Last updated

Hunter on a tree or a ground stand during a driven hunt in Finland Paul Childerley driven hunt Finland 04.png
Hunter on a tree or a ground stand during a driven hunt in Finland

Hunting is the human practice of seeking, pursuing, capturing, or killing wildlife or feral animals. [10] The most common reasons for humans to hunt are to harvest food (i.e. meat) and useful animal products (fur/hide, bone/tusks, horn/antler, etc.), for recreation/taxidermy (see trophy hunting), to remove predators dangerous to humans or domestic animals (e.g. wolf hunting), to eliminate pests and nuisance animals that damage crops/livestock/poultry or spread diseases (see varminting), for trade/tourism (see safari), or for ecological conservation against overpopulation and invasive species.


Recreationally hunted species are generally referred to as the game , and are usually mammals and birds. A person participating in a hunt is a hunter or (less commonly) huntsman; a natural area used for hunting is called a game reserve; an experienced hunter who helps organize a hunt and/or manage the game reserve is known as a gamekeeper.

Many non-human animals also hunt (see predation) as part of their feeding and parental behaviors, sometimes in quantities exceeding immediate dietary needs. The one that does the hunting is the predator , and the one being hunted is the prey .

Bushmen hunter in Botswana Bushmen hunters (cropped).png
Bushmen hunter in Botswana

Hunting activities by humans arose in Homo erectus or earlier, in the order of millions of years ago. Hunting has become deeply embedded in various human cultures and was once an important part of the rural economies—classified by economists as part of primary production alongside forestry, agriculture and fishery. Modern regulations (see game law) distinguish lawful hunting activities from illegal poaching, which involves the unauthorized and unregulated killing, trapping or capture of animals.

Bowhunter in Utah, US 171114-F-LS255-0011.JPG
Bowhunter in Utah, US

Apart from food provision, hunting can be a means of population control. Hunting advocates state that regulated hunting can be a necessary component [11] of modern wildlife management, for example to help maintain a healthy proportion of animal populations within an environment's ecological carrying capacity when natural checks such as natural predators are absent or insufficient, [12] [13] or to provide funding for breeding programs and maintenance of natural reserves and conservation parks. However, excessive hunting has also heavily contributed to the endangerment, extirpation and extinction of many animals. [14] [15] Some animal rights and anti-hunting activists regard hunting as a cruel, perverse and unnecessary blood sport. [16] [17] Certain hunting practices, such as canned hunts and ludicrously paid/bribed trophy tours (especially to poor countries), are considered unethical and exploitative even by some hunters.

Professional deerstalker standing over a downed red stag in Scotland Professional stalker standing next to red deer stag Ardnamurchan Estate Scotland darker 01.png
Professional deerstalker standing over a downed red stag in Scotland

Marine mammals such as whales and pinnipeds are also targets of hunting, both recreationally and commercially, often with heated controversies regarding the morality, ethics and legality of such practices. The pursuit, harvesting or catch and release of fish and aquatic cephalopods and crustaceans is called fishing, which however is widely accepted and not commonly categorised as a form of hunting, even though it essentially is. It is also not considered hunting to pursue animals without intent to kill them, as in wildlife photography, birdwatching, or scientific-research activities which involve tranquilizing or tagging of animals, although green hunting is still called so. The practices of netting or trapping insects and other arthropods for trophy collection, or the foraging or gathering of plants and mushrooms, are also not regarded as hunting.

Hunter carrying a reindeer in Greenland Reindeer carry Kasper.jpg
Hunter carrying a reindeer in Greenland

Skillful tracking and acquisition of an elusive target has caused the word hunt to be used in the vernacular as a metaphor for searching and obtaining something, as in "treasure hunting", "bargain hunting", "hunting for votes" and even "hunting down" corruption and waste.


The word hunt serves as both a noun ("the act of chasing game") and a verb. The noun has been dated to the early 12th century, from the verb hunt. Old English had huntung, huntoþ. The meaning of "a body of persons associated for the purpose of hunting with a pack of hounds" is first recorded in the 1570s. "The act of searching for someone or something" is from about 1600.[ citation needed ]

The verb, Old English huntian "to chase game" (transitive and intransitive), perhaps developed from hunta "hunter," is related to hentan "to seize," from Proto-Germanic huntojan (the source also of Gothic hinþan "to seize, capture," Old High German hunda "booty"), which is of uncertain origin. The general sense of "search diligently" (for anything) is first recorded c. 1200. [18]



Lower to Middle Paleolithic

Hunting has a long history. It pre-dates the emergence of Homo sapiens (anatomically modern humans) and may even predate the genus Homo .

The oldest undisputed evidence for hunting dates to the Early Pleistocene, consistent with the emergence and early dispersal of Homo erectus , about 1.7 million years ago (Acheulean). [19] While it is undisputed that Homo erectus were hunters, the importance of this for the emergence of Homo erectus from its australopithecine ancestors, including the production of stone tools and eventually the control of fire, is emphasised in the so-called "hunting hypothesis" and de-emphasised in scenarios that stress omnivory and social interaction.

There is no direct evidence for hunting predating Homo erectus, in either Homo habilis or in Australopithecus . The early hominid ancestors of humans were probably frugivores or omnivores, with a partially carnivore diet from scavenging rather than hunting. Evidence for australopithecine meat consumption was presented in the 1990s. [20] It has nevertheless often been assumed that at least occasional hunting behavior may have been present well before the emergence of Homo. This can be argued on the basis of comparison with chimpanzees, the closest extant relatives of humans, who also engage in hunting, indicating that the behavioral trait may have been present in the Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor as early as 5 million years ago. The common chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) regularly engages in troop predation behaviour where bands of beta males are led by an alpha male. Bonobos ( Pan paniscus ) have also been observed to occasionally engage in group hunting, [21] although more rarely than Pan troglodytes, mainly subsisting on a frugivorous diet. [22] Indirect evidence for Oldowan era hunting, by early Homo or late Australopithecus, has been presented in a 2009 study based on an Oldowan site in southwestern Kenya. [23]

Louis Binford (1986) criticised the idea that early hominids and early humans were hunters. On the basis of the analysis of the skeletal remains of the consumed animals, he concluded that hominids and early humans were mostly scavengers, not hunters, [24] Blumenschine (1986) proposed the idea of confrontational scavenging, which involves challenging and scaring off other predators after they have made a kill, which he suggests could have been the leading method of obtaining protein-rich meat by early humans. [25]

