that allows fish to breathe underwater

Fish gills are organs that allow fish to breathe underwater. Most fish exchange gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide using gills that are protected under gill covers (operculum) on both sides of the pharynx (throat). Gills are tissues that are like short threads, protein structures called filaments. These filaments have many functions including the transfer of ions and water, as well as the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, acids and ammonia. Each filament contains a capillary network that provides a large surface area for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fish physiology</span> Scientific study of how the component parts of fish function together in the living fish

Fish physiology is the scientific study of how the component parts of fish function together in the living fish. It can be contrasted with fish anatomy, which is the study of the form or morphology of fishes. In practice, fish anatomy and physiology complement each other, the former dealing with the structure of a fish, its organs or component parts and how they are put together, such as might be observed on the dissecting table or under the microscope, and the later dealing with how those components function together in the living fish. For this, at first we need to know about their intestinal morphology.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Evolution of tetrapods</span> Evolution of four legged vertebrates and their derivatives

The evolution of tetrapods began about 400 million years ago in the Devonian Period with the earliest tetrapods evolved from lobe-finned fishes. Tetrapods are categorized as animals in the biological superclass Tetrapoda, which includes all living and extinct amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. While most species today are terrestrial, little evidence supports the idea that any of the earliest tetrapods could move about on land, as their limbs could not have held their midsections off the ground and the known trackways do not indicate they dragged their bellies around. Presumably, the tracks were made by animals walking along the bottoms of shallow bodies of water. The specific aquatic ancestors of the tetrapods, and the process by which land colonization occurred, remain unclear. They are areas of active research and debate among palaeontologists at present.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spiracle (vertebrates)</span>

Spiracles are openings on the surface of some animals, which usually lead to respiratory systems.

References

  1. "DWDS – Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache". DWDS (in German). Archived from the original on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  2. Winfred Philipp Lehmann, Helen-Jo J. Hewitt, Sigmund Feist, A Gothic etymological dictionary, 1986, s.v.fisks p. 118
  3. "fish, n.1". Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 17 March 2023. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  4. Buck, Carl Darling (1949). "section 3.65". A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages. p. 184.
  5. 1 2 Donoghue, Philip C. J.; Purnell, Mark A. (2009). "The Evolutionary Emergence of Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless Relatives". Evolution: Education and Outreach. 2 (2): 204–212. doi: 10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 . ISSN   1936-6426.
  6. Shu, D. G.; Morris, S. C.; Han, J.; Zhang, Z. F.; Yasui, K.; Janvier, P.; Chen, L.; Zhang, X. L.; Liu, J. N.; Li, Y.; Liu, H.-Q. (2003). "Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys". Nature. 421 (6922): 526–529. Bibcode:2003Natur.421..526S. doi:10.1038/nature01264. PMID   12556891. S2CID   4401274.
  7. "Monster fish crushed opposition with strongest bite ever". Smh.com.au . 30 November 2006. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  8. Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an (2014). "The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications". Scientific Reports. 4: 5242. Bibcode:2014NatSR...4E5242C. doi:10.1038/srep05242. PMC   4054400 . PMID   24921626.
  9. Andreev, Plamen S.; Sansom, Ivan J.; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Wenjin; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Chun-Chieh; et al. (September 2022). "Spiny chondrichthyan from the lower Silurian of South China". Nature. 609 (7929): 969–974. Bibcode:2022Natur.609..969A. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-05233-8. PMID   36171377. S2CID   252570103.
  10. Andreev, Plamen S.; Sansom, Ivan J.; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Wenjin; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Chun-Chieh; et al. (September 2022). "The oldest gnathostome teeth". Nature. 609 (7929): 964–968. Bibcode:2022Natur.609..964A. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-05166-2. ISSN   0028-0836. PMID   36171375. S2CID   252569771.
  11. Berg, Linda R.; Solomon, Eldra Pearl; Martin, Diana W. (2004). Biology. Cengage Learning. p. 599. ISBN   978-0-534-49276-2.
  12. Benton 2005, p. 35: Fig 2.10, p. 73: Fig 3.25.
  13. Dalton, Rex (January 2006). "Hooked on fossils". Nature. 439 (7074): 262–263. doi: 10.1038/439262a . PMID   16421540. S2CID   4357313.
  14. "Zoology" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 June 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  15. Greene, Harry W. (1 January 1998). "We are primates and we are fish: Teaching monophyletic organismal biology". Integrative Biology. 1 (3): 108–111. doi:10.1002/(sici)1520-6602(1998)1:3<108::aid-inbi5>3.0.co;2-t. ISSN   1520-6602.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 Nelson, Joseph S. (2016). "Taxonomic Diversity". Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons. p. 3. ISBN   978-1-118-34233-6.
  17. Davis, R. W. (2019). "Return to the Sea: The Evolution of Marine Mammals". In Davis, R. W. (ed.). Marine Mammals: Adaptations for an Aquatic Life. New York: Springer International Publishing. pp. 7–27. ISBN   978-3-3199-8278-6.
  18. Benton 2005, pp. 175–184.
  19. 1 2 Friedman, Matt; Sallan, Lauren Cole (June 2012). "Five hundred million years of extinction and recovery: A Phanerozoic survey of large-scale diversity patterns in fishes". Palaeontology. 55 (4): 707–742. Bibcode:2012Palgy..55..707F. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01165.x . S2CID   59423401.
  20. Brownstein; et al. (27 July 2022). "Hidden species diversity in a living fossil vertebrate". Biology Letters. 18 (11). bioRxiv   10.1101/2022.07.25.500718 . doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2022.0395 . PMC   9709656 . PMID   36448369. S2CID   251162051.
  21. "Summary Statistics". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2023.1. Retrieved 5 February 2024. Table 1a: Number of species evaluated in relation to the overall number of described species, and numbers of threatened species by major groups of organisms
  22. Benton, M.J. (1998). "The quality of the fossil record of vertebrates". In Donovan, S.K.; Paul, C.R.C. (eds.). The adequacy of the fossil record. Wiley. pp. 269–303, Fig. 2.
  23. McClain, Craig R.; Balk, Meghan A.; Benfield, Mark C.; Branch, Trevor A.; Chen, Catherine; Cosgrove, James; et al. (13 January 2015). "Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna". PeerJ. PeerJ. 3: e715. doi: 10.7717/peerj.715 . ISSN   2167-8359. PMC   4304853 .
  24. Kottelat, Maurice; Britz, Ralf; Heok Hui, Tan; Witte, Kai-Erik (2005). "Paedocypris, a new genus of Southeast Asian cyprinid fish with a remarkable sexual dimorphism,comprises the world's smallest vertebrate" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The Royal Society. 273: 895–899. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3419. PMC   1560243 . PMID   16627273. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  25. Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2017). "Schindleria brevipinguis" in FishBase . September 2017 version.
  26. Helfman, Collette & Facey 1997, p. 103.
  27. Helfman, Collette & Facey 1997, pp. 3, 33–36.
  28. "Estudo das Espécies Ícticas do Parque Estadual do Cantão". central3.to.gov.br. Archived from the original on 15 August 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  29. Yancey, P.H.; Gerringer, M.E.; Drazen, J.C.; Rowden, A.A.; Jamieson, A. (2014). "Marine fish may be biochemically constrained from inhabiting the deepest ocean depths". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 111 (12): 4461–4465. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111.4461Y. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1322003111 . PMC   3970477 . PMID   24591588.
  30. Nielsen, Jørgen G. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 134. ISBN   0-12-547665-5.
  31. "What is the deepest-living fish?". Australian Museum . 23 December 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  32. Haumann, F. Alexander; Moorman, Ruth; Riser, Stephen C.; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Maksym, Ted; Wong, Annie P.S.; Wilson, Earle A.; Drucker, Robert; Talley, Lynne D.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Key, Robert M.; Sarmiento, Jorge L. (28 October 2020). "Supercooled Southern Ocean Waters". Geophysical Research Letters. 47 (20). doi:10.1029/2020GL090242. hdl: 1912/26495 .
  33. Purser, Autun; Hehemann, Laura; Boehringer, Lilian; Tippenhauer, Sandra; Wege, Mia; Bornemann, Horst; et al. (2022). "A vast icefish breeding colony discovered in the Antarctic". Current Biology. 32 (4): 842–850.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.12.022 . hdl: 2263/90796 . PMID   35030328. S2CID   245936769.
  34. Marsh, Paul C.; Sada, Donald W (1993). "Desert Pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) Recovery Plan" (PDF). United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2011.
  35. Shrode, Joy B.; Gerking, Shelby D. (1977). "Effects of Constant and Fluctuating Temperatures on Reproductive Performance of a Desert Pupfish, Cyprinodon n. nevadensis". Physiological Zoology. 50 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1086/physzool.50.1.30155710. ISSN   0031-935X. S2CID   82166135.
  36. Martin, K.L.M. (2014). Beach-Spawning Fishes: Reproduction in an Endangered Ecosystem. CRC Press. ISBN   978-1-4822-0797-2.
  37. Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2006). "Periophthalmus barbarus" in FishBase . November 2006 version.
  38. Planet Catfish. "Cat-eLog: Heptapteridae: Phreatobius: Phreatobius sp. (1)". Planet Catfish. Archived from the original on 23 October 2006. Retrieved 26 November 2006.
  39. Henderson, P.A.; Walker, I. (1990). "Spatial organization and population density of the fish community of the litter banks within a central Amazonian blackwater stream". Journal of Fish Biology. 37 (3): 401–411. Bibcode:1990JFBio..37..401H. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1990.tb05871.x.
  40. Helfman, G.S. (2007). Fish Conservation: A Guide to Understanding and Restoring Global Aquatic Biodiversity and Fishery Resources. Island Press. pp. 41–42. ISBN   978-1-55963-595-0.
  41. Helfman, Collette & Facey 1997, p. 380.
  42. Wyman, Richard L.; Ward, Jack A. (1972). "A Cleaning Symbiosis between the Cichlid Fishes Etroplus maculatus and Etroplus suratensis. I. Description and Possible Evolution". Copeia. 1972 (4): 834–838. doi:10.2307/1442742. JSTOR   1442742.
  43. Myers, Ransom A.; Worm, Boris (2003). "Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities". Nature. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 423 (6937): 280–283. doi:10.1038/nature01610. ISSN   0028-0836.
  44. "Predation". Northwest Power and Conservation Council. Retrieved 10 February 2024.
  45. Sfakiotakis, M.; Lane, D. M.; Davies, J. B. C. (1999). "Review of Fish Swimming Modes for Aquatic Locomotion" (PDF). IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering. 24 (2): 237–252. Bibcode:1999IJOE...24..237S. doi:10.1109/48.757275. S2CID   17226211. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013.
  46. "Actinopterygii: More on Morphology". University of California Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved 10 February 2024.
  47. Quan, Haocheng; Yang, Wen; Lapeyriere, Marine; Schaible, Eric; Ritchie, Robert O.; Meyers, Marc A. (2020). "Structure and Mechanical Adaptability of a Modern Elasmoid Fish Scale from the Common Carp". Matter. 3 (3): 842–863. doi:10.1016/j.matt.2020.05.011.
  48. Herring, Peter (2002). The Biology of the Deep Ocean. Oxford University Press. pp. 192–195. ISBN   978-0-19-854956-7.
  49. "Animal Circulatory Systems". Georgia Tech. Retrieved 10 February 2024.
  50. Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 316–327. ISBN   0-03-910284-X.
  51. 1 2 Graham, Jeffrey B.; Wegner, N.C. (2010). "6. Breathing air in water and in air: the air-breathing fishes". In Nilsson, Göran E. (ed.). Respiratory Physiology of Vertebrates (PDF). New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 174–221. ISBN   978-0-521-87854-8.
  52. Armbruster, Jonathan W. (1998). "Modifications of the Digestive Tract for Holding Air in Loricariid and Scoloplacid Catfishes" (PDF). Copeia . 1998 (3): 663–675. doi:10.2307/1447796. JSTOR   1447796. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  53. "Digestive System". University of Tennessee. Retrieved 10 February 2024.
  54. Burton, Derek; Burton, Margaret (21 December 2017). "Excretion". Oxford Scholarship Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198785552.003.0008.
  55. "Fish gills: mechanisms of salt transfer in fresh water and sea water". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological Sciences. The Royal Society. 262 (842): 209–249. 20 August 1971. doi:10.1098/rstb.1971.0090. ISSN   0080-4622.
  56. 1 2 Helfman, Collette & Facey 1997, pp. 48–49.
  57. Helfman, Collette & Facey 1997, p. 191.
  58. Orr, James (1999). Fish. Microsoft Encarta 99. ISBN   978-0-8114-2346-5.
  59. Godfrey-Smith, Peter (2020). "Kingfish". Metazoa. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. ISBN   9780374207946.
  60. Albert, J.S., and W.G.R. Crampton. 2005. "Electroreception and electrogenesis". pp. 431–472 in The Physiology of Fishes, 3rd ed. D.H. Evans and J.B. Claiborne (eds.). CRC Press.
  61. Campbell, Neil A.; Reece, Jane B. (2005). Biology (Seventh ed.). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.
  62. Hawkins, A. D. (1981). "6. The Hearing Abilities of Fish". In Tavolga, William N.; Popper, Arthur N.; Fay, Richard R. (eds.). Hearing and Sound Communication in Fishes. Springer. pp. 109–138. ISBN   978-1-4615-7188-9.
  63. Quinn, Thomas P. (1980). "Evidence for celestial and magnetic compass orientation in lake migrating sockeye salmon fry". Journal of Comparative Physiology A . 137 (3): 243–248. doi:10.1007/bf00657119. S2CID   44036559.
  64. Taylor, P. B. (May 1986). "Experimental evidence for geomagnetic orientation in juvenile salmon, Oncorhynchus tschawytscha Walbaum". Journal of Fish Biology . 28 (5): 607–623. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1986.tb05196.x.
  65. Formicki, Krzysztof; Korzelecka‐Orkisz, Agata; Tański, Adam (2019). "Magnetoreception in fish". Journal of Fish Biology. 95 (1): 73–91. doi:10.1111/jfb.13998. ISSN   0022-1112.
  66. Hore, Peter J.; Mouritsen, Henrik (April 2022). "The Quantum Nature of Bird Migration". Scientific American : 24–29.
  67. Ari, Csilla; D’Agostino, Dominic P. (1 May 2016). "Contingency checking and self-directed behaviors in giant manta rays: Do elasmobranchs have self-awareness?". Journal of Ethology. 34 (2): 167–174. doi:10.1007/s10164-016-0462-z. ISSN   1439-5444. S2CID   254134775. Archived from the original on 17 March 2023. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  68. Kohda, Masanori; Hotta, Takashi; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Awata, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Asai, Jun-ya; Jordan, L. Alex (21 August 2018). "Cleaner wrasse pass the mark test. What are the implications for consciousness and self-awareness testing in animals?". PLOS Biology: 397067. doi:10.1101/397067. S2CID   91375693. Archived from the original on 23 January 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  69. "Scientists find some fish can 'recognise themselves' in mirror". the Guardian. 7 February 2019. Archived from the original on 21 January 2023. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  70. Fishes Use Problem-Solving and Invent Tools Archived 17 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine - article at Scientific American Archived 18 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  71. Laubu, Chloé; Louâpre, Philippe; Dechaume-Moncharmont, François-Xavier (2019). "Pair-bonding influences affective state in a monogamous fish species". Proc. R. Soc. B. 286 (1904). 20190760. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0760 . PMC   6571461 . PMID   31185864.
  72. Sciences, Journal of Undergraduate Life. "Appropriate maze methodology to study learning in fish" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
  73. von der Emde, G. (15 May 1999). "Active electrolocation of objects in weakly electric fish". Journal of Experimental Biology . 202 (10): 1205–1215. doi:10.1242/jeb.202.10.1205. PMID   10210662.
  74. Albert, J. S.; Crampton, W. G. (2006). "Electroreception and Electrogenesis". In Lutz, P. L. (ed.). The Physiology of Fishes. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. pp. 429–470. ISBN   978-0-8493-2022-4.
  75. Catania, Kenneth C. (20 October 2015). "Electric eels use high-voltage to track fast-moving prey". Nature Communications. 6: 8638. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.8638C. doi:10.1038/ncomms9638. PMC   4667699 . PMID   26485580.
  76. 1 2 Block, B.A.; Finnerty, JR (1993). "Endothermy in fishes: a phylogenetic analysis of constraints, predispositions, and selection pressures" (PDF). Environmental Biology of Fishes. 40 (3): 283–302. doi:10.1007/BF00002518. S2CID   28644501. Archived from the original on 6 November 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  77. Wegner, Nicholas C.; Snodgrass, Owyn E.; Dewar, Heidi; Hyde, John R. (15 May 2015). "Whole-body endothermy in a mesopelagic fish, the opah, Lampris guttatus". Science. 348 (6236): 786–789. Bibcode:2015Sci...348..786W. doi:10.1126/science.aaa8902. ISSN   0036-8075. PMID   25977549. S2CID   17412022.
  78. Goldman, K.J. (1997). "Regulation of body temperature in the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias". Journal of Comparative Physiology. B Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology. 167 (6): 423–429. doi:10.1007/s003600050092. S2CID   28082417. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  79. Carey, F.G.; Lawson, K.D. (February 1973). "Temperature regulation in free-swimming bluefin tuna". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 44 (2): 375–392. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(73)90490-8. PMID   4145757.
  80. Guimaraes-Cruz, Rodrigo J.; dos Santos, José E.; Santos, Gilmar B. (July–September 2005). "Gonadal structure and gametogenesis of Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker (Pisces, Teleostei, Siluriformes)". Rev. Bras. Zool. 22 (3): 556–564. doi: 10.1590/S0101-81752005000300005 . ISSN   0101-8175.
  81. Brito, M.F.G.; Bazzoli, N. (2003). "Reproduction of the surubim catfish (Pisces, Pimelodidae) in the São Francisco River, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil". Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 55 (5): 624–633. doi: 10.1590/S0102-09352003000500018 . ISSN   0102-0935.
  82. Scott, Peter (1997). Livebearing Fishes. Tetra Press. p. 13. ISBN   1-56465-193-2.
  83. 1 2 3 Miller, Bruce; Kendall, Arthur W. (2009). "1. Fish Reproduction" (PDF). Early Life History of Marine Fishes. University of California Press. pp. 11–37. ISBN   9780520249721. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 March 2016.
  84. Helfman, Collette & Facey 1997, pp. 95–96.
  85. 1 2 3 Flajnik, M. F.; Kasahara, M. (2010). "Origin and evolution of the adaptive immune system: genetic events and selective pressures". Nature Reviews Genetics. 11 (1): 47–59. doi:10.1038/nrg2703. PMC   3805090 . PMID   19997068.
  86. Zapata, A.G.; Chiba, A.; Vara, A. (1996). "Cells and tissues of the immune system of fish". In Iwama, G. Iwama; Nakanishi, T. (eds.). The Fish Immune System: Organism, Pathogen and Environment. Fish Immunology. New York: Academic Press. pp. 1–55.
  87. Chilmonczyk, S. (1992). "The thymus in fish: development and possible function in the immune response". Annual Review of Fish Diseases . 2: 181–200. doi:10.1016/0959-8030(92)90063-4.
  88. Hansen, J.D.; Zapata, A.G. (1998). "Lymphocyte development in fish and amphibians". Immunological Reviews. 166: 199–220. doi:10.1111/j.1600-065x.1998.tb01264.x. PMID   9914914. S2CID   7965762.
  89. 1 2 Pitcher, Tony J. (1986). "12. Functions of Shoaling Behaviour in Teleosts". The Behaviour of Teleost Fishes. Springer. pp. 294–337. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-8261-4_12. ISBN   978-1-4684-8263-8.
  90. Helfman, Collette & Facey 1997, p. 375.
  91. Weinmann, S.R.; Black, A.N.; Richter, M.L.; Itzkowitz, M.; Burger, R.M. (February 2017). "Territorial vocalization in sympatric damselfish: acoustic characteristics and intruder discrimination". Bioacoustics. 27 (1): 87–102. doi:10.1080/09524622.2017.1286263. S2CID   89625932.
  92. 1 2 Bertucci, F.; Ruppé, L.; Wassenbergh, S.V.; Compère, P.; Parmentier, E. (29 October 2014). "New Insights into the Role of the Pharyngeal Jaw Apparatus in the Sound-Producing Mechanism of Haemulon Flavolineatum (Haemulidae)". Journal of Experimental Biology. 217 (21): 3862–3869. doi: 10.1242/jeb.109025 . hdl: 10067/1197840151162165141 . PMID   25355850.
  93. Colson, D.J.; Patek, S.N.; Brainerd, E.L.; Lewis, S.M. (February 1998). "Sound production during feeding in Hippocampus seahorses (Syngnathidae)". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 51 (2): 221–229. Bibcode:1998EnvBF..51..221C. doi:10.1023/A:1007434714122. S2CID   207648816.
  94. Oliveira, T.P.R.; Ladich, F.; Abed-Navandi, D.; Souto, A.S.; Rosa, I.L. (26 June 2014). "Sounds produced by the longsnout seahorse: a study of their structure and functions". Journal of Zoology. 294 (2): 114–121. doi:10.1111/jzo.12160.
  95. 1 2 Fine, L.F.; King, C.B.; Cameron, T.M. (16 October 2009). "Acoustical properties of the swimbladder in the oyster toadfish Opsanus tau". Journal of Experimental Biology. 212 (21): 3542–3552. doi:10.1242/jeb.033423. PMC   2762879 . PMID   19837896.
  96. Fine, M.L.; Waybright, T.D. (15 October 2015). "Grunt variation in the oyster toadfish Opsanus tau:effect of size and sex". PeerJ. 3 (1330): e1330. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1330 . PMC   4662586 . PMID   26623178.
  97. 1 2 3 Ricci, S.W.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Eggleston, D.B.; Kellogg, M.L.; Lyon, R.P. (8 August 2017). "Oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau) boatwhistle call detection and patterns within a large-scale oyster restoration site". PLOS ONE. 12 (8): e0182757. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1282757R. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182757 . PMC   5549733 . PMID   28792543.
  98. Skoglund, C.R. (1 August 1961). "Functional analysis of swimbladder muscles engaged in sound productivity of the toadfish". Journal of Cell Biology. 10 (4): 187–200. doi:10.1083/jcb.10.4.187. PMC   2225107 . PMID   19866593.
  99. Parmentier, E.; Tock, J.; Falguière, J.C.; Beauchaud, M. (22 May 2014). "Sound production in Sciaenops ocellatus: Preliminary study for the development of acoustic cues in aquaculture" (PDF). Aquaculture. 432: 204–211. Bibcode:2014Aquac.432..204P. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.05.017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  100. "Table 1: Numbers of threatened species by major groups of organisms (1996–2004)". iucnredlist.org. Archived from the original on 30 June 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2006.
  101. Sobel, J. (1996). "Gadus morhua". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 1996: e.T8784A12931575. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T8784A12931575.en . Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  102. NatureServe (2014). "Cyprinodon diabolis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2014: e.T6149A15362335. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T6149A15362335.en . Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  103. Musick, J.A. (2000). "Latimeria chalumnae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2000: e.T11375A3274618. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2000.RLTS.T11375A3274618.en . Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  104. Rigby, C.L.; Barreto, R.; Carlson, J.; Fernando, D.; Fordham, S.; Francis, M.P.; et al. (2019). "Carcharodon carcharias". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2019: e.T3855A2878674. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  105. Helfman, Collette & Facey 1997, pp. 449–450.
  106. "Call to halt cod 'over-fishing'". BBC News. 5 January 2007. Archived from the original on 17 January 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2006.
  107. "Tuna groups tackle overfishing". BBC News. 26 January 2007. Archived from the original on 21 January 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2006.
  108. Helfman, Collette & Facey 1997, p. 462.
  109. "UK 'must shield fishing industry'". BBC News. 3 November 2006. Archived from the original on 30 November 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2006.
  110. "EU fish quota deal hammered out". BBC News. 21 December 2006. Archived from the original on 26 December 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2006.
  111. "Ocean study predicts the collapse of all seafood fisheries by 2050". phys.org. Archived from the original on 15 March 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2006.
  112. "Atlantic bluefin tuna could soon be commercially extinct". Archived from the original on 30 April 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2006.
  113. Helfman, Collette & Facey 1997, p. 463.
  114. "Threatened and Endangered Species: Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus Fact Sheet". Archived from the original on 26 November 2005. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  115. Atlas of Exotic Fishes in the Mediterranean Sea. 2nd Edition. 2021. (F. Briand Ed.) CIESM Publishers, Paris, Monaco 366 p. Archived 6 December 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  116. Spinney, Laura (4 August 2005). "The little fish fight back". The Guardian . London. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2006.
  117. Spalding, Mark (11 July 2013). "Sustainable Ancient Aquaculture". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  118. 1 2 Helfman, Gene S. (2007). Fish Conservation: A Guide to Understanding and Restoring Global Aquatic Biodiversity and Fishery Resources. Island Press. p. 11. ISBN   978-1-59726-760-1.
  119. "EDF Seafood Selector: Fish Choices that are Good for You and the Oceans". Environmental Defense Fund. Retrieved 21 January 2024.
  120. FAO (2022). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2022. Towards Blue Transformation. Rome: FAO.
  121. Beard, T. Douglas, ed. (2011). The Angler in the Environment: Social, Economic, Biological, and Ethical Dimensions. Bethesda, MD: American Fisheries Society. p. 365. ISBN   978-1-934874-24-0.
  122. Hickley, Phil; Tompkins, Helena, eds. (1998). Recreational Fisheries: Social, Economic and Management Aspects. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 328. ISBN   978-0-852-38248-6.
  123. 1 2 3 4 5 Black, Jeremy; Green, Anthony (1992). Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. The British Museum Press. pp. 82–83. ISBN   978-0-7141-1705-8. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018.
  124. 1 2 3 4 Hyde, Walter Woodburn (2008) [1946]. Paganism to Christianity in the Roman Empire. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 57–58. ISBN   978-1-60608-349-9. Archived from the original on 17 March 2023. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  125. Sherwood, Yvonne (2000), A Biblical Text and Its Afterlives: The Survival of Jonah in Western Culture, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–8, ISBN   978-0-521-79561-6, archived from the original on 17 March 2023, retrieved 12 December 2020
  126. 1 2 Coffman, Elesha (8 August 2008). "What is the origin of the Christian fish symbol?". Christianity Today . Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  127. "Piscis Austrinus". allthesky.com. The Deep Photographic Guide to the Constellations. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  128. Zollinger, Sue Anne (3 July 2009). "Piranha – Ferocious Fighter or Scavenging Softie?". A Moment of Science. Indiana Public Media. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015.

Sources

Further reading