Manufacturing

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Car manufacturing in China Geely assembly line in Beilun, Ningbo.JPG
Car manufacturing in China

Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labor and machines, tools, chemical or biological processing or formulation and is the essence of secondary industry. The term may refer to a range of human activity from handicraft to high tech but is most commonly applied to industrial design, in which raw materials from primary industry are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other more complex products (such as aircraft, household appliances, furniture, sports equipment or automobiles), or distributed via the tertiary industry to end users and consumers (usually through wholesalers, who in turn sell to retailers, who then sell them to individual customers).

Contents

Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part.

Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead.

The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing, Pfizer, and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Yamaha, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors.

History and development

Finished regenerative thermal oxidizer at manufacturing plant Regenerative thermal oxidizer manufacturing.jpg
Finished regenerative thermal oxidizer at manufacturing plant
Assembly of Section 41 of a Boeing 787 Dreamliner Boeing 787 Section 41 final assembly.jpg
Assembly of Section 41 of a Boeing 787 Dreamliner
An industrial worker amidst heavy steel semi-products (KINEX BEARINGS, Bytca, Slovakia, c. 1995-2000) Worker 9.JPG
An industrial worker amidst heavy steel semi-products (KINEX BEARINGS, Bytča, Slovakia, c. 1995–2000)
A modern automobile assembly line Hyundai car assembly line.jpg
A modern automobile assembly line

In its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans.

In the pre-industrial world, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture (and continues to do so in places). Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.

The factory system was first adopted in Britain at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century and later spread around the world. [1] The main characteristic of the factory system is the use of machinery, originally powered by water or steam and later by electricity. Increased use of economies of scale, the centralization of factories, and standardization of interchangeable parts were adopted in the American system of manufacturing in the nineteenth century.

Manufacturing in the Soviet Union was based on collectivism.

Manufacturing systems: methods of manufacturing

Industrial policy

Economics of manufacturing

Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense.

On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals.

The negative costs of manufacturing can also be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing. These are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are significantly lower than in "developed-world" economies.

Safety

Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. [2] [3]

Manufacturing and investment

Capacity utilization in manufacturing in the FRG and in the USA KapaAuslUSABRDEngl.png
Capacity utilization in manufacturing in the FRG and in the USA

Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as:

In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development. They have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. [4] [5]

On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. [6] Further, while U.S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U.S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. [7] A total of 3.2 million – one in six U.S. manufacturing jobs – have disappeared between 2000 and 2007. [8] In the UK, EEF the manufacturers organization has led calls for the UK economy to be rebalanced to rely less on financial services and has actively promoted the manufacturing agenda.

List of countries by manufacturing output

List of top 20 manufacturing countries by total value of manufacturing in US dollars for its noted year according to World Bank. [9]

RankCountry/RegionMillions of $USYear
  World 13,171,0002017
1Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 4,002,7522018
2Flag of the United States.svg  United States 2,173,3192017
3Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 1,007,3302017
4Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 832,4312018
5Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 440,9412018
6Flag of India.svg  India 408,6932018
7Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 310,8972018
8Flag of France.svg  France 273,9712018
9Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 251,9852018
10Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 208,4982018
11Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 207,0172018
12Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 203,9882018
13Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 180,5412018
14Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 180,2642018
15Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 160,5312015
16Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 146,0772018
17Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 135,9272018
18Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 129,1622018
19Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 115,5912018
20Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 100,2322018

Manufacturing processes

Control

See also

Related Research Articles

Economies of scale Cost advantages obtained via scale of operation

In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation, with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale. At the basis of economies of scale there may be technical, statistical, organizational or related factors to the degree of market control.

Tertiary sector of the economy service sector

The service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, and the primary sector.

Economy of Taiwan National economy

The economy of Taiwan is a developed capitalist economy that ranks as the seventh largest in Asia and 22nd-largest in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP). It is included in the advanced economies group by the International Monetary Fund and gauged in the high-income economies group by the World Bank. Taiwan is the most technologically advanced computer microchip maker in the world.

Construction Process of the building or assembling of a building or infrastructure

Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure. Construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction typically takes place on location for a known client. Construction as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries. Construction starts with planning, design, and financing; it continues until the project is built and ready for use.