Stone spearheads dated as early as 500,000 years ago were found in South Africa. [26] Wood does not preserve well, however, and Craig Stanford, a primatologist and professor of anthropology at the University of Southern California, has suggested that the discovery of spear use by chimpanzees probably means that early humans used wooden spears as well, perhaps, five million years ago. [27] The earliest dated find of surviving wooden hunting spears dates to the very end of the Lower Paleolithic, just before 300,000 years ago. The Schöningen spears, found in 1976 in Germany, are associated with Homo heidelbergensis . [28]

The hunting hypothesis sees the emergence of behavioral modernity in the Middle Paleolithic as directly related to hunting, including mating behaviour, the establishment of language, culture, and religion, mythology and animal sacrifice. Sociologist David Nibert of Wittenberg University argues that the emergence of the organized hunting of animals undermined the communal, egalitarian nature of early human societies, with the status of women and less powerful males declining as the status of men quickly became associated with their success at hunting, which also increased human violence within these societies. [29] However, 9000-year-old remains of a female hunter along with a toolkit of projectile points and animal processing implements were discovered at the Andean site of Wilamaya Patjxa, Puno District in Peru. [30]

Upper Paleolithic to Mesolithic

Saharan rock art with prehistoric archers Algerien Desert.jpg
Saharan rock art with prehistoric archers
Inuit hunting walrus, 1999 21 Walrus Hunt 1999.jpg
Inuit hunting walrus, 1999

Evidence exists that hunting may have been one of the multiple environmental factors leading to the Holocene extinction of megafauna and their replacement by smaller herbivores. [31] [32]

North American megafauna extinction was coincidental with the Younger Dryas impact event, possibly making hunting a less critical factor in prehistoric species loss than had been previously thought. [33] However, in other locations such as Australia, humans are thought to have played a very significant role in the extinction of the Australian megafauna that was widespread prior to human occupation. [34] [35]

Hunting was a crucial component of hunter-gatherer societies before the domestication of livestock and the dawn of agriculture, beginning about 11,000 years ago in some parts of the world. In addition to the spear, hunting weapons developed during the Upper Paleolithic include the atlatl (a spear-thrower; before 30,000 years ago) and the bow (18,000 years ago). By the Mesolithic, hunting strategies had diversified with the development of these more far-reaching weapons and the domestication of the dog about 15,000 years ago. Evidence puts the earliest known mammoth hunting in Asia with spears to approximately 16,200 years ago. [36]

Sharp flint piece from Bjerlev Hede in central Jutland. Dated around 12,500 BC and considered the oldest hunting tool from Denmark. Kaervspids, Bjerlev Hede.jpg
Sharp flint piece from Bjerlev Hede in central Jutland. Dated around 12,500 BC and considered the oldest hunting tool from Denmark.

Many species of animals have been hunted throughout history. One theory is that in North America and Eurasia, caribou and wild reindeer "may well be the species of single greatest importance in the entire anthropological literature on hunting" [37] (see also Reindeer Age), although the varying importance of different species depended on the geographic location.

Ancient Greek black-figure pottery depicting the return of a hunter and his dog; made in Athens c. 540 BC, found in Rhodes Black Figured Olpe depicting the return of a hunter and his dog.jpg
Ancient Greek black-figure pottery depicting the return of a hunter and his dog; made in Athens c. 540 BC, found in Rhodes

Mesolithic hunter-gathering lifestyles remained prevalent in some parts of the Americas, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Siberia, as well as all of Australia, until the European Age of Discovery. They still persist in some tribal societies, albeit in rapid decline. Peoples that preserved Paleolithic hunting-gathering until the recent past include some indigenous peoples of the Amazonas (Aché), some Central and Southern African (San people), some peoples of New Guinea (Fayu), the Mlabri of Thailand and Laos, the Vedda people of Sri Lanka, and a handful of uncontacted peoples. In Africa, one of the last remaining hunter-gatherer tribes are the Hadza of Tanzania. [38]

Neolithic and Antiquity

Artemis with a Hind, a Roman copy of an Ancient Greek sculpture, c. 325 BC, by Leochares Diana of Versailles.jpg
Artemis with a Hind, a Roman copy of an Ancient Greek sculpture, c. 325 BC, by Leochares
An example of a Goguryeo tomb mural of hunting, middle of the first millennium Goguryeo tomb mural.jpg
An example of a Goguryeo tomb mural of hunting, middle of the first millennium

Even as animal domestication became relatively widespread and after the development of agriculture, hunting was usually a significant contributor to the human food supply. The supplementary meat and materials from hunting included protein, bone for implements, sinew for cordage, fur, feathers, rawhide and leather used in clothing.

Hunting is still vital in marginal climates, especially those unsuited for pastoral uses or agriculture. [39] For example, Inuit in the Arctic trap and hunt animals for clothing and use the skins of sea mammals to make kayaks, clothing, and footwear.

On ancient reliefs, especially from Mesopotamia, kings are often depicted as hunters of big game such as lions and are often portrayed hunting from a war chariot. The cultural and psychological importance of hunting in ancient societies is represented by deities such as the horned god Cernunnos and lunar goddesses of classical antiquity, the Greek Artemis or Roman Diana. Taboos are often related to hunting, and mythological association of prey species with a divinity could be reflected in hunting restrictions such as a reserve surrounding a temple. Euripides' tale of Artemis and Actaeon, for example, may be seen as a caution against disrespect of prey or impudent boasting.

Low-relief the boar hunt, Taq-e Bostan Taq-e Bostan - Low-relief the boar hunt.jpg
Low-relief the boar hunt, Taq-e Bostan

With the domestication of the dog, birds of prey, and the ferret, various forms of animal-aided hunting developed, including venery (scent hound hunting, such as fox hunting), coursing (sight hound hunting), falconry, and ferreting. While these are all associated with medieval hunting, over time, various dog breeds were selected for very precise tasks during the hunt, reflected in such names as pointer and setter.

Pastoral and agricultural societies

Nobleman in hunting costume with his servant following the scent of a stag, 14th century Nobleman in Hunting Costume preceded by his Servant trying to find the Scent of a Stag.png
Nobleman in hunting costume with his servant following the scent of a stag, 14th century

Even as agriculture and animal husbandry became more prevalent, hunting often remained as a part of human culture where the environment and social conditions allowed. Hunter-gatherer societies persisted, even when increasingly confined to marginal areas. And within agricultural systems, hunting served to kill animals that prey upon domestic and wild animals or to attempt to extirpate animals seen by humans as competition for resources such as water or forage.

