Vine

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Betel, a climbing plant Betel 20020400 3.jpg
Betel, a climbing plant
A tendril Vine.jpg
A tendril

A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners. The word vine can also refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance, when used in wicker work. [1] [2]

Contents

In parts of the world, including the British Isles, the term "vine" usually applies exclusively to grapevines ( Vitis ), [3] while the term "climber" is used for all climbing plants. [4]

Growth forms

Convolvulus vine twining around a steel fixed ladder Vine-1.jpg
Convolvulus vine twining around a steel fixed ladder
Grapevine covering a chimney Schornstein Kletterpflanze Meidling.jpg
Grapevine covering a chimney

Certain plants always grow as vines, while a few grow as vines only part of the time. For instance, poison ivy and bittersweet can grow as low shrubs when support is not available, but will become vines when support is available. [5]

A vine displays a growth form based on very long stems. This has two purposes. A vine may use rock exposures, other plants, or other supports for growth rather than investing energy in a lot of supportive tissue, enabling the plant to reach sunlight with a minimum investment of energy. This has been a highly successful growth form for plants such as kudzu and Japanese honeysuckle, both of which are invasive exotics in parts of North America. There are some tropical vines that develop skototropism, and grow away from the light, a type of negative phototropism. Growth away from light allows the vine to reach a tree trunk, which it can then climb to brighter regions. [6]

The vine growth form may also enable plants to colonize large areas quickly, even without climbing high. This is the case with periwinkle and ground ivy. It is also an adaptation to life in areas where small patches of fertile soil are adjacent to exposed areas with more sunlight but little or no soil. A vine can root in the soil but have most of its leaves in the brighter, exposed area, getting the best of both environments.

The evolution of a climbing habit has been implicated as a key innovation associated with the evolutionary success and diversification of a number of taxonomic groups of plants. [7] It has evolved independently in several plant families, using many different climbing methods, [8] such as:

The climbing fetterbush ( Pieris phillyreifolia ) is a woody shrub-vine which climbs without clinging roots, tendrils, or thorns. It directs its stem into a crevice in the bark of fibrous barked trees (such as bald cypress) where the stem adopts a flattened profile and grows up the tree underneath the host tree's outer bark. The fetterbush then sends out branches that emerge near the top of the tree. [9]

Most vines are flowering plants. These may be divided into woody vines or lianas, such as wisteria, kiwifruit, and common ivy, and herbaceous (nonwoody) vines, such as morning glory.

One odd group of vining plants is the fern genus Lygodium, called climbing ferns. [10] The stem does not climb, but rather the fronds (leaves) do. The fronds unroll from the tip, and theoretically never stop growing; they can form thickets as they unroll over other plants, rockfaces, and fences.

L: A left-handed bine grows in an anticlockwise direction from the ground. (S-twist)
R: A right-handed bine grows in a clockwise direction from the ground. (Z-twist) Helix diagram-de.png
L: A left-handed bine grows in an anticlockwise direction from the ground. (S-twist)
R: A right-handed bine grows in a clockwise direction from the ground. (Z-twist)

Twining vines

Fockea edulis 07 ies.jpg
Twining vine / bine ( Fockea edulis )
Brunnichia ovata.jpg
Tendril-supported vine ( Brunnichia ovata )

A twining vine, also known as a bine, is one that climbs by its shoots growing in a helix, in contrast to vines that climb using tendrils or suckers. Many bines have rough stems or downward-pointing bristles to aid their grip. Hops (used in flavoring beer) are a commercially important example of a bine. [13] [14]

The direction of rotation of the shoot tip during climbing is autonomous and does not (as sometimes imagined) derive from the shoot's following the sun around the sky – the direction of twist does not therefore depend upon which side of the equator the plant is growing on. This is shown by the fact that some bines always twine clockwise, including runner bean ( Phaseolus coccineus ) and bindweed ( Convolvulus species), while others twine anticlockwise, including French bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) and climbing honeysuckles ( Lonicera species). The contrasting rotations of bindweed and honeysuckle was the theme of the satirical song "Misalliance", written and sung by Michael Flanders and Donald Swann. [15]

Horticultural climbing plants

The term "vine" also applies to cucurbitaceae like cucumbers where botanists refer to creeping vines; in commercial agriculture the natural tendency of coiling tendrils to attach themselves to pre-existing structures or espaliers is optimized by the installation of trellis netting.