A capital good is a durable good that is used in the production of goods or services. Capital goods are one of the three types of producer goods, the other two being land and labour. The three are also known collectively as "primary factors of production"

Offshoring is the relocation of a business process from one country to another—typically an operational process, such as manufacturing, or supporting processes, such as accounting. Typically this refers to a company business, although state governments may also employ offshoring. More recently, technical and administrative services have been offshored.

Canadian Dairy Commission Crown corporation

The Canadian Dairy Commission is an Ottawa-based Canadian government Crown Corporation that plays a role of administrator, facilitator and stakeholder in the public policy related to the Canadian dairy industry. The CDC's mandate is to coordinate dairy policies in a jurisdiction that is shared between both provincial and federal governments. In the early 1970s, when the dairy industry became the first industry in Canada to be operated under the national supply management system (NSMS), the CDC was named as facilitator and administrator coordinating dairy policies and providing a framework for the management of the Canadian dairy industry.

Operations management area of management concerned with designing and controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations

Operations management is an area of management concerned with designing and controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production of goods or services. It involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient in terms of using as few resources as needed and effective in terms of meeting customer requirements. Operations management is primarily concerned with planning, organizing and supervising in the contexts of production, manufacturing or the provision of services.

Workforce productivity amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time

Workforce productivity is the amount of goods and services that a group of workers produce in a given amount of time. It is one of several types of productivity that economists measure. Workforce productivity, often referred to as labor productivity, is a measure for an organisation or company, a process, an industry, or a country.

Industrial technology is the use of engineering and manufacturing technology to make production faster, simpler and more efficient. The industrial technology field employs creative and technically proficient individuals who can help a company achieve efficient and profitable productivity.

Manufacturing Engineering it is a branch of professional engineering that shares many common concepts and ideas with other fields of engineering such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, and industrial engineering. Manufacturing engineering requires the ability to plan the practices of manufacturing; to research and to develop tools, processes, machines and equipment; and to integrate the facilities and systems for producing quality products with the optimum expenditure of capital.

Textile industry in Bangladesh regional economic sector in South Asia

The textile and clothing industries provide the single source of growth in Bangladesh's rapidly developing economy. Exports of textiles and garments are the principal source of foreign exchange earnings. By 2002 exports of textiles, clothing, and ready-made garments (RMG) accounted for 77% of Bangladesh's total merchandise exports. In 1972, the World Bank approximated the gross domestic product (GDP) of Bangladesh at US$6.29 billion, and it grew to $173.82 billion by 2014, with $31.2 billion of that generated by exports, 82% of which was ready-made garments. As of 2016 Bangladesh held the 2nd place in producing garments just after China. Bangladesh is the world's second-largest apparel exporter of western fast fashion brands. Sixty percent of the export contracts of western brands are with European buyers and about forty percent with American buyers. Only 5% of textile factories are owned by foreign investors, with most of the production being controlled by local investors. In the financial year 2016-2017 the RMG industry generated US$28.14 billion, which was 80.7% of the total export earnings in exports and 12.36% of the GDP; the industry was also taking on green manufacturing practices.

Advanced manufacturing

Advanced manufacturing is the use of innovative technology to improve products or processes, with the relevant technology being described as "advanced," "innovative," or "cutting edge." Advanced manufacturing industries "increasingly integrate new innovative technologies in both products and processes. The rate of technology adoption and the ability to use that technology to remain competitive and add value to define the advanced manufacturing sector."

The National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) is a partnership program developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The program was founded in 1996 to provide a framework for research collaborations among universities, large and small businesses, professional societies, government agencies, and worker organizations. Together these parties identify issues in the field of workplace safety and health that require immediate attention based on the number of workers affected, the seriousness of the hazard, and the likelihood that new safety information and approaches can effect a change.