When hunting moved from a subsistence activity to a selective one, two trends emerged:

  1. the development of the role of the specialist hunter, with special training and equipment
  2. the option of hunting as a "sport" for members of an upper social class

The meaning of the word game in Middle English evolved to include an animal which is hunted. As the domestication of animals for meat grew, subsistence hunting remained among the lowest classes; however, the stylised pursuit of game in European societies became a luxury. Dangerous hunting, such as for lions or wild boars, often done on horseback or from a chariot, had a function similar to tournaments and manly sports. Hunting ranked as an honourable, somewhat competitive pastime to help the aristocracy practice skills of war in times of peace. [40]

In most parts of medieval Europe, the upper class obtained the sole rights to hunt in certain areas of a feudal territory. Game in these areas was used as a source of food and furs, often provided via professional huntsmen, but it was also expected to provide a form of recreation for the aristocracy. The importance of this proprietary view of game can be seen in the Robin Hood legends, in which one of the primary charges against the outlaws is that they "hunt the King's deer". In contrast, settlers in Anglophone colonies gloried democratically in hunting for all. [41]

In medieval Europe, hunting was considered by Johannes Scotus Eriugena to be part of the set of seven mechanical arts . [42]

Use of dog

Hunting Companions, Dutch 19th-century painting featuring two dogs, a shotgun and a game bag 'Jachtgezellen' Rijksmuseum SK-A-1023.jpeg
Hunting Companions, Dutch 19th-century painting featuring two dogs, a shotgun and a game bag

Although various other animals have been used to aid the hunter, such as ferrets, the dog has assumed many very important uses to the hunter. The domestication of the dog has led to a symbiotic relationship in which the dog's independence from humans is deferred. Though dogs can survive independently of humans, and in many cases do ferrally, when raised or adopted by humans the species tends to defer to its control in exchange for habitation, food and support. [43]

Dogs today are used to find, chase, retrieve, and sometimes kill game. Dogs allow humans to pursue and kill prey that would otherwise be very difficult or dangerous to hunt. Different breeds of specifically bred hunting dog are used for different types of hunting. Waterfowl are commonly hunted using retrieving dogs such as the Labrador Retriever, the Golden Retriever, the Chesapeake Bay Retriever, the Brittany Spaniel, and other similar breeds. Game birds are flushed out using flushing spaniels such as the English Springer Spaniel, the various Cocker Spaniels and similar breeds.

The hunting of wild mammals in England and Wales with dogs was banned under the Hunting Act 2004. The wild mammals include fox, hare, deer and mink. There are, however, exceptions in the Act. [44]


Many prehistoric deities are depicted as predators or prey of humans, often in a zoomorphic form, perhaps alluding to the importance of hunting for most Palaeolithic cultures.

In many pagan religions, specific rituals are conducted before or after a hunt; the rituals done may vary according to the species hunted or the season the hunt is taking place.[ citation needed ] Often a hunting ground, or the hunt for one or more species, was reserved or prohibited in the context of a temple cult.[ citation needed ] In Roman religion, Diana is the goddess of the hunt. [45]

Mughal aristocrats hunting a blackbuck alongside an Asiatic cheetah, 1812 CheetahHunt.jpg
Mughal aristocrats hunting a blackbuck alongside an Asiatic cheetah, 1812

Indian and Eastern religions

A group of Sikhs hunting (Unknown Pahari artist, 18th century) Sikh Hunting.jpg
A group of Sikhs hunting (Unknown Pahari artist, 18th century)
A tiger hunt at Jhajjar, Rohtak District, Punjab, c. 1820 A tiger hunt at Jhajjar, Rohtak District, Panjab.jpg
A tiger hunt at Jhajjar, Rohtak District, Punjab, c. 1820

Hindu scriptures describe hunting as an occupation, as well as a sport of the kingly. Even figures considered divine are described to have engaged in hunting. One of the names of the god Shiva is Mrigavyadha, which translates as "the deer hunter" (mriga means deer; vyadha means hunter). The word Mriga, in many Indian languages including Malayalam, not only stands for deer, but for all animals and animal instincts (Mriga Thrishna). Shiva, as Mrigavyadha, is the one who destroys the animal instincts in human beings. In the epic Ramayana, Dasharatha, the father of Rama, is said to have the ability to hunt in the dark. During one of his hunting expeditions, he accidentally killed Shravana, mistaking him for game. During Rama's exile in the forest, Ravana kidnapped his wife, Sita, from their hut, while Rama was asked by Sita to capture a golden deer, and his brother Lakshman went after him. According to the Mahabharat, Pandu, the father of the Pandavas, accidentally killed the sage Kindama and his wife with an arrow, mistaking them for a deer.

Jainism teaches followers to have tremendous respect for all of life. Prohibitions for hunting and meat eating are the fundamental conditions for being a Jain.

Buddhism's first precept is the respect for all sentient life. The general approach by all Buddhists is to avoid killing any living animals. Buddha explained the issue by saying "all fear death; comparing others with oneself, one should neither kill nor cause to kill."[ quote citation needed ]

In Sikhism, only meat obtained from hunting, or slaughtered with the Jhatka is permitted. The Sikh gurus, especially Guru Hargobind and Guru Gobind Singh were ardent hunters. Many old Sikh Rehatnamas like Prem Sumarag, recommend hunting wild boar and deer. However, among modern Sikhs, the practise of hunting has died down; some even saying that all meat is forbidden.

Christianity, Judaism, and Islam

Ladies hunting in the 15th century Ladies Hunting.png
Ladies hunting in the 15th century
Tapestry with a hunting scene, late 16th century Flanders Tapestry with the hunting scene.jpg
Tapestry with a hunting scene, late 16th century

From early Christian times, hunting has been forbidden to Roman Catholic Church clerics. Thus the Corpus Juris Canonici (C. ii, X, De cleric. venat.) says, "We forbid to all servants of God hunting and expeditions through the woods with hounds; and we also forbid them to keep hawks or falcons." The Fourth Council of the Lateran, held under Pope Innocent III, decreed (canon xv): "We interdict hunting or hawking to all clerics." The decree of the Council of Trent is worded more mildly: "Let clerics abstain from illicit hunting and hawking" (Sess. XXIV, De reform., c. xii), which seems to imply that not all hunting is illicit, and canonists generally make a distinction declaring noisy (clamorosa) hunting unlawful, but not quiet (quieta) hunting. [46]

