Horticulture

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A horticulture student tending to plants in a garden in Lawrenceville, Georgia, March 2015 Horticulturist Amy Boul by Lance Cheung.jpg
A horticulture student tending to plants in a garden in Lawrenceville, Georgia, March 2015

Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as ornamental trees and lawns. [1] [2] [3]

Contents

The study and practice of horticulture have been traced back thousands of years. Horticulture contributed to the transition from nomadic human communities to sedentary, or semi-sedentary, horticultural communities. [4] Horticulture is divided into several categories which focus on the cultivation and processing of different types of plants and food items for specific purposes. In order to conserve the science of horticulture, multiple organizations worldwide educate, encourage, and promote the advancement of horticulture. Some notable horticulturists include Luca Ghini, Luther Burbank, and Tony Avent.

Definition and Scope

Typical cart used in horticulture in Vottem, Belgium Charrette des maraichers de Vottem Belgique.jpg
Typical cart used in horticulture in Vottem, Belgium

Horticulture involves plant propagation and cultivation to improve plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses. It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management, landscape and garden design, construction and maintenance, and arboriculture. The word horticulture is modeled after agriculture; it derives from the Latin words hortus and cultura, which mean “garden” and “cultivation”, respectively. [5] In contrast to agriculture, horticulture does not include large-scale crop production or animal husbandry. Additionally, horticulture focuses on the use of small plots with a wide variety of mixed crops while agriculture focuses on one large primary crop at a time.

Types of Horticulture

There are several major areas of focus within the science of horticulture. [1] They include:

History

Cyrus the Great, established the great Persian Empire and helped establish the practice of horticulture. He died in 530 BC. Cyrus the Great II.jpg
Cyrus the Great, established the great Persian Empire and helped establish the practice of horticulture. He died in 530 BC.

The study and practice of horticulture are traced back to the times of Cyrus the Great of ancient Persia and continues to be a part of today’s society with present-day horticulturists such as Freeman S. Howlett and Luther Burbank. The origins of horticulture lie in the transition of human communities from a nomadic lifestyle as hunter-gatherers to sedentary, or semi-sedentary, horticultural communities. In the Pre-Columbian Amazon Rainforest, natives used biochar to enhance soil productivity by smoldering plant waste. [6] European settlers called this soil Terra Preta de Indio. [7] In forest areas, such horticulture was often carried out in swiddens, or "slash and burn" areas. [8] In pre-contact North America, the semi-sedentary horticultural communities of the Eastern Woodlands, who grew maize, squash, and sunflower, contrasted markedly with the nomadic hunter-gatherer communities of the Plains people. Mesoamerican cultures focused in the cultivating of crops on a small scale, such as the “milpa” or maize field, around their dwellings or in specialized plots which were visited occasionally during migrations from one area to the next. [4] In Central America, Maya horticulture involved augmentation of the forest with useful trees such as papaya, avocado, cacao, ceiba and sapodilla. In the cornfields, multiple crops such as beans, squash, pumpkins and chili peppers were grown, and in some cultures, these crops were tended mainly or exclusively by women. [9]

Horticultural Organizations

There are various organization worldwide that focus on promoting and encouraging research and education in all branches of horticultural science; such organizations include the International Society for Horticultural Science [10] and the American Society of Horticultural Science. [11]

In United Kingdom, there are two main horticulture societies. The Ancient Society of York Florists is the oldest horticultural society in the world and was founded in 1768; this organization continues to host four horticultural shows annually in York, UK. [12] Additionally, The Royal Horticultural Society, established in 1804, is a charity in United Kingdom that leads on the encouragement and improvement of the science, art, and practice of horticulture in all its branches. [13] The organization shares the knowledge of horticulture through its community, learning programs, and world-class gardens and shows.

The Chartered Institute of Horticulture (CIoH) is the professional body which represents horticulturists in Great Britain and Ireland [14] while also having an international branch for members outside of these islands. The Australian Society of Horticultural Science was established in 1990 as a professional society to promote and enhance Australian horticultural science and industry. [15] Finally, the New Zealand Horticulture Institute is another known horticultural organization. [16]

The National Junior Horticultural Association (NJHA) was established in 1934 and was the first organization in the world dedicated solely to youth and horticulture. NJHA programs are designed to help young people obtain a basic understanding of horticulture and develop skills in this ever-expanding art and science. [17]

The Global Horticulture Initiative (GlobalHort) fosters partnerships and collective action among different stakeholders in horticulture. This organization has a special focus on horticulture for development (H4D), which involves using horticulture to reduce poverty and improve nutrition worldwide. GlobalHort is organized in a consortium of national and international organizations which collaborate in research, training, and technology-generating activities designed to meet mutually-agreed-upon objectives. GlobalHort is a non-profit organization registered in Belgium. [18]

Notable horticulturists

See also

Related Research Articles

Agriculture Cultivation of plants and animals to provide useful products

Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to agriculture:

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sustainable agriculture:

Sustainable agriculture Farming relying on as many renewable resources as possible

Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways meeting society's present food and textile needs, without compromising the ability for current or future generations to meet their needs. It can be based on an understanding of ecosystem services. There are many methods to increase the sustainability of agriculture. When developing agriculture within sustainable food systems, it is important to develop flexible business process and farming practices.