The United Kingdom, where the Industrial Revolution began in the late 18th century, has a long history of manufacturing, which contributed to Britain's early economic growth. During the second half of the 20th century, there was a steady decline in the importance of manufacturing and the economy of the United Kingdom shifted toward services. Manufacturing, however, remains important for overseas trade and accounted for 44% of goods exports in 2014. In June 2010, manufacturing in the United Kingdom accounted for 8.2% of the workforce and 12% of the country's national output. The East Midlands and West Midlands were the regions with the highest proportion of employees in manufacturing. London had the lowest at 2.8%.

Circular economy regenerative system in which resource input and waste, emission, and energy leakage, are minimised

A circular economy is an economic system aimed at eliminating waste and the continual use of resources. Circular systems employ reuse, sharing, repair, refurbishment, remanufacturing and recycling to create a close-loop system, minimising the use of resource inputs and the creation of waste, pollution and carbon emissions. The circular economy aims to keep products, equipment and infrastructure in use for longer, thus improving the productivity of these resources. All "waste" should become "food" for another process: either a by-product or recovered resource for another industrial process or as regenerative resources for nature. This regenerative approach is in contrast to the traditional linear economy, which has a "take, make, dispose" model of production.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to production:

Speciality chemicals are particular chemical products which provide a wide variety of effects on which many other industry sectors rely. Some of the categories of speciality chemicals are adhesives, agrichemicals, cleaning materials, colors, cosmetic additives, construction chemicals, elastomers, flavors, food additives, fragrances, industrial gases, lubricants, paints, polymers, surfactants, and textile auxiliaries. Other industrial sectors such as automotive, aerospace, food, cosmetics, agriculture, manufacturing, and textiles are highly dependent on such products.

Industrial and production engineering (IPE) is an interdisciplinary engineering discipline that includes manufacturing technology, engineering sciences, management science, and optimization of complex processes, systems, or organizations. It is concerned with the understanding and application of engineering procedures in manufacturing processes and production methods. Industrial engineering dates back all the way to the industrial revolution, initiated in 1700s by Sir Adam Smith, Henry Ford, Eli Whitney, Frank Gilbreth and Lilian Gilbreth, Henry Gantt, F.W. Taylor, etc. After the 1970s, industrial and production engineering developed worldwide and started to widely use automation and robotics. Industrial and production engineering includes three areas: Mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, and management science.

Industry of Croatia

Industry of Croatia plays an important role in the country's economy. It has a longstanding tradition based since the 19th century on agriculture, forestry and mining. Many industrial branches developed at that time, like wood industry, food manufacturing, potash production, shipbuilding, leather and footwear production, textile industry, and others. Today, the industrial sectors in Croatia are food and beverage industry, metal processing and machine industry, including vehicles (20%), coke and refined petroleum production (17%), chemical, pharmaceutical, rubber and plastics industry (11%), wood, furniture and paper manufacturing (9%), electrical equipment, electronics and optics fabrication (9%), textile, clothing and footwear industry (5%) as well as construction and building materials production (5%).

References

  1. Walker, William (1993). "National Innovation Systems: Britain". In Nelson, Richard R. (ed.). National innovation systems: a comparative analysis. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN   0195076176.
  2. "Manufacturing Program | NORA | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-02-11. Retrieved 2019-03-14.
  3. "National Occupational Research Agenda for Manufacturing | NIOSH | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-02-04. Retrieved 2019-03-14.
  4. Manufacturing & Investment Around The World: An International Survey Of Factors Affecting Growth & Performance, ISR Publications/Google Books, revised second edition, 2002. ISBN   978-0-906321-25-6.
  5. Research, Industrial Systems (2002-05-20). Manufacturing and Investment Around the World: An International Survey of Factors Affecting Growth and Performance. ISBN   978-0-906321-25-6.
  6. Bailey, David and Soyoung Kim (June 26, 2009).GE's Immelt says U.S. economy needs industrial renewal. UK Guardian. Retrieved on June 28, 2009.
  7. Brookings Institution, Why Does Manufacturing Matter? Which Manufacturing Matters?, February 2012 Archived 2012-10-08 at the Wayback Machine
  8. "Factory jobs: 3 million lost since 2000". USATODAY.com. April 20, 2007.
  9. "Manufacturing, value added (current US$) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2018-11-11.

Sources