Ferraris gives it as the general sense of canonists that hunting is allowed to clerics if it be indulged in rarely and for sufficient cause, as necessity, utility or "honest" recreation, and with that moderation which is becoming to the ecclesiastical state. Ziegler, however, thinks that the interpretation of the canonists is not in accordance with the letter or spirit of the laws of the church. [46]

Nevertheless, although a distinction between lawful and unlawful hunting [47] is undoubtedly permissible, it is certain that a bishop can absolutely prohibit all hunting to the clerics of his diocese, as was done by synods at Milan, Avignon, Liège, Cologne, and elsewhere. Benedict XIV declared that such synodal decrees are not too severe, as an absolute prohibition of hunting is more conformable to the ecclesiastical law. In practice, therefore, the synodal statutes of various localities must be consulted to discover whether they allow quiet hunting or prohibit it altogether. [46]

In Jewish law hunting is not forbidden although there is an aversion to it. The great 18th-century authority Rabbi Yechezkel Landau after a study concluded although "hunting would not be considered cruelty to animals insofar as the animal is generally killed quickly and not tortured... There is an unseemly element in it, namely cruelty." The other issue is that hunting can be dangerous and Judaism places an extreme emphasis on the value of human life. [48] [49]

Islamic Sharia Law permits hunting of lawful animals and birds if they cannot be easily caught and slaughtered. However, this is only for the purpose of food and not for trophy hunting. [50]

National traditions


Explorer and big game hunter Samuel Baker chased by an elephant, illustration from 1890 ST-bakerelephant.jpg
Explorer and big game hunter Samuel Baker chased by an elephant, illustration from 1890

A safari, from a Swahili word meaning "a long journey", especially in Africa, is defined as an overland journey. Safari as a distinctive way of hunting was popularized by the US author Ernest Hemingway and President Theodore Roosevelt. [51] A safari may consist of a several-days—or even weeks-long journey, with camping in the bush or jungle, while pursuing big game. Nowadays, it is often used to describe hunting tours through African wildlife. [52]

Hunters are usually tourists, accompanied by licensed and highly regulated professional hunters, local guides, skinners, and porters in more difficult terrains. A special safari type is the solo-safari, where all the license acquiring, stalking, preparation, and outfitting is done by the hunter himself.[ citation needed ]

Indian subcontinent

Weeks Edwin's painting Departure for the Hunt, c. 1885 Weeks Edwin Departure For The Hunt.jpg
Weeks Edwin's painting Departure for the Hunt, c. 1885
A Shikar party in Mandalay, Burma, soon after the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1886, when Burma was annexed to British India Hunting party mandalay1885.jpg
A Shikar party in Mandalay, Burma, soon after the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1886, when Burma was annexed to British India

During the feudal and colonial times in British India, hunting or shikar was regarded as a regal sport in the numerous princely states, as many maharajas and nawabs, as well as British officers, maintained a whole corps of shikaris (big-game hunters), who were native professional hunters. They would be headed by a master of the hunt, who might be styled mir-shikar. Often, they recruited the normally low-ranking local tribes because of their traditional knowledge of the environment and hunting techniques. Big game, such as Bengal tigers, might be hunted from the back of an Indian elephant.

Regional social norms are generally antagonistic to hunting, while a few sects, such as the Bishnoi, lay special emphasis on the conservation of particular species, such as the antelope. India's Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 bans the killing of all wild animals. However, the Chief Wildlife Warden may, if satisfied that any wild animal from a specified list has become dangerous to human life, or is so disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery, permit any person to hunt such an animal. In this case, the body of any wild animal killed or wounded becomes government property. [53]

The practice among the soldiers in British India during the 1770s of going out to hunt snipes, a shorebird considered extremely challenging for hunters due to its alertness, camouflaging color and erratic flight behavior, is believed to be the origin of the modern word for sniper, as snipe-hunters needed to be stealthy in addition to having tracking skills and marksmanship. [54] [55] The term was used in the nineteenth century, and had become common usage by the First World War.

United Kingdom

Snowden Slights with retriever and shotgun around 1910, 'the last of Yorkshire's Wildfowlers' Snowden Slights, front view YORYM-S13.jpg
Snowden Slights with retriever and shotgun around 1910, 'the last of Yorkshire's Wildfowlers'

Unarmed fox hunting on horseback with hounds is the type of hunting most closely associated with the United Kingdom; in fact, "hunting" without qualification implies fox hunting. What in other countries is called "hunting" is called "shooting" (birds) or "stalking" (deer) in Britain. Originally a form of vermin control to protect livestock, fox hunting became a popular social activity for newly wealthy upper classes in Victorian times and a traditional rural activity for riders and foot followers alike. Similar to fox hunting in many ways is the chasing of hares with hounds. Pairs of sighthounds (or long-dogs), such as greyhounds, may be used to pursue a hare in coursing, where the greyhounds are marked as to their skill in coursing the hare (but are not intended to actually catch it), or the hare may be pursued with scent hounds such as beagles or harriers. Other sorts of foxhounds may also be used for hunting stags (deer) or mink. Deer stalking with rifles is carried out on foot without hounds, using stealth.

These forms of hunting have been controversial in the UK. Animal welfare supporters believe that hunting causes unnecessary suffering to foxes, horses, and hounds. Proponents argue that it is culturally and perhaps economically important. Using dogs to chase wild mammals was made illegal in February 2005 by the Hunting Act 2004; there were a number of exemptions (under which the activity may not be illegal) in the act for hunting with hounds, but no exemptions at all for hare-coursing.

Shooting traditions

Game birds, especially pheasants, are shot with shotguns for sport in the UK; the British Association for Shooting and Conservation says that over a million people per year participate in shooting, including game shooting, clay pigeon shooting, and target shooting. [57] Shooting as practised in Britain, as opposed to traditional hunting, requires little questing for game—around thirty-five million birds are released onto shooting estates every year, some having been factory farmed. Shoots can be elaborate affairs with guns placed in assigned positions and assistants to help load shotguns. When in position, "beaters" move through the areas of cover, swinging sticks or flags to drive the game out. Such events are often called "drives". The open season for grouse in the UK begins on 12 August, the so-called Glorious Twelfth. The definition of game in the United Kingdom is governed by the Game Act 1831.

A similar tradition, ojeo  [ es ], exists in Spain.