Gardeners can use the tendency of climbing plants to grow quickly. If a plant display is wanted quickly, a climber can achieve this. Climbers can be trained over walls, pergolas, fences, etc. Climbers can be grown over other plants to provide additional attraction. Artificial support can also be provided. Some climbers climb by themselves; others need work, such as tying them in and training them.

Scientific description

Vines widely differ in size, form and evolutionary origin. Darwin classified climbing groups based on their climbing method. He classified five classes of vines – twining plants, leaf climbers, tendril bearers, root climbers and hook climbers.

Vines are unique in that they have multiple evolutionary origins. They usually reside in tropical locations and have the unique ability to climb. Vines are able to grow in both deep shade and full sun due to their uniquely wide range of phenotypic plasticity. This climbing action prevents shading by neighbors and allows the vine to grow out of reach of herbivores. [16] The environment where a vine can grow successfully is determined by the climbing mechanism of a vine and how far it can spread across supports. There are many theories supporting the idea that photosynthetic responses are closely related to climbing mechanisms.

A large Apios vine on the street in Sochi, Russia Bigvine.jpg
A large Apios vine on the street in Sochi, Russia

Temperate twining vines, which twist tightly around supports, are typically poorly adapted for climbing beneath closed canopies due to their smaller support diameter and shade intolerance. In contrast, tendril vines usually grow on the forest floor and onto trees until they reach the surface of the canopy, suggesting that they have greater physiological plasticity. [17] It has also been suggested that twining vines' revolving growth is mediated by changes in turgor pressure mediated by volume changes in the epidermal cells of the bending zone. [18]

Climbing vines can take on many unique characteristics in response to changes in their environments. Climbing vines can induce chemical defenses and modify their biomass allocation in response to herbivores. In particular, the twisting vine Convolvulus arvensis increases its twining in response to herbivore-associated leaf damage, which may lead to reduced future herbivory. [19] Additionally, the tendrils of perennial vine Cayratia japonica are more likely to coil around nearby plants of another species than nearby plants of the same species in natural and experimental settings. This ability, which has only been previously documented in roots, demonstrates the vine's ability to distinguish whether another plant is of the same species as itself or a different one.

In tendrilled vines, the tendrils are highly sensitive to touch and the coiling action is mediated by the hormones octadecanoids, jasmonates and indole-3-acetic acid. The touch stimulus and hormones may interact via volatile compounds or internal oscillation patterns. [20] Research has found the presence of ion translocating ATPases in the Bryonia dioica species of plants, which has implications for a possible ion mediation tendril curling mechanism. In response to a touch stimulus, vanadate sensitive K+, Mg2+ ATPase and a Ca2+ translocating ATPase rapidly increase their activity. This increases transmembrane ion fluxes that appear to be involved in the early stages of tendril coiling. [21]

Example vine taxa

Canary Creeper trailing on a trellis. Senecio tamoides 13.jpg
Canary Creeper trailing on a trellis.
Ficus pumila's vigorous wall growth Ficus pumila.jpg
Ficus pumila's vigorous wall growth
Spring growth of Virginia Creeper Virginiacreepertendril.jpg
Spring growth of Virginia Creeper
Scrambling habit of Climbing groundsel. Senecioangulatus.jpg
Scrambling habit of Climbing groundsel.
Confederate jasmine with flowers Trachelospermum jasminoides HRM1.jpg
Confederate jasmine with flowers
Bower vine's showy flowers Pandorea jasminoides87.jpg
Bower vine's showy flowers
Mandevilla trailing on trellis Dipladenia sanderi.JPG
Mandevilla trailing on trellis
Oceanblue morning glory Ipomoea indica (14540443083).jpg
Oceanblue morning glory

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Toxicodendron radicans</i> Species of plant

Toxicodendron radicans, commonly known as eastern poison ivy or poison ivy, is an allergenic Asian and Eastern North American flowering plant in the genus Toxicodendron. The species is well known for causing urushiol-induced contact dermatitis, an itchy, irritating, and sometimes painful rash, in most people who touch it. The rash is caused by urushiol, a clear liquid compound in the plant's sap. The species is variable in its appearance and habit, and despite its common name, it is not a true ivy (Hedera), but rather a member of the cashew and pistachio family (Anacardiaceae). T. radicans is commonly eaten by many animals, and the seeds are consumed by birds, but poison ivy is most often thought of as an unwelcome weed. It is a different species from western poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, which has similar effects.