Shifting cultivation Method of agriculture

Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plot of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned while post-disturbance fallow vegetation is allowed to freely grow while the cultivator moves on to another plot. The period of cultivation is usually terminated when the soil shows signs of exhaustion or, more commonly, when the field is overrun by weeds. The length of time that a field is cultivated is usually shorter than the period over which the land is allowed to regenerate by lying fallow. This technique is often used in LEDCs or LICs. In some areas, cultivators use a practice of slash-and-burn as one element of their farming cycle. Others employ land clearing without any burning, and some cultivators are purely migratory and do not use any cyclical method on a given plot. Sometimes no slashing at all is needed where regrowth is purely of grasses, an outcome not uncommon when soils are near exhaustion and need to lie fallow. In shifting agriculture, after two or three years of producing vegetable and grain crops on cleared land, the migrants abandon it for another plot. Land is often cleared by slash-and-burn methods—trees, bushes and forests are cleared by slashing, and the remaining vegetation is burnt. The ashes add potash to the soil. Then the seeds are sown after the rains.

Pomology Study of fruit

Pomology is a branch of botany that studies fruit and its cultivation. The term fruticulture—introduced from Romance languages —is also used.

Organic horticulture

Organic horticulture is the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants by following the essential principles of organic agriculture in soil building and conservation, pest management, and heirloom variety preservation.

Terra preta A type of very dark, fertile artificial (anthropogenic) soil found in the Amazon Basin

Terra preta is a type of very dark, fertile artificial (anthropogenic) soil found in the Amazon Basin. It is also known as "Amazonian dark earth" or "Indian black earth". In Portuguese its full name is terra preta do índio or terra preta de índio. Terra mulata is lighter or brownish in color.

Historical ecology

Historical ecology is a research program that focuses on the interactions between humans and their environment over long-term periods of time, typically over the course of centuries. In order to carry out this work, historical ecologists synthesize long-series data collected by practitioners in diverse fields. Rather than concentrating on one specific event, historical ecology aims to study and understand this interaction across both time and space in order to gain a full understanding of its cumulative effects. Through this interplay, humans adapt to and shape the environment, continuously contributing to landscape transformation. Historical ecologists recognize that humans have had world-wide influences, impact landscape in dissimilar ways which increase or decrease species diversity, and that a holistic perspective is critical to be able to understand that system.

<i>Vaccinium corymbosum</i> Species of plant

Vaccinium corymbosum, the northern highbush blueberry, is a North American species of blueberry which has become a food crop of significant economic importance. It is native to eastern Canada and the eastern and southern United States, from Ontario east to Nova Scotia and south as far as Florida and eastern Texas. It is also naturalized in other places: Europe, Japan, New Zealand, the Pacific Northwest of North America, etc. Other common names include blue huckleberry, tall huckleberry, swamp huckleberry, high blueberry, and swamp blueberry.

This is an alphabetical index of articles related to gardening.

Biochar Lightweight black residue, made of carbon and ashes, after pyrolysis of biomass

Biochar is charcoal that is produced by pyrolysis of biomass in the absence of oxygen; it is used as a soil ameliorant for both carbon sequestration and soil health benefits. Biochar is a stable solid that is rich in carbon and can endure in soil for thousands of years. Biochar is being investigated as a means of carbon sequestration, and it may be a means to mitigate global warming and climate change. It results from processes related to pyrogenic carbon capture and storage (PyCCS).

The College of Horticulture, is a constituent college of Kerala Agricultural University, situated in Thrissur of Kerala state in India. The College of Horticulture imparts agricultural education at undergraduate, graduate and doctoral levels. The college has 20 departments and 7 centres undertaking the multiple activities of teaching, research and extension. The college is located in the picturesque central campus of Kerala Agricultural University in Vellanikkara, Thrissur. The college received the Sardar Patel Outstanding Institution Award in the year 2003 awarded by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Dr. George Thomas, Professor is the current Associate Dean of the College

Urban horticulture

Horticulture is the science and art of growing fruits and vegetables and also flowers or ornamental plants.