United States

Hunting camp with dressed deer at Schoodic Lake, Maine, in 1905 Camp on Schoodic Lake, ME.jpg
Hunting camp with dressed deer at Schoodic Lake, Maine, in 1905
Bear hunting Kodiak FWS.jpg
Carrying a bear trophy head at the Kodiak Archipelago

North American hunting pre-dates the United States by thousands of years and was an important part of many pre-Columbian Native American cultures. Native Americans retain some hunting rights and are exempt from some laws as part of Indian treaties and otherwise under federal law [58] —examples include eagle feather laws and exemptions in the Marine Mammal Protection Act. This is considered particularly important in Alaskan native communities.

Hunting is primarily regulated by state law; additional regulations are imposed through United States environmental law in the case of migratory birds and endangered species. Regulations vary widely from state to state and govern the areas, time periods, techniques and methods by which specific game animals may be hunted. Some states make a distinction between protected species and unprotected species (often vermin or varmints for which there are no hunting regulations). Hunters of protected species require a hunting license in all states, for which completion of a hunting safety course is sometimes a prerequisite.

US President Benjamin Harrison with ducks he shot. Benjamin Harrison duck hunting - DPLA - a584849012f2fd526bcca35f253e6ff0 (page 1).jpg
US President Benjamin Harrison with ducks he shot.

Typically, game animals are divided into several categories for regulatory purposes. Typical categories, along with example species, are as follows:

Hunting big game typically requires a "tag" for each animal harvested. Tags must be purchased in addition to the hunting license, and the number of tags issued to an individual is typically limited. In cases where there are more prospective hunters than the quota for that species, tags are usually assigned by lottery. Tags may be further restricted to a specific area, or wildlife management unit. Hunting migratory waterfowl requires a duck stamp from the Fish and Wildlife Service in addition to the appropriate state hunting license.

Harvest of animals other than big game is typically restricted by a bag limit and a possession limit. A bag limit is the maximum number of a specific animal species that an individual can harvest in a single day. A possession limit is the maximum number of a specific animal species that can be in an individual's possession at any time.


A man target practicing for the hunting seasons Hectors photos 109.JPG
A man target practicing for the hunting seasons

Gun usage in hunting is typically regulated by game category, area within the state, and time period. Regulations for big-game hunting often specify a minimum caliber or muzzle energy for firearms. The use of rifles is often banned for safety reasons in areas with high population densities or limited topographic relief. Regulations may also limit or ban the use of lead in ammunition because of environmental concerns. Specific seasons for bow hunting or muzzle-loading black-powder guns are often established to limit competition with hunters using more effective weapons.

Hunting in the United States is not associated with any particular class or culture; a 2006 poll showed seventy-eight percent of Americans supported legal hunting, [59] although relatively few Americans actually hunt. At the beginning of the 21st century, just six percent of Americans hunted. Southerners in states along the eastern seaboard hunted at a rate of five percent, slightly below the national average, and while hunting was more common in other parts of the South at nine percent, these rates did not surpass those of the Plains states, where twelve percent of Midwesterners hunted. Hunting in other areas of the country fell below the national average. [60] Overall, in the 1996–2006 period, the number of hunters over the age of sixteen declined by ten percent, a drop attributable to a number of factors including habitat loss and changes in recreation habits. [61]


Regulation of hunting within the United States dates from the 19th century. Some modern hunters see themselves as conservationists and sportsmen in the mode of Theodore Roosevelt and the Boone and Crockett Club. Local hunting clubs and national organizations provide hunter education and help protect the future of the sport by buying land for future hunting use. Some groups represent a specific hunting interest, such as Ducks Unlimited, Pheasants Forever, or the Delta Waterfowl Foundation. Many hunting groups also participate in lobbying the federal government and state government.

Each year, nearly $200 million in hunters' federal excise taxes are distributed to state agencies to support wildlife management programs, the purchase of lands open to hunters, and hunter education and safety classes. Since 1934, the sale of Federal Duck Stamps, a required purchase for migratory waterfowl hunters over sixteen years old, has raised over $700 million to help purchase more than 5,200,000 acres (8,100 sq mi; 21,000 km2) of habitat for the National Wildlife Refuge System lands that support waterfowl and many other wildlife species and are often open to hunting. States also collect money from hunting licenses to assist with management of game animals, as designated by law. A key task of federal and state park rangers and game wardens is to enforce laws and regulations related to hunting, including species protection, hunting seasons, and hunting bans.

Varmint hunting

The coypu is hunted as a pest in Louisiana. Nutria (Myocastor coypus).jpg
The coypu is hunted as a pest in Louisiana.

Varmint hunting is an American phrase for the selective killing of non-game animals seen as pests. While not always an efficient form of pest control, varmint hunting achieves selective control of pests while providing recreation and is much less regulated. Varmint species are often responsible for detrimental effects on crops, livestock, landscaping, infrastructure, and pets. Some animals, such as wild rabbits or squirrels, may be utilised for fur or meat, but often no use is made of the carcass. Which species are varmints depends on the circumstance and area. Common varmints may include various rodents, coyotes, crows, foxes, feral cats, and feral hogs. Some animals once considered varmints are now protected, such as wolves. In the US state of Louisiana, a non-native rodent, the coypu, has become so destructive to the local ecosystem that the state has initiated a bounty program to help control the population. Beavers from North America constitute an invasive species in Tierra del Fuego, where eradication attempts are ongoing.

Fair chase

The principles of the fair chase [62] have been a part of the American hunting tradition for over one hundred years. The role of the hunter-conservationist, popularised by Theodore Roosevelt, and perpetuated by Roosevelt's formation of the Boone and Crockett Club, has been central to the development of the modern fair chase tradition. Beyond Fair Chase: The Ethic and Tradition of Hunting, a book by Jim Posewitz, describes fair chase:

"Fundamental to ethical hunting is the idea of fair chase. This concept addresses the balance between the hunter and the hunted. It is a balance that allows hunters to occasionally succeed while animals generally avoid being taken." [63]

When Internet hunting was introduced in 2005, allowing people to hunt over the Internet using remotely controlled guns, the practice was widely criticised by hunters as violating the principles of fair chase. As a representative of the National Rifle Association of America (NRA) explained, "The NRA has always maintained that fair chase, being in the field with your firearm or bow, is an important element of hunting tradition. Sitting at your desk in front of your computer, clicking at a mouse, has nothing to do with hunting." [64]

Hunters with an American black bear in the Great Smoky Mountains Bear-hunters-kephart-nc1.jpg
Hunters with an American black bear in the Great Smoky Mountains

One hunting club declares that a fair chase shall not involve the taking of animals under the following conditions:

  • Helpless in a trap, deep snow or water, or on ice.
  • From any power vehicle or power boat.
  • By "jacklighting" or shining at night.
  • By the use of any tranquilizers or poisons.
  • While inside escape-proof fenced enclosures.
  • By the use of any power vehicle or power boat for herding or driving animals, including use of aircraft to land alongside or to communicate with or direct a hunter on the ground.
  • By the use of electronic devices for attracting, locating or pursuing game or guiding the hunter to such game, or by the use of a bow or arrow to which any electronic device is attached. [65]


Animals such as blackbuck, nilgai, axis deer, fallow deer, zebras, barasingha, gazelle and many other exotic game species can now be found on game farm and ranches in Texas, where they were introduced for sport hunting. These hunters can be found paying in excess of $10,000 dollars to take trophy animals on these controlled ranches.