<i>Campsis radicans</i> Species of vine

Campsis radicans, the trumpet vineyellow trumpet vine or trumpet creeper, is a species of flowering plant in the family Bignoniaceae, native to the eastern United States, and naturalized elsewhere. Growing to 10 m (33 ft), it is a vigorous, deciduous woody vine, notable for its showy trumpet-shaped flowers. It inhabits woodlands and riverbanks, and is also a popular garden subject.

Tendril Specialisation of plant parts used to climb or bind

In botany, a tendril is a specialized stem, leaf or petiole with a threadlike shape used by climbing plants for support and attachment, as well as cellular invasion by parasitic plants such as Cuscuta. Tendrils are responsive to touch and to chemical factors by curling, twining, or adhering to suitable structures or hosts.

<i>Hedera</i> Genus of flowering plants in the family Araliaceae

Hedera, commonly called ivy, is a genus of 12–15 species of evergreen climbing or ground-creeping woody plants in the family Araliaceae, native to western, central and southern Europe, Macaronesia, northwestern Africa and across central-southern Asia east to Japan and Taiwan.

<i>Asparagus</i> (genus) Genus of flowering plants

Asparagus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Asparagoideae. It comprises up to 300 species. Most are evergreen long-lived perennial plants growing from the understory as lianas, bushes or climbing plants. The best-known species is the edible Asparagus officinalis, commonly referred to as just asparagus. Some other members of the genus, such as Asparagus densiflorus, are grown as ornamental plants.

<i>Parthenocissus quinquefolia</i> Species of flowering plant

Parthenocissus quinquefolia, known as Virginia creeper, Victoria creeper, five-leaved ivy, or five-finger, is a species of flowering vine in the grape family, Vitaceae. It is native to eastern and central North America, from southeastern Canada and the eastern United States west to Manitoba and Utah, and south to eastern Mexico and Guatemala.

<i>Parthenocissus tricuspidata</i> Species of grapevine

Parthenocissus tricuspidata is a flowering plant in the grape family (Vitaceae) native to eastern Asia in Korea, Japan, and northern and eastern China. Although unrelated to true ivy, it is commonly known as Boston ivy, grape ivy, and Japanese ivy, and also as Japanese creeper, and by the name woodbine.

<i>Parthenocissus</i> Genus of grapevines

Parthenocissus, is a genus of tendril climbing plants in the grape family, Vitaceae. It contains about 12 species native to the Himalayas, eastern Asia and North America. Several are grown for ornamental use, notably P. henryana, P. quinquefolia and P. tricuspidata.

<i>Parthenocissus inserta</i> Species of vine

Parthenocissus inserta, also known as thicket creeper, false Virginia creeper, woodbine, or grape woodbine, is a woody vine native to North America, in southeastern Canada and a large area of the United States, from Maine west to Montana and south to New Jersey and Missouri in the east, and Texas to Arizona in the west. It is present in California, but it may be an introduced species that far west.It is introduced in Europe.

<i>Ampelopsis glandulosa <span style="font-style:normal;">var.</span> brevipedunculata</i> Variety of grapevine

Ampelopsis glandulosa var. brevipedunculata, with common names creeper, porcelain berry, Amur peppervine, and wild grape, is an ornamental plant, native to temperate areas of Asia. It is generally similar to, and potentially confused with, grape species and other Ampelopsis species.

<i>Cobaea scandens</i> Species of vine

Cobaea scandens, the cup-and-saucer vine, cathedral bells, Mexican ivy, or monastery bells, is a species of flowering plant in the phlox family Polemoniaceae. It is native to Mexico, with isolated sightings elsewhere in tropical central and South America.

<i>Senecio tamoides</i> Species of vine

Senecio tamoides, also known as Canary creeper, is a climbing member of the genus Senecio of the family Asteraceae that is native to Southern Africa. It is used as an ornamental plant for its showy yellow, daisy-like flowers in autumn.

<i>Asparagus scandens</i> Species of vine

Asparagus scandens, is a plant native to South Africa in the genus Asparagus.

<i>Parthenocissus henryana</i> Species of vine

Parthenocissus henryana is a species of flowering plant in the vine family Vitaceae, native to China.

<i>Rhoicissus tomentosa</i> Species of grapevine

Rhoicissus tomentosa is a vigorous, evergreen vine that is indigenous to the afro-montane forests of southern Africa. It is increasingly popular as an ornamental creeper in gardens, and it has a wide range of uses in traditional medicine.

<i>Pityopsis ruthii</i>

Pityopsis ruthii is a rare species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common name Ruth's golden aster. It is endemic to the US state of Tennessee, where it is known only from Polk County. It is threatened by the modification of its habitat. It is a federally listed endangered species.

<i>Smilax bona-nox</i> Species of flowering plant

Smilax bona-nox, known by the common names saw greenbrier, zarzaparrilla, catbrier, bullbrier, chinabrier, and tramp's trouble, is a species of flowering plant in the Smilacaceae, or greenbrier family. The species is native to the southeastern United States from Delaware to Florida and as far west as Kansas and Texas, as well as Bermuda and much of Mexico.

<i>Ripogonum scandens</i> Species of flowering plant

Ripogonum scandens, is a common rainforest vine native to New Zealand. It can also grow in areas of swamp.

<i>Dolichandra unguis-cati</i> Species of flowering plant

Dolichandra unguis-cati, commonly known as cat's claw creeper, funnel creeper, or cat's claw trumpet, is a rapidly growing climbing vine belonging to the family Bignoniaceae.

<i>Thyrsanthella difformis</i> Species of plant

Thyrsanthella difformis, the climbing dogbane, is a species of flowering plant in the dogbane family. It is an uncommon to locally common deciduous low-growing woody vine native to the southeastern United States, found more often though not exclusively in moist habitats.

References

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  2. Jackson; Benjamin; Daydon (1928). A Glossary of Botanic Terms with their Derivation and Accent, 4th ed. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co.
  3. Francis E. Putz (1991). The Biology of Vines. Cambridge University Press. pp. xiii. ISBN   978-0-521-39250-1. Using 'vines' to denote all climbing plants may initially confuse some readers from lands where, with due respect for wine, 'the vine' is used solely in reference to grapes.
  4. Shorter Oxford English dictionary, 6th ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 3804. ISBN   978-0199206872.
  5. "Creepers". mannuthynursery. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
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  7. Gianoli, Ernesto (2004). "Evolution of a climbing habit promotes diversification in flowering plants". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 271 (1552): 2011–2015. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2827. JSTOR   4142967. PMC   1691831 . PMID   15451690.
  8. Putz, Francis E. "Vine Ecology" . Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  9. Weakley, Alan (2010). Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States (PDF). p. 661.
  10. "Japanese climbing fern". Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  11. Haldeman, Jan. "As the vine twines". Native and Naturalized Plants of the Carolinas and Georgia. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  12. Weakley, Alan S. (May 2015). Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. UNC Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  13. bine at Merriam-Webster
  14. Cone Heads at Willamette Week
  15. Misalliance
  16. Gianoli, Ernesto; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. (2005). "Leaf Damage Induces Twining in a Climbing Plant". The New Phytologist. 167 (2): 385–90. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01484.x . JSTOR   3694507. PMID   15998392.
  17. Carter, Gregory A.; Teramura, Alan H. (1988). "Vine Photosynthesis and Relationships to Climbing Mechanisms in a Forest Understory". American Journal of Botany. 75 (7): 1101. doi:10.2307/2443769. JSTOR   2443769.
  18. Millet, B.; Melin, D.; Badot, P.-M. (1988). "Circumnutation in Phaseolus vulgaris. I. Growth, osmotic potential and cell ultrastructure in the free moving part of the shoot". Physiologia Plantarum. 72: 133–138. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1988.tb06634.x.
  19. Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Gianoli, Ernesto; Becerra, José (2007). "Interactive Effects of Leaf Damage, Light Intensity and Support Availability on Chemical Defenses and Morphology of a Twining Vine". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 33 (1): 95–103. doi:10.1007/s10886-006-9215-8. PMID   17111219. S2CID   27419071.
  20. Fukano, Yuya; Yamawo, Akira (26 August 2015). "Self-discrimination in the tendrils of the vine is mediated by physiological connection". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 282 (1814): 20151379. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.1379. PMC   4571702 . PMID   26311669.
  21. Liß, H.; Weiler, E. W. (July 1994). "Ion-translocating ATPases in tendrils of Bryonia dioica Jacq". Planta. 194 (2): 169–180. doi:10.1007/BF00196385. JSTOR   23383001. S2CID   25162242.