Olericulture Study of cultivation of vegetables

Olericulture is the science of vegetable growing, dealing with the culture of non-woody (herbaceous) plants for food.

Nutritional anthropology is the study of the interplay between human biology, economic systems, nutritional status and food security. If economic and environmental changes in a community affect access to food, food security, and dietary health, then this interplay between culture and biology is in turn connected to broader historical and economic trends associated with globalization. Nutritional status affects overall health status, work performance potential, and the overall potential for economic development for any given group of people.

David Domoney

David Martin Domoney, C Hort. FCI Hort is an English Chartered Horticulturist and celebrity gardener. He co-presents the TV gardening programme Love Your Garden, alongside Alan Titchmarsh, and is the resident gardener on ITV1's This Morning.[3]

Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya Agricultural university in Madhya Pradesh, India.

Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (RVSKVV) is an agricultural state university situated in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India. It was set up in 2008 by bifurcating the horticulture department and the veterinary science & animal husbandry department out of Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (JNKVV).

Krishna Lal Chadha is an Indian horticultural scientist, author and a former National Professor of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research. He was honored by the Government of India, in 2012, with the fourth highest Indian civilian award of Padma Shri.

Nina Lauren Bassuk is a Professor and Program Leader at the Urban Horticulture Institute at Cornell University.

References

  1. 1 2 Preece, John E.; Read, Paul E. (2005). The biology of horticulture: an introductory textbook (2 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 4–6. ISBN   0-471-46579-8.
  2. Arteca, Richard N. (2015). Introduction to Horticultural Science (2 ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. p. 584. ISBN   978-1-111-31279-4.
  3. "Why Horticulture?". Department of Horticultural Science. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on 2019-05-02. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  4. 1 2 von Hagen, V.W. (1957) The Ancient Sun Kingdoms Of The Americas. Ohio: The World Publishing Company
  5. hortus . Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project .
  6. Solomon, Dawit, Johannes Lehmann, Janice Thies, Thorsten Schafer, Biqing Liang, James Kinyangi, Eduardo Neves, James Petersen, Flavio Luizao, and Jan Skjemstad, Molecular signature and sources of biochemical recalcitrance of organic carbone in Amazonian Dark Earths, Geochemica et cosmochemica ACTA 71.9 2285–2286 (2007) ("Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are a unique type of soils apparently developed between 500 and 9000 years B.P. through intense anthropogenic activities such as biomass-burning and high-intensity nutrient depositions on pre-Columbian Amerindian settlements that transformed the original soils into Fimic Anthrosols throughout the Brazilian Amazon Basin.") (internal citations omitted)
  7. Glaser, Bruno, Johannes Lehmann, and Wolfgang Zech, Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal – a review, Biology and Fertility of Soils 35.4 219-220 (2002) ("These so called Terra Preta do Indio (Terra Preta) characterize the settlements of pre-Columbian Indios. In Terra Preta soils large amounts of black C indicate a high and prolonged input of carbonized organic matter probably due to the production of charcoal in hearths, whereas only low amounts of charcoal are added to soils as a result of forest fires and slash-and-burn techniques.") (internal citations omitted)
  8. McGee, J.R. and Kruse, M. (1986) Swidden horticulture among the Lacandon Maya [videorecording (29 mins.)]. University of California, Berkeley: Extension Media Center
  9. Thompson, S.I. (1977) Women, Horticulture, and Society in Tropical America. American Anthropologist, N.S., 79: 908–10
  10. "ISHS". Archived from the original on September 22, 2012.
  11. "ASHS". ashs.org.
  12. "Ancient society of York Florists,oldest horticultural society in world,longest running horticultural show in world established 1768, flower shows in york yorkshire uk,horticultural shows in york yorkshire uk, vegetable shows in york yorkshire uk, fruit shows in york yorkshire uk, floral art shows in york yorkshire uk,handicrafts and baking shows in york uk,dahlia shows in york yorkshire uk,gladioli shows in york yorkshire uk,chrysanthemum shows in york yorkshire uk, auricula shows in york yorkshire uk, sweet pea shows in york yorkshire uk,". www.ancientsocietyofyorkflorists.co.uk.
  13. "The Royal Horticultural Society, UK charity focussed on the art, science and practice of horticulture". The Royal Horticultural Society Website.
  14. "CIoH". Chartered Institute of Horticulture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-07.
  15. "Australian Society of Horticultural Science – Australian Society of Horticultural Science".
  16. "RNZIH – Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture – Home Page".
  17. "Home – NJHA".
  18. "The Global Horticulture Initiative".

Further reading