The Russian imperial hunts evolved from hunting traditions of early Russian rulers—Grand Princes and Tsars—under the influence of hunting customs of European royal courts. The imperial hunts were organised mainly in Peterhof, Tsarskoye Selo, and Gatchina.

Riders gather for a dingo drive in Morven, Queensland, 1936 StateLibQld 1 140043 Riders gather for a dingo drive at Durella Station in Morven, ca. 1936.jpg
Riders gather for a dingo drive in Morven, Queensland, 1936


Hunting in Australia has evolved around the hunting and eradication of various animals considered to be pests or invasive species . All native animals are protected by law, and certain species such as kangaroos and ducks can be hunted by licensed shooters but only under a special permit on public lands during open seasons. The introduced species that are targeted include European rabbits, red foxes, deers (sambar, hog, red, fallow, chital and rusa), feral cats, pigs, goats, brumbies, donkeys and occasionally camels, as well as introduced upland birds such as quails, pheasants and partridges.

New Zealand

New Zealand has a strong hunting culture. [66] When humans arrived, the only mammals present on the islands making up New Zealand were bats, although seals and other marine mammals were present along the coasts. However, when humans arrived they brought other species with them. Polynesian voyagers introduced kuri (dogs), kiore (Polynesian rats), as well as a range of plant species. European explorers further added to New Zealand's biota, particularly pigs which were introduced by either Captain Cook or the French explorer De Surville in the 1700s. [67] [68] During the nineteenth century, as European colonisation took place, acclimatisation societies were established. The societies introduced a large number of species with no use other than as prey for hunting. [69] Species that adapted well to the New Zealand terrain include deer, pigs, goats, hare, tahr and chamois. With wilderness areas, suitable forage, and no natural predators, their populations exploded. Government agencies view the animals as pests due to their effects on the natural environment and on agricultural production, but hunters view them as a resource.


Plate depicting Khosrow I hunting animals ChosroesHuntingScene.JPG
Plate depicting Khosrow I hunting animals

Iranian tradition regarded hunting as an essential part of a prince's education, [70] and hunting was well recorded for the education of the upper-class youths during pre-Islamic Persia. As of October 2020, a hunting licence costs $20,000. The Department of Environment although do not report the number of permits issued. [71] [72] [73]


The numbers of licensed hunters in Japan, including those using snares and guns, is generally decreasing, while their average age is increasing. As of 2010, there were approximately 190,000 registered hunters, approximately 65% of whom were sixty years old or older. [74]

Trinidad and Tobago

There is a very active tradition of hunting small to medium-sized wild game in Trinidad and Tobago. Hunting is carried out with firearms, slingshots and cage traps, and sometimes aided by the use of hounds. The illegal use of trap guns and snare nets also occurs. With approximately 12,000 to 13,000 hunters applying for and being granted hunting permits in recent years, there is some concern that the practice might not be sustainable. In addition there are at present no bag limits and the open season is comparatively very long (5 months – October to February inclusive). As such hunting pressure from legal hunters is very high. Added to that, there is a thriving and very lucrative black market for poached wild game (sold and enthusiastically purchased as expensive luxury delicacies) and the numbers of commercial poachers in operation is unknown but presumed to be fairly high. As a result, the populations of the five major mammalian game species (red-rumped agouti, lowland paca, nine-banded armadillo, collared peccary and red brocket deer) are thought to be relatively low when compared to less-hunted regions in nearby mainland South America (although scientifically conducted population studies are only just recently being conducted as of 2013). It appears that the red brocket deer population has been extirpated in Tobago as a result of over-hunting. By some time in the mid 20th century another extirpation due to over-hunting occurred in Trinidad with its population of horned screamer (a large game bird). Various herons, ducks, doves, the green iguana, the cryptic golden tegu, the spectacled caiman, the common opossum and the capybara are also commonly hunted and poached. There is also some poaching of 'fully protected species', including red howler monkey and capuchin monkeys, southern tamandua, Brazilian porcupine, yellow-footed tortoise, the critically endangered island endemic Trinidad piping guan and even one of the national birds, the scarlet ibis. Legal hunters pay relatively small fees to obtain hunting licences and undergo no official basic conservation biology or hunting-ethics/fair chase training, and are not assessed regarding their knowledge and comprehension of the local wildlife conservation laws. There is presumed to be relatively little subsistence hunting in the country (with most hunting for either sport or commercial profit). The local wildlife management authorities are under-staffed and under-funded, and as such little in the way of enforcement is done to uphold existing wildlife management laws, with hunting/poaching occurring both in and out of season and even in wildlife sanctuaries. There is some indication that the government is beginning to take the issue of wildlife management more seriously, with well drafted legislation being brought before Parliament in 2015. It remains to be seen if the drafted legislation will be fully adopted and financially supported by the current and future governments, and if the general populace will move towards a greater awareness of the importance of wildlife conservation and change the culture of wanton consumption to one of sustainable management.

Wildlife management

Control fence to assess the impact of browsing by ungulates. Note the lack of natural forest regeneration outside the fencing. Weisergatter.png
Control fence to assess the impact of browsing by ungulates. Note the lack of natural forest regeneration outside the fencing.

Hunting is claimed to give resource managers an important tool [75] [76] in managing populations that might exceed the carrying capacity of their habitat and threaten the well-being of other species, or, in some instances, damage human health or safety. [77]

In some cases, hunting actually can increase the population of predators such as coyotes by removing territorial bounds that would otherwise be established, resulting in excess neighbouring migrations into an area, thus artificially increasing the population. [78] Hunting advocates[ who? ] assert that hunting reduces intraspecific competition for food and shelter, reducing mortality among the remaining animals. Some environmentalists assert[ who? ] that (re)introducing predators would achieve the same end with greater efficiency and less negative effect, such as introducing significant amounts of free lead into the environment and food chain.

In the United States, wildlife managers are frequently part of hunting regulatory and licensing bodies, where they help to set rules on the number, manner and conditions in which game may be hunted.

Management agencies sometimes rely on hunting to control specific animal populations, as has been the case with deer in North America. These hunts may sometimes be carried out by professional shooters, although others may include amateur hunters. Many US city and local governments hire professional and amateur hunters each year to reduce populations of animals such as deer that are becoming hazardous in a restricted area, such as neighbourhood parks and metropolitan open spaces.

A large part of managing populations involves managing the number and, sometimes, the size or age of animals harvested so as to ensure the sustainability of the population. Tools that are frequently used to control harvest are bag limits and season closures, although gear restrictions such as archery-only seasons are becoming increasingly popular in an effort to reduce hunter success rates in countries that rely on bag limits per hunter instead of per area.[ citation needed ]


Illegal hunting and harvesting of wild species contrary to local and international conservation and wildlife management laws is called poaching. Game preservation is one of the tactics used to prevent poaching. Violations of hunting laws and regulations involving poaching are normally punishable by law. [79] Punishment can include confiscation of equipment, fines or a prison sentence.

Right to hunt

The right to hunt—sometimes in combination with the right to fish—is protected implicitly, as a consequence of the right of ownership, [80] or explicitly, as a right on its own, [81] [82] in a number of jurisdictions. For instance, as of 2019, a total of 22 U.S. states explicitly recognize a subjective right to hunt in their constitutions. [82] [83]

Bag limits

Red-legged partridges on a game rack Bird shooting game rack.jpg
Red-legged partridges on a game rack

Bag limits are provisions under the law that control how many animals of a given species or group of species can be killed, although there are often species for which bag limits do not apply. There are also jurisdictions where bag limits are not applied at all or are not applied under certain circumstances. The phrase bag limits comes from the custom among hunters of small game to carry successful kills in a small basket, similar to a fishing creel.

Where bag limits are used, there can be daily or seasonal bag limits; for example, ducks can often be harvested at a rate of six per hunter per day. [84] Big game, like moose, most often have a seasonal bag limit of one animal per hunter.[ citation needed ] Bag limits may also regulate the size, sex, or age of animal that a hunter can kill. In many cases, bag limits are designed to allocate harvest among the hunting population more equitably rather than to protect animal populations, as protecting the population would necessitate regional density-dependent maximum bags.

Closed and open season

A closed season is a time during which hunting an animal of a given species is contrary to law. Typically, closed seasons are designed to protect a species when they are most vulnerable or to protect them during their breeding season. [85] By extension, the period that is not the closed season is known as the open season.


Tswana hunting the lion, 1841 Bechuana hunting the lion-1841.jpg
Tswana hunting the lion, 1841
American bison being chased off a cliff as seen and painted by Alfred Jacob Miller, c. 1860 Alfred Jacob Miller - Hunting Buffalo - Walters 371940190.jpg
American bison being chased off a cliff as seen and painted by Alfred Jacob Miller, c. 1860
Master or whipper-in and fox hounds drawing a wood. Hunting in Yorkshire, northern England, in 2005, on the last day of fully legal, proper, fox hunting. BedaleHunt2005.jpg
Master or whipper-in and fox hounds drawing a wood. Hunting in Yorkshire, northern England, in 2005, on the last day of fully legal, proper, fox hunting.

Historical, subsistence, and sport hunting techniques can differ radically, with modern hunting regulations often addressing issues of where, when, and how hunts are conducted. Techniques may vary depending on government regulations, a hunter's personal ethics, local custom, hunting equipment, and the animal being hunted. Often a hunter will use a combination of more than one technique. Laws may forbid sport hunters from using some methods used primarily in poaching and wildlife management.



Number of hunters in various European and North American countries
Sources: Europe (2016/17), [91] Ireland (2007), [92] Canada (2012), [93] Russia (2012), [94] United States (2016); [95]


Hunters as percentage of

the total population



Area (km2)Hunters per km2
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 2,482,67834.77.151:149,984,6700.25
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 308,0005.25.921:17338,4480.91
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 45,0000.85.631:185,8967.63
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 190,0004.74.041:25385,2070.49
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 15,0000.43.751:2731647.47
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 11,453,000323.13.541:289,826,6751.17
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 290,0009.03.221:31447,4350.65
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 165,0005.53.001:3342,9213.84
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 104,0004.22.481:4670,2731.48
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 235,00010.72.201:46131,9571.78
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 980,00045.02.181:46505,9701.94
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 230,00010.72.151:4792,2122.49
Flag of France.svg  France 1,331,00064.12.081:48543,9652.45
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 2,800,000143.21.961:5117,125,2000.16
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 110,0007.71.431:70110,9940.99
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 118,0008.31.421:7083,8791.41
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 800,00061.11.311:76242,4953.30
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 750,00058.11.291:77301,3382.49
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 16,6001.31.281:7845,3390.37
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 55,0004.51.221:8256,5940.97
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 22,0002.01.101:9120,2731.09
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 25,0002.31.091:9264,5890.39
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 110,00010.21.081:9378,8661.39
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 55,0005.41.021:9849,0341.12
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 32,0003.60.891:11365,3000.49
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 55,0009.90.561:18093,0360.59
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 351,00082.50.431:235357,5780.98
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 2,0000.50.401:2502,5860.77
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 30,0007.60.391:25341,2850.73
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 106,00038.50.281:363312,6960.34
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 60,00022.20.271:370238,3910.25
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 23,00010.40.221:45230,6880.75
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 28,17016.70.171:59341,5430.68


Bar graph - Number of hunters in various countries.svg

Trophy hunting

Trophy collection of the Princely Family of Liechtenstein at Usov Chateau, the Czech Republic Usov.jpg
Trophy collection of the Princely Family of Liechtenstein at Úsov Château, the Czech Republic
A hunter and local guides with an elephant they shot, 1970 Zdravko Pecar During an Elephant Hunt (3).jpg
A hunter and local guides with an elephant they shot, 1970

Trophy hunting is the selective seeking and killing of wild game animals to take trophies for personal collection, bragging rights or as a status symbol. It may also include the controversial hunting of captive or semi-captive animals expressly bred and raised under controlled or semi-controlled conditions so as to attain trophy characteristics; this is sometimes known as canned hunts. [96]


In the 19th century, southern and central European sport hunters often pursued game only for a trophy, usually the head or pelt of an animal, which was then displayed as a sign of prowess. The rest of the animal was typically discarded. Some cultures, however, disapprove of such waste. In Nordic countries, hunting for trophies was—and still is—frowned upon. Hunting in North America in the 19th century was done primarily as a way to supplement food supplies, although it is now undertaken mainly for sport.[ citation needed ] The safari method of hunting was a development of sport hunting that saw elaborate travel in Africa, India and other places in pursuit of trophies. In modern times, trophy hunting persists and is a significant industry in some areas.[ citation needed ]

Conservation tool

According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, hunting "provides an economic incentive" for ranchers to continue to breed those species, and that hunting "reduces the threat of the species' extinction." [97] [98]

A scientific study in the journal, Biological Conservation, states that trophy hunting is of "major importance to conservation in Africa by creating economic incentives for conservation over vast areas, including areas which may be unsuitable for alternative wildlife-based land uses such as photographic ecotourism." [99] However, another study states that less than 3% of a trophy hunters' expenditures reach the local level, meaning that the economic incentive and benefit is "minimal, particularly when we consider the vast areas of land that hunting concessions occupy." [100]

Financial incentives from trophy hunting effectively more than double the land area that is used for wildlife conservation, relative to what would be conserved relying on national parks alone according to Biological Conservation, [99] although local communities usually derive no more than 18 cents per hectare from trophy hunting. [100]

Trophy hunting has been considered essential for providing economic incentives to conserve large carnivores according to research studies in Conservation Biology, [101] Journal of Sustainable Tourism, [102] Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use, [103] and Animal Conservation. [101] [104] Studies by the Centre for Responsible Tourism [105] and the IUCN state that ecotourism, which includes more than hunting, is a superior economic incentive, generating twice the revenue per acre and 39 times more permanent employment. [106] At the crosssection of trophy hunting, ecotourism and conservation is green hunting, a trophy hunting alternative where hunters pay to dart animals that need to be tranquilized for conservation projects. [107]

The U.S. House Committee on Natural Resources in 2016 concluded that trophy hunting may be contributing to the extinction of certain animals. [108] Animal welfare organizations, including the International Fund for Animal Welfare, claim that trophy hunting is a key factor in the "silent extinction" of giraffes. [109]

According to a national survey that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducts every five years, fewer people are hunting, even as population rises. National Public Radio reported, a graph shows 2016 statistics, that only about 5 percent of Americans, 16 years old and older, actually hunt, which is half of what it was 50 years ago. The decline in popularity of hunting is expected to accelerate over the next decade, which threatens how US will pay for conservation. [110]


Trophy hunting is most often criticised when it involves rare or endangered animals. [111] Opponents may also see trophy hunting as an issue of morality [112] or animal cruelty, criticising the killing of living creatures for recreation. Victorian era dramatist W. S. Gilbert remarked, "Deer-stalking would be a very fine sport if only the deer had guns." [113]

There is also debate about the extent to which trophy hunting benefits the local economy. Hunters pay substantial fees to the game outfitters and hunting guides which contributes to the local economy and provides value to animals that would otherwise be seen as competition for grazing, livestock, and crops. [114] However, the argument is disputed by animal welfare organizations and other opponents of trophy hunting. [115] [116] It is argued that the animals are worth more to the community for ecotourism than hunting. [117] [118]


Chatelherault, built by William Adam in 1743 as the Duke of Hamilton's hunting lodge AM Hunting Lodge.jpg
Chatelherault, built by William Adam in 1743 as the Duke of Hamilton's hunting lodge
Marshal's Cabin, a former hunting lodge in Loppi, Finland Mannerheim hunting house.JPG
Marshal's Cabin, a former hunting lodge in Loppi, Finland

A variety of industries benefit from hunting and support hunting on economic grounds. In Tanzania, it is estimated that a safari hunter spends fifty to one hundred times that of the average ecotourist. While the average photo tourist may seek luxury accommodation, the average safari hunter generally stays in tented camps. Safari hunters are also more likely to use remote areas, uninviting to the typical ecotourist. Advocates argue that these hunters allow for anti-poaching activities and revenue for local communities.[ citation needed ]

In the United Kingdom, the game hunting of birds as an industry is said to be extremely important to the rural economy. The Cobham Report of 1997 suggested it to be worth around £700 million, and hunting and shooting lobby groups claimed it to be worth over a billion pounds less than ten years later.[ citation needed ]

Hunting also has a significant financial impact in the United States, with many companies specialising in hunting equipment or speciality tourism. Many different technologies have been created to assist hunters. Today's hunters come from a broad range of economic, social, and cultural backgrounds. In 2001, over thirteen million hunters averaged eighteen days hunting, and spent over $20.5 billion on their sport. [119] In the US, proceeds from hunting licences contribute to state game management programs, including preservation of wildlife habitat.

Hunting contributes to a portion of caloric intake of people and may have positive impacts on greenhouse gas emissions by avoidance of utilization of meat raised under industrial methods. [120]

Environmental problems

Right: .40 S&W round with hollow-point bullet, Left: expanded bullet of the same calibre with exposed lead core 40SW.jpg
Right: .40 S&W round with hollow-point bullet, Left: expanded bullet of the same calibre with exposed lead core

Lead bullets that miss their target or remain in an unretrieved carcass could become a toxicant in the environment but lead in ammunition because of its metallic form has a lower solubility and higher resistance to corrosion than other forms of lead making it hardly available to biological systems. [121] Waterfowl or other birds may ingest the lead and poison themselves with the neurotoxicant, but studies have demonstrated that effects of lead in ammunition are negligible on animal population size and growth. [122] [123] Since 1991, US federal law forbids lead shot in waterfowl hunts, and 30 states have some type of restriction. [124]

In December 2014, a federal appeals court denied a lawsuit by environmental groups that the EPA must use the Toxic Substances Control Act to regulate lead in shells and cartridges. The groups sought EPA to regulate "spent lead", yet the court found EPA could not regulate spent lead without also regulating cartridges and shells. [125]


Punishment of a Hunter (c. 1647) by Paulus Potter Paulus Potter - Punishment of a Hunter.jpg
Punishment of a Hunter (c. 1647) by Paulus Potter

Hunters have been driving forces throughout history in the movement to ensure the preservation of wildlife habitats and wildlife for further hunting. [126] However, excessive hunting and poachers have also contributed heavily to the endangerment, extirpation and extinction of many animals, such as the quagga, the great auk, Steller's sea cow, the thylacine, the bluebuck, the Arabian oryx, the Caspian and Javan tigers, the markhor, the Sumatran rