Algae

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Algae
An informal term for a diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotes
Temporal range: Mesoproterozoic–present [1]
NSW seabed 1.JPG
A variety of algae growing on the sea bed in shallow waters
Vodorosli presnovodnogo vodoema.jpg
A variety of microscopic unicellular and colonial freshwater algae
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Groups included
Typically excluded:

Algae ( /ˈæli,ˈælɡi/ ; singular alga /ˈælɡə/ ) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic. Included organisms range from unicellular microalgae, such as Chlorella and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata, xylem and phloem, which are found in land plants. The largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a division of green algae which includes, for example, Spirogyra and stoneworts.

No definition of algae is generally accepted. One definition is that algae "have chlorophyll as their primary photosynthetic pigment and lack a sterile covering of cells around their reproductive cells". [2] Although cyanobacteria are often referred to as "blue-green algae", most authorities exclude all prokaryotes from the definition of algae. [3] [4]

Algae constitute a polyphyletic group [3] since they do not include a common ancestor, and although their plastids seem to have a single origin, from cyanobacteria, [5] they were acquired in different ways. Green algae are examples of algae that have primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Diatoms and brown algae are examples of algae with secondary chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic red alga. [6]

Algae exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies, from simple asexual cell division to complex forms of sexual reproduction. [7]

Algae lack the various structures that characterize land plants, such as the phyllids (leaf-like structures) of bryophytes, rhizoids in nonvascular plants, and the roots, leaves, and other organs found in tracheophytes (vascular plants). Most are phototrophic, although some are mixotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of organic carbon either by osmotrophy, myzotrophy, or phagotrophy. Some unicellular species of green algae, many golden algae, euglenids, dinoflagellates, and other algae have become heterotrophs (also called colorless or apochlorotic algae), sometimes parasitic, relying entirely on external energy sources and have limited or no photosynthetic apparatus. [8] [9] [10] Some other heterotrophic organisms, such as the apicomplexans, are also derived from cells whose ancestors possessed plastids, but are not traditionally considered as algae. Algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately derived from cyanobacteria that produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple and green sulfur bacteria. Fossilized filamentous algae from the Vindhya basin have been dated back to 1.6 to 1.7 billion years ago. [11]

Etymology and study

The singular alga is the Latin word for 'seaweed' and retains that meaning in English. [12] The etymology is obscure. Although some speculate that it is related to Latin algēre, 'be cold', [13] no reason is known to associate seaweed with temperature. A more likely source is alliga, 'binding, entwining'. [14]

The Ancient Greek word for 'seaweed' was φῦκος (phŷcos), which could mean either the seaweed (probably red algae) or a red dye derived from it. The Latinization, fūcus, meant primarily the cosmetic rouge. The etymology is uncertain, but a strong candidate has long been some word related to the Biblical פוך (pūk), 'paint' (if not that word itself), a cosmetic eye-shadow used by the ancient Egyptians and other inhabitants of the eastern Mediterranean. It could be any color: black, red, green, or blue. [15]

Accordingly, the modern study of marine and freshwater algae is called either phycology or algology, depending on whether the Greek or Latin root is used. The name fucus appears in a number of taxa.

Classification

The committee on the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature has recommended certain suffixes for use in the classification of algae. These are -phyta for division, -phyceae for class, -phycideae for subclass, -ales for order, -inales for suborder, -aceae for family, -oidease for subfamily, a Greek-based name for genus, and a Latin-based name for species.

Algal characteristics basic to primary classification

The primary classification of algae is based on certain morphological features. The chief among these are (a) pigment constitution of the cell, (b) chemical nature of stored food materials, (c) kind, number, point of insertion and relative length of the flagella on the motile cell, (d) chemical composition of cell wall and (e) presence or absence of a definitely organized nucleus in the cell or any other significant details of cell structure.

History of classification of algae

Although Carolus Linnaeus (1754) included algae along with lichens in his 25th class Cryptogamia, he did not elaborate further on the classification of algae.

Jean Pierre Étienne Vaucher (1803) was perhaps the first to propose a system of classification of algae, and he recognized three groups, Conferves, Ulves, and Tremelles. While Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link (1820) classified algae on the basis of the colour of the pigment and structure, William Henry Harvey (1836) proposed a system of classification on the basis of the habitat and the pigment. J. G. Agardh (1849–1898) divided algae into six orders: Diatomaceae, Nostochineae, Confervoideae, Ulvaceae, Floriadeae and Fucoideae. Around 1880, algae along with fungi were grouped under Thallophyta, a division created by Eichler (1836). Encouraged by this, Adolf Engler and Karl A. E. Prantl (1912) proposed a revised scheme of classification of algae and included fungi in algae as they were of opinion that fungi have been derived from algae. The scheme proposed by Engler and Prantl is summarised as follows: [16]

  1. Schizophyta
  2. Phytosarcodina
  3. Flagellata
  4. Dinoflagellata
  5. Bacillariophyta
  6. Conjugatae
  7. Chlorophyceae
  8. Charophyta
  9. Phaeophyceae
  10. Rhodophyceae
  11. Eumycetes (Fungi)
False-color scanning electron micrograph of the unicellular coccolithophore Gephyrocapsa oceanica Gephyrocapsa oceanica color.jpg
False-color scanning electron micrograph of the unicellular coccolithophore Gephyrocapsa oceanica

The algae contain chloroplasts that are similar in structure to cyanobacteria. Chloroplasts contain circular DNA like that in cyanobacteria and are interpreted as representing reduced endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. However, the exact origin of the chloroplasts is different among separate lineages of algae, reflecting their acquisition during different endosymbiotic events. The table below describes the composition of the three major groups of algae. Their lineage relationships are shown in the figure in the upper right. Many of these groups contain some members that are no longer photosynthetic. Some retain plastids, but not chloroplasts, while others have lost plastids entirely.

Phylogeny based on plastid [17] not nucleocytoplasmic genealogy:

Cyanobacteria

Glaucophytes

rhodoplasts

Rhodophytes

Heterokonts

Cryptophytes

Haptophytes

chloroplasts

Euglenophytes

Chlorophytes

Charophytes

Land plants (Embryophyta)

Chlorarachniophytes

Supergroup affiliationMembers Endosymbiont Summary
Primoplantae/
Archaeplastida
Cyanobacteria These algae have "primary" chloroplasts, i.e. the chloroplasts are surrounded by two membranes and probably developed through a single endosymbiotic event. The chloroplasts of red algae have chlorophylls a and c (often), and phycobilins, while those of green algae have chloroplasts with chlorophyll a and b without phycobilins. Land plants are pigmented similarly to green algae and probably developed from them, thus the Chlorophyta is a sister taxon to the plants; sometimes the Chlorophyta, the Charophyta, and land plants are grouped together as the Viridiplantae.
Excavata and Rhizaria Green algae

These groups have green chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b. [18] Their chloroplasts are surrounded by four and three membranes, respectively, and were probably retained from ingested green algae.

Chlorarachniophytes, which belong to the phylum Cercozoa, contain a small nucleomorph, which is a relict of the algae's nucleus.

Euglenids, which belong to the phylum Euglenozoa, live primarily in fresh water and have chloroplasts with only three membranes. The endosymbiotic green algae may have been acquired through myzocytosis rather than phagocytosis. [19]

Chromista and Alveolata Red algae

These groups have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and c, and phycobilins. The shape varies from plant to plant; they may be of discoid, plate-like, reticulate, cup-shaped, spiral, or ribbon shaped. They have one or more pyrenoids to preserve protein and starch. The latter chlorophyll type is not known from any prokaryotes or primary chloroplasts, but genetic similarities with red algae suggest a relationship there. [20]

In the first three of these groups (Chromista), the chloroplast has four membranes, retaining a nucleomorph in cryptomonads, and they likely share a common pigmented ancestor, although other evidence casts doubt on whether the heterokonts, Haptophyta, and cryptomonads are in fact more closely related to each other than to other groups. [21] [22]

The typical dinoflagellate chloroplast has three membranes, but considerable diversity exists in chloroplasts within the group, and a number of endosymbiotic events apparently occurred. [5] The Apicomplexa, a group of closely related parasites, also have plastids called apicoplasts, which are not photosynthetic, but appear to have a common origin with dinoflagellate chloroplasts. [5]

title page of Gmelin's Historia Fucorum, dated 1768 Gmelin - Historia Fucorum (Titelblatt).png
title page of Gmelin's Historia Fucorum, dated 1768

Linnaeus, in Species Plantarum (1753), [23] the starting point for modern botanical nomenclature, recognized 14 genera of algae, of which only four are currently considered among algae. [24] In Systema Naturae , Linnaeus described the genera Volvox and Corallina , and a species of Acetabularia (as Madrepora ), among the animals.

In 1768, Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin (1744–1774) published the Historia Fucorum, the first work dedicated to marine algae and the first book on marine biology to use the then new binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus. It included elaborate illustrations of seaweed and marine algae on folded leaves. [25] [26]

W.H.Harvey (1811–1866) and Lamouroux (1813) [27] were the first to divide macroscopic algae into four divisions based on their pigmentation. This is the first use of a biochemical criterion in plant systematics. Harvey's four divisions are: red algae (Rhodospermae), brown algae (Melanospermae), green algae (Chlorospermae), and Diatomaceae. [28] [29]

At this time, microscopic algae were discovered and reported by a different group of workers (e.g., O. F. Müller and Ehrenberg) studying the Infusoria (microscopic organisms). Unlike macroalgae, which were clearly viewed as plants, microalgae were frequently considered animals because they are often motile. [27] Even the nonmotile (coccoid) microalgae were sometimes merely seen as stages of the lifecycle of plants, macroalgae, or animals. [30] [31]

Although used as a taxonomic category in some pre-Darwinian classifications, e.g., Linnaeus (1753), de Jussieu (1789), Horaninow (1843), Agassiz (1859), Wilson & Cassin (1864), in further classifications, the "algae" are seen as an artificial, polyphyletic group.

Throughout the 20th century, most classifications treated the following groups as divisions or classes of algae: cyanophytes, rhodophytes, chrysophytes, xanthophytes, bacillariophytes, phaeophytes, pyrrhophytes (cryptophytes and dinophytes), euglenophytes, and chlorophytes. Later, many new groups were discovered (e.g., Bolidophyceae), and others were splintered from older groups: charophytes and glaucophytes (from chlorophytes), many heterokontophytes (e.g., synurophytes from chrysophytes, or eustigmatophytes from xanthophytes), haptophytes (from chrysophytes), and chlorarachniophytes (from xanthophytes).

With the abandonment of plant-animal dichotomous classification, most groups of algae (sometimes all) were included in Protista, later also abandoned in favour of Eukaryota. However, as a legacy of the older plant life scheme, some groups that were also treated as protozoans in the past still have duplicated classifications (see ambiregnal protists).

Some parasitic algae (e.g., the green algae Prototheca and Helicosporidium , parasites of metazoans, or Cephaleuros , parasites of plants) were originally classified as fungi, sporozoans, or protistans of incertae sedis , [32] while others (e.g., the green algae Phyllosiphon and Rhodochytrium , parasites of plants, or the red algae Pterocladiophila and Gelidiocolax mammillatus , parasites of other red algae, or the dinoflagellates Oodinium , parasites of fish) had their relationship with algae conjectured early. In other cases, some groups were originally characterized as parasitic algae (e.g., Chlorochytrium ), but later were seen as endophytic algae. [33] Some filamentous bacteria (e.g., Beggiatoa ) were originally seen as algae. Furthermore, groups like the apicomplexans are also parasites derived from ancestors that possessed plastids, but are not included in any group traditionally seen as algae.

Relationship to land plants

The first land plants probably evolved from shallow freshwater charophyte algae much like Chara almost 500 million years ago. These probably had an isomorphic alternation of generations and were probably filamentous. Fossils of isolated land plant spores suggest land plants may have been around as long as 475 million years ago. [34] [35]

Morphology

The kelp forest exhibit at the Monterey Bay Aquarium: A three-dimensional, multicellular thallus Kelp-forest-Monterey.jpg
The kelp forest exhibit at the Monterey Bay Aquarium: A three-dimensional, multicellular thallus

A range of algal morphologies is exhibited, and convergence of features in unrelated groups is common. The only groups to exhibit three-dimensional multicellular thalli are the reds and browns, and some chlorophytes. [36] Apical growth is constrained to subsets of these groups: the florideophyte reds, various browns, and the charophytes. [36] The form of charophytes is quite different from those of reds and browns, because they have distinct nodes, separated by internode 'stems'; whorls of branches reminiscent of the horsetails occur at the nodes. [36] Conceptacles are another polyphyletic trait; they appear in the coralline algae and the Hildenbrandiales, as well as the browns. [36]

Most of the simpler algae are unicellular flagellates or amoeboids, but colonial and nonmotile forms have developed independently among several of the groups. Some of the more common organizational levels, more than one of which may occur in the lifecycle of a species, are

In three lines, even higher levels of organization have been reached, with full tissue differentiation. These are the brown algae, [37] —some of which may reach 50 m in length (kelps) [38] —the red algae, [39] and the green algae. [40] The most complex forms are found among the charophyte algae (see Charales and Charophyta), in a lineage that eventually led to the higher land plants. The innovation that defines these nonalgal plants is the presence of female reproductive organs with protective cell layers that protect the zygote and developing embryo. Hence, the land plants are referred to as the Embryophytes.

Physiology

Many algae, particularly members of the Characeae, [41] have served as model experimental organisms to understand the mechanisms of the water permeability of membranes, osmoregulation, turgor regulation, salt tolerance, cytoplasmic streaming, and the generation of action potentials.

Phytohormones are found not only in higher plants, but in algae, too. [42]

Symbiotic algae

Some species of algae form symbiotic relationships with other organisms. In these symbioses, the algae supply photosynthates (organic substances) to the host organism providing protection to the algal cells. The host organism derives some or all of its energy requirements from the algae. Examples are:

Lichens

Rock lichens in Ireland Lichens near Clogher Head (stevefe).jpg
Rock lichens in Ireland

Lichens are defined by the International Association for Lichenology to be "an association of a fungus and a photosynthetic symbiont resulting in a stable vegetative body having a specific structure". [43] The fungi, or mycobionts, are mainly from the Ascomycota with a few from the Basidiomycota. In nature they do not occur separate from lichens. It is unknown when they began to associate. [44] One mycobiont associates with the same phycobiont species, rarely two, from the green algae, except that alternatively, the mycobiont may associate with a species of cyanobacteria (hence "photobiont" is the more accurate term). A photobiont may be associated with many different mycobionts or may live independently; accordingly, lichens are named and classified as fungal species. [45] The association is termed a morphogenesis because the lichen has a form and capabilities not possessed by the symbiont species alone (they can be experimentally isolated). The photobiont possibly triggers otherwise latent genes in the mycobiont. [46]

Trentepohlia is an example of a common green alga genus worldwide that can grow on its own or be lichenised. Lichen thus share some of the habitat and often similar appearance with specialized species of algae ( aerophytes ) growing on exposed surfaces such as tree trunks and rocks and sometimes discoloring them.

Coral reefs

Floridian coral reef Coral Reef.jpg
Floridian coral reef

Coral reefs are accumulated from the calcareous exoskeletons of marine invertebrates of the order Scleractinia (stony corals). These animals metabolize sugar and oxygen to obtain energy for their cell-building processes, including secretion of the exoskeleton, with water and carbon dioxide as byproducts. Dinoflagellates (algal protists) are often endosymbionts in the cells of the coral-forming marine invertebrates, where they accelerate host-cell metabolism by generating sugar and oxygen immediately available through photosynthesis using incident light and the carbon dioxide produced by the host. Reef-building stony corals (hermatypic corals) require endosymbiotic algae from the genus Symbiodinium to be in a healthy condition. [47] The loss of Symbiodinium from the host is known as coral bleaching, a condition which leads to the deterioration of a reef.

Sea sponges

Endosymbiontic green algae live close to the surface of some sponges, for example, breadcrumb sponges ( Halichondria panicea ). The alga is thus protected from predators; the sponge is provided with oxygen and sugars which can account for 50 to 80% of sponge growth in some species. [48]

Lifecycle

Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta, and Heterokontophyta, the three main algal divisions, have lifecycles which show considerable variation and complexity. In general, an asexual phase exists where the seaweed's cells are diploid, a sexual phase where the cells are haploid, followed by fusion of the male and female gametes. Asexual reproduction permits efficient population increases, but less variation is possible. Commonly, in sexual reproduction of unicellular and colonial algae, two specialized, sexually compatible, haploid gametes make physical contact and fuse to form a zygote. To ensure a successful mating, the development and release of gametes is highly synchronized and regulated; pheromones may play a key role in these processes. [49] Sexual reproduction allows for more variation and provides the benefit of efficient recombinational repair of DNA damages during meiosis, a key stage of the sexual cycle.[ citation needed ] However, sexual reproduction is more costly than asexual reproduction. [50] Meiosis has been shown to occur in many different species of algae. [51]

Numbers

Algae on coastal rocks at Shihtiping in Taiwan Taiwan 2009 East Coast ShihTiPing Giant Stone Steps Algae FRD 6581.jpg
Algae on coastal rocks at Shihtiping in Taiwan

The Algal Collection of the US National Herbarium (located in the National Museum of Natural History) consists of approximately 320,500 dried specimens, which, although not exhaustive (no exhaustive collection exists), gives an idea of the order of magnitude of the number of algal species (that number remains unknown). [52] Estimates vary widely. For example, according to one standard textbook, [53] in the British Isles the UK Biodiversity Steering Group Report estimated there to be 20,000 algal species in the UK. Another checklist reports only about 5,000 species. Regarding the difference of about 15,000 species, the text concludes: "It will require many detailed field surveys before it is possible to provide a reliable estimate of the total number of species ..."

Regional and group estimates have been made, as well:

and so on, but lacking any scientific basis or reliable sources, these numbers have no more credibility than the British ones mentioned above. Most estimates also omit microscopic algae, such as phytoplankton.

The most recent estimate suggests 72,500 algal species worldwide. [59]

Distribution

The distribution of algal species has been fairly well studied since the founding of phytogeography in the mid-19th century. [60] Algae spread mainly by the dispersal of spores analogously to the dispersal of Plantae by seeds and spores. This dispersal can be accomplished by air, water, or other organisms. Due to this, spores can be found in a variety of environments: fresh and marine waters, air, soil, and in or on other organisms. [60] Whether a spore is to grow into an organism depends on the combination of the species and the environmental conditions where the spore lands.

The spores of freshwater algae are dispersed mainly by running water and wind, as well as by living carriers. [60] However, not all bodies of water can carry all species of algae, as the chemical composition of certain water bodies limits the algae that can survive within them. [60] Marine spores are often spread by ocean currents. Ocean water presents many vastly different habitats based on temperature and nutrient availability, resulting in phytogeographic zones, regions, and provinces. [61]

To some degree, the distribution of algae is subject to floristic discontinuities caused by geographical features, such as Antarctica, long distances of ocean or general land masses. It is, therefore, possible to identify species occurring by locality, such as "Pacific algae" or "North Sea algae". When they occur out of their localities, hypothesizing a transport mechanism is usually possible, such as the hulls of ships. For example, Ulva reticulata and U. fasciata travelled from the mainland to Hawaii in this manner.

Mapping is possible for select species only: "there are many valid examples of confined distribution patterns." [62] For example, Clathromorphum is an arctic genus and is not mapped far south of there. [63] However, scientists regard the overall data as insufficient due to the "difficulties of undertaking such studies." [64]

Ecology

Phytoplankton, Lake Chuzenji Phytoplankton Lake Chuzenji.jpg
Phytoplankton, Lake Chūzenji

Algae are prominent in bodies of water, common in terrestrial environments, and are found in unusual environments, such as on snow and ice. Seaweeds grow mostly in shallow marine waters, under 100 m (330 ft) deep; however, some such as Navicula pennata have been recorded to a depth of 360 m (1,180 ft). [65]

The various sorts of algae play significant roles in aquatic ecology. Microscopic forms that live suspended in the water column (phytoplankton) provide the food base for most marine food chains. In very high densities (algal blooms), these algae may discolor the water and outcompete, poison, or asphyxiate other life forms.

Algae can be used as indicator organisms to monitor pollution in various aquatic systems. [66] In many cases, algal metabolism is sensitive to various pollutants. Due to this, the species composition of algal populations may shift in the presence of chemical pollutants. [66] To detect these changes, algae can be sampled from the environment and maintained in laboratories with relative ease. [66]

On the basis of their habitat, algae can be categorized as: aquatic (planktonic, benthic, marine, freshwater, lentic, lotic), [67] terrestrial, aerial (subareial), [68] lithophytic, halophytic (or euryhaline), psammon, thermophilic, cryophilic, epibiont (epiphytic, epizoic), endosymbiont (endophytic, endozoic), parasitic, calcifilic or lichenic (phycobiont). [69]

Cultural associations

In classical Chinese, the word is used both for "algae" and (in the modest tradition of the imperial scholars) for "literary talent". The third island in Kunming Lake beside the Summer Palace in Beijing is known as the Zaojian Tang Dao, which thus simultaneously means "Island of the Algae-Viewing Hall" and "Island of the Hall for Reflecting on Literary Talent".

Uses

Harvesting algae Algae Harvester.jpg
Harvesting algae

Agar

Agar, a gelatinous substance derived from red algae, has a number of commercial uses. [70] It is a good medium on which to grow bacteria and fungi, as most microorganisms cannot digest agar.

Alginates

Alginic acid, or alginate, is extracted from brown algae. Its uses range from gelling agents in food, to medical dressings. Alginic acid also has been used in the field of biotechnology as a biocompatible medium for cell encapsulation and cell immobilization. Molecular cuisine is also a user of the substance for its gelling properties, by which it becomes a delivery vehicle for flavours.

Between 100,000 and 170,000 wet tons of Macrocystis are harvested annually in New Mexico for alginate extraction and abalone feed. [71] [72]

Energy source

To be competitive and independent from fluctuating support from (local) policy on the long run, biofuels should equal or beat the cost level of fossil fuels. Here, algae-based fuels hold great promise, [73] [74] directly related to the potential to produce more biomass per unit area in a year than any other form of biomass. The break-even point for algae-based biofuels is estimated to occur by 2025. [75]

Fertilizer

Seaweed-fertilized gardens on Inisheer Inisheer landscape.jpg
Seaweed-fertilized gardens on Inisheer

For centuries, seaweed has been used as a fertilizer; George Owen of Henllys writing in the 16th century referring to drift weed in South Wales: [76]

This kind of ore they often gather and lay on great heapes, where it heteth and rotteth, and will have a strong and loathsome smell; when being so rotten they cast on the land, as they do their muck, and thereof springeth good corn, especially barley ... After spring-tydes or great rigs of the sea, they fetch it in sacks on horse backes, and carie the same three, four, or five miles, and cast it on the lande, which doth very much better the ground for corn and grass.

Today, algae are used by humans in many ways; for example, as fertilizers, soil conditioners, and livestock feed. [77] Aquatic and microscopic species are cultured in clear tanks or ponds and are either harvested or used to treat effluents pumped through the ponds. Algaculture on a large scale is an important type of aquaculture in some places. Maerl is commonly used as a soil conditioner.

Nutrition

Dulse, a type of edible seaweed Dulse.JPG
Dulse, a type of edible seaweed

Naturally growing seaweeds are an important source of food, especially in Asia. They provide many vitamins including: A, B1, B2, B6, niacin, and C, and are rich in iodine, potassium, iron, magnesium, and calcium. [78] In addition, commercially cultivated microalgae, including both algae and cyanobacteria, are marketed as nutritional supplements, such as spirulina, [79] Chlorella and the vitamin-C supplement from Dunaliella , high in beta-carotene.

Algae are national foods of many nations: China consumes more than 70 species, including fat choy , a cyanobacterium considered a vegetable; Japan, over 20 species such as nori and aonori ; [80] Ireland, dulse; Chile, cochayuyo. [81] Laver is used to make laver bread in Wales, where it is known as bara lawr; in Korea, gim . It is also used along the west coast of North America from California to British Columbia, in Hawaii and by the Māori of New Zealand. Sea lettuce and badderlocks are salad ingredients in Scotland, Ireland, Greenland, and Iceland. Algae is being considered a potential solution for world hunger problem. [82] [83] [84]

The oils from some algae have high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. For example, Parietochloris incisa is very high in arachidonic acid, where it reaches up to 47% of the triglyceride pool. [85] Some varieties of algae favored by vegetarianism and veganism contain the long-chain, essential omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Fish oil contains the omega-3 fatty acids, but the original source is algae (microalgae in particular), which are eaten by marine life such as copepods and are passed up the food chain. [86] Algae have emerged in recent years as a popular source of omega-3 fatty acids for vegetarians who cannot get long-chain EPA and DHA from other vegetarian sources such as flaxseed oil, which only contains the short-chain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA).

Pollution control

Agricultural Research Service scientists found that 60–90% of nitrogen runoff and 70–100% of phosphorus runoff can be captured from manure effluents using a horizontal algae scrubber, also called an algal turf scrubber (ATS). Scientists developed the ATS, which consists of shallow, 100-foot raceways of nylon netting where algae colonies can form, and studied its efficacy for three years. They found that algae can readily be used to reduce the nutrient runoff from agricultural fields and increase the quality of water flowing into rivers, streams, and oceans. Researchers collected and dried the nutrient-rich algae from the ATS and studied its potential as an organic fertilizer. They found that cucumber and corn seedlings grew just as well using ATS organic fertilizer as they did with commercial fertilizers. [92] Algae scrubbers, using bubbling upflow or vertical waterfall versions, are now also being used to filter aquaria and ponds.

Polymers

Various polymers can be created from algae, which can be especially useful in the creation of bioplastics. These include hybrid plastics, cellulose based plastics, poly-lactic acid, and bio-polyethylene. [93] Several companies have begun to produce algae polymers commercially, including for use in flip-flops [94] and in surf boards. [95]

Bioremediation

The alga Stichococcus bacillaris has been seen to colonize silicone resins used at archaeological sites; biodegrading the synthetic substance. [96]

Pigments

The natural pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls) produced by algae can be used as alternatives to chemical dyes and coloring agents. [97] The presence of some individual algal pigments, together with specific pigment concentration ratios, are taxon-specific: analysis of their concentrations with various analytical methods, particularly high-performance liquid chromatography, can therefore offer deep insight into the taxonomic composition and relative abundance of natural algae populations in sea water samples. [98] [99]

Stabilizing substances

Carrageenan, from the red alga Chondrus crispus, is used as a stabilizer in milk products.

Additional images

See also

Related Research Articles

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Chlorophyta or Prasinophyta is a taxon of green algae informally called chlorophytes. The name is used in two very different senses, so care is needed to determine the use by a particular author. In older classification systems, it refers to a highly paraphyletic group of all the green algae within the green plants (Viridiplantae) and thus includes about 7,000 species of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. In newer classifications, it refers to the sister of the streptophytes/charophytes. The clade Streptophyta consists of the Charophyta in which the Embryophyta emerged. In this sense the Chlorophyta includes only about 4,300 species. About 90% of all known species live in freshwater. Like the land plants, green algae contain chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and store food as starch in their plastids.

Phycology Branch of botany concerned with the study of algae

Phycology is the scientific study of algae. Also known as algology, phycology is a branch of life science and often is regarded as a subdiscipline of botany.

Cyanobacteria Phylum of photosynthesising prokaryotes

Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum consisting of free-living photosynthetic bacteria and the endosymbiotic plastids, a sister group to Gloeomargarita, that are present in some eukaryotes. They commonly obtain their energy through oxygenic photosynthesis. The oxygen gas in the atmosphere of earth is produced by cyanobacteria of this phylum, either as free-living bacteria or as the endosymbiotic plastids. The name cyanobacteria comes from the color of the bacteria. Cyanobacteria, which are prokaryotes, are also called "blue-green algae", though some modern botanists restrict the term algae to eukaryotes. Cyanobacteria appear to have originated in freshwater or a terrestrial environment.

Plastid membrane-bound DNA-containing organelle found in the cytoplasm of autotrophic eukaryotes (plants, some protists) that functions as the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds

The plastid is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms. They are considered endosymbiotic Cyanobacteria, related to the Gloeomargarita. Plastids were discovered and named by Ernst Haeckel, but A. F. W. Schimper was the first to provide a clear definition. Plastids are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cells of autotrophic eukaryotes. They often contain pigments used in photosynthesis, and the types of pigments in a plastid determine the cell's color. They have a common evolutionary origin and possess a double-stranded DNA molecule that is circular, like that of the circular chromosome of prokaryotic cells.

Lichen Symbiosis of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria

A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi species in a mutualistic relationship. Lichens have different properties from those of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colors, sizes, and forms and are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose), flat leaf-like structures (foliose), flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint (crustose), a powder-like appearance (leprose), or other growth forms.

Glaucophyte Division of algae

The glaucophytes, also known as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a small group of freshwater unicellular algae, less common today than they were during the Proterozoic. Only 15 species have been described, but more species are likely to exist. Together with the red algae (Rhodophyta) and the green algae plus land plants, they form the Archaeplastida. However, the relationships among the red algae, green algae and glaucophytes are unclear, in large part due to limited study of the glaucophytes.

Brown algae A large group of multicellular algae, comprising the class Phaeophyceae

The brown algae, comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere. Most brown algae live in marine environments, where they play an important role both as food and as a potential habitat. For instance, Macrocystis, a kelp of the order Laminariales, may reach 60 m (200 ft) in length and forms prominent underwater kelp forests. Kelp forests like these contain a high level of biodiversity. Another example is Sargassum, which creates unique floating mats of seaweed in the tropical waters of the Sargasso Sea that serve as the habitats for many species. Many brown algae, such as members of the order Fucales, commonly grow along rocky seashores. Some members of the class, such as kelps, are used by humans as food.

Green algae Paraphyletic group of autotrophic eukaryotes in the clade Archaeplastida

The green algae are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, together with the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.

Hatena arenicola is a species of single-celled eukaryotes discovered in 2000, and first reported in 2005, It was discovered by Japanese biologists Noriko Okamoto and Isao Inouye at the University of Tsukuba, and they gave the scientific description and formal name in 2006. The species is a flagellate, and can resemble a plant at one stage of its life, in which it carries a photosynthesizing alga inside itself, or an animal, acting as predator in another stage of its life. Researchers believe that this organism is in the process of secondary endosymbiosis, in which one organism is incorporated into another, resulting in a completely new life form.

Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae.

Archaeplastida Clade of eukaryotes containing land plants and some algae

The Archaeplastida are a major group of autotrophic eukaryotes, comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae, and the land plants, together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes. The Archaeplastida have chloroplasts that are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting that they were acquired directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. All other groups besides the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora, have chloroplasts surrounded by three or four membranes, suggesting they were acquired secondarily from red or green algae. Unlike red and green algae, glaucophytes have never been involved in secondary endosymbiosis events.

Trebouxia is a unicellular green alga. It is a photosynthetic organism that can exist in almost all habitats found in polar, tropical, and temperate regions. It can either exist in a symbiotic relationship with fungi in the form of lichen or it can survive independently as a free-living organism alone or in colonies. Trebouxia is the most common photobiont in extant lichens. It is a primary producer of marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. It uses carotenoids and chlorophyll a and b to harvest energy from the sun and provide nutrients to various animals and insects. It introduced nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis into the terrestrial habitats approximately 450 million years ago. It is also a bioindicator of habitat disturbances, freshwater quality, air pollution, carbon dioxide concentration, and climate change. Furthermore, its life cycle is complex and much research needs to be done to characterize it more completely. For decades, the presence of sexual reproduction was unknown. However, recent molecular evidence of recombination and the observation of sexual fusions of gametes to form zygotes suggest that sexual reproduction occurs.

Algae fuel Use of algae as a source of energy rich oils

Algae fuel, algal biofuel, or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich oils. Also, algae fuels are an alternative to commonly known biofuel sources, such as corn and sugarcane. When made from seaweed (macroalgae) it can be known as seaweed fuel or seaweed oil.

Red algae Division of archaeplastids

Red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae. The Rhodophyta also comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 currently recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing. The majority of species (6,793) are found in the Florideophyceae (class), and mostly consist of multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in warmer areas. Except for two coastal cave dwelling species in the asexual class Cyanidiophyceae, there are no terrestrial species, which may be due to an evolutionary bottleneck where the last common ancestor lost about 25% of its core genes and much of its evolutionary plasticity.

Edible seaweed Algae that can be eaten and used in the preparation of food

Edible seaweed, or sea vegetables, are seaweeds that can be eaten and used in the preparation of food. They typically contain high amounts of fiber. They may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae.

Phlorotannin class of chemical compounds

Phlorotannins are a type of tannins found in brown algae such as kelps and rockweeds or sargassacean species, and in a lower amount also in some red algae. Contrary to hydrolysable or condensed tannins, these compounds are oligomers of phloroglucinol (polyphloroglucinols). As they are called tannins, they have the ability to precipitate proteins. It has been noticed that some phlorotannins have the ability to oxidize and form covalent bonds with some proteins. In contrast, under similar experimental conditions three types of terrestrial tannins apparently did not form covalent complexes with proteins.

Lichen anatomy and physiology is very different from the anatomy and physiology of the fungus and/or algae and/or cyanobacteria that make up the lichen when growing apart from the lichen, either naturally, or in culture. The fungal partner is called the mycobiont. The photosynthetic partner, algae or cyanobacteria, is called the photobiont. The body of a lichens that does not contain reproductive parts of the fungus is called the thallus. The thallus is different from those of either the fungus or alga growing separately. The fungus surrounds the algal cells, often enclosing them within complex fungal tissues unique to lichen associations. In many species the fungus penetrates the algal cell wall, forming penetration pegs or haustoria similar to those produced by pathogenic fungi. Lichens are capable of surviving extremely low levels of water content (poikilohydric). However, the re-configuration of membranes following a period of dehydration requires several minutes at least.

Sammy Boussiba is a professor emeritus at the French Associates Institute for Agriculture and Biotechnology of Drylands at the Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.

Marine primary production

Marine primary production is the chemical synthesis in the ocean of organic compounds from atmospheric or dissolved carbon dioxide. It principally occurs through the process of photosynthesis, which uses light as its source of energy, but it also occurs through chemosynthesis, which uses the oxidation or reduction of inorganic chemical compounds as its source of energy. Almost all life on Earth relies directly or indirectly on primary production. The organisms responsible for primary production are called primary producers or autotrophs.

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Bibliography

General

  • Chapman, V.J. (1950). Seaweeds and their Uses. London: Methuen. ISBN   978-0-412-15740-0.
  • Fritsch, F. E. (1945) [1935]. The Structure and Reproduction of the Algae. I & II. Cambridge University Press.
  • van den Hoek, C.; Mann, D. G.; Jahns, H. M. (1995). Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge University Press.
  • Lembi, C. A.; Waaland, J.R. (1988). Algae and Human Affairs. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-32115-0.
  • Mumford, T. F.; Miura, A. (1988). "Porphyra as food: cultivation and economic". In Lembi, C. A.; Waaland, J. R. (eds.). Algae and Human Affairs. Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–117. ISBN   978-0-521-32115-0..
  • Round, F. E. (1981). The Ecology of Algae. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-22583-0.
  • Smith, G. M. (1938). Cryptogamic Botany. I. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Regional

Britain and Ireland
  • Brodie, Juliet; Burrows, Elsie M.; Chamberlain, Yvonne M.; Christensen, Tyge; Dixon, Peter Stanley; Fletcher, R. L.; Hommersand, Max H.; Irvine, Linda M.; Maggs, Christine A. (1977–2003). Seaweeds of the British Isles: A Collaborative Project of the British Phycological Society and the British Museum (Natural History). London / Andover: British Museum of Natural History, HMSO / Intercept. ISBN   978-0-565-00781-2.
  • Cullinane, John P. (1973). Phycology of the South Coast of Ireland. Cork: Cork University Press.
  • Hardy, F. G.; Aspinall, R. J. (1988). An Atlas of the Seaweeds of Northumberland and Durham. The Hancock Museum, University Newcastle upon Tyne: Northumberland Biological Records Centre. ISBN   978-0-9509680-5-6.
  • Hardy, F. G.; Guiry, Michael D.; Arnold, Henry R. (2006). A Check-list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland (Revised ed.). London: British Phycological Society. ISBN   978-3-906166-35-3.
  • John, D. M.; Whitton, B. A.; Brook, J. A. (2002). The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge / New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-77051-4.
  • Knight, Margery; Parke, Mary W. (1931). Manx Algae: An Algal Survey of the South End of the Isle of Man. Liverpool Marine Biology Committee Memoirs on Typical British Marine Plants & Animals. XXX. Liverpool: University Press.
  • Morton, Osborne (1994). Marine Algae of Northern Ireland. Belfast: Ulster Museum. ISBN   978-0-900761-28-7.
  • Morton, Osborne (1 December 2003). "The Marine Macroalgae of County Donegal, Ireland". Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society. 27: 3–164.
Australia
  • Huisman, J. M. (2000). Marine Plants of Australia. University of Western Australia Press. ISBN   978-1-876268-33-6.
New Zealand
  • Chapman, Valentine Jackson; Lindauer, VW; Aiken, M.; Dromgoole, F. I. (1970) [1900, 1956, 1961, 1969]. The Marine algae of New Zealand. London / Lehre, Germany: Linnaean Society of London / Cramer.
Europe
  • Cabioc'h, Jacqueline; Floc'h, Jean-Yves; Le Toquin, Alain; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Meinesz, Alexandre; Verlaque, Marc (1992). Guide des algues des mers d'Europe: Manche/Atlantique-Méditerranée (in French). Lausanne, Suisse: Delachaux et Niestlé. ISBN   978-2-603-00848-5.
  • Gayral, Paulette (1966). Les Algues de côtes françaises (manche et atlantique), notions fondamentales sur l'écologie, la biologie et la systématique des algues marines (in French). Paris: Doin, Deren et Cie.
  • Guiry, Michael. D.; Blunden, G. (1991). Seaweed Resources in Europe: Uses and Potential. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN   978-0-471-92947-5.
  • Míguez Rodríguez, Luís (1998). Algas mariñas de Galicia: Bioloxía, gastronomía, industria (in Galician). Vigo: Edicións Xerais de Galicia. ISBN   978-84-8302-263-4.
  • Otero, J. (2002). Guía das macroalgas de Galicia (in Galician). A Coruña: Baía Edicións. ISBN   978-84-89803-22-0.
  • Bárbara, I.; Cremades, J. (1993). Guía de las algas del litoral gallego (in Spanish). A Coruña: Concello da Coruña – Casa das Ciencias.
Arctic
  • Kjellman, Frans Reinhold (1883). The algae of the Arctic Sea: A survey of the species, together with an exposition of the general characters and the development of the flora. 20. Stockholm: Kungl. Svenska vetenskapsakademiens handlingar. pp. 1–350.
Greenland
  • Lund, Søren Jensen (1959). The Marine Algae of East Greenland. Kövenhavn: C.A. Reitzel. 9584734.
Faroe Islands
  • Børgesen, Frederik (1970) [1903]. "Marine Algae". In Warming, Eugene (ed.). Botany of the Faröes Based Upon Danish Investigations, Part II. Copenhagen: Det nordiske Forlag. pp. 339–532..
Canary Islands
  • Børgesen, Frederik (1936) [1925, 1926, 1927, 1929, 1930]. Marine Algae from the Canary Islands. Copenhagen: Bianco Lunos.
Morocco
  • Gayral, Paulette (1958). Algues de la côte atlantique marocaine (in French). Casablanca: Rabat [Société des sciences naturelles et physiques du Maroc].
South Africa
  • Stegenga, H.; Bolton, J. J.; Anderson, R. J. (1997). Seaweeds of the South African West Coast. Bolus Herbarium, University of Cape Town. ISBN   978-0-7992-1793-3.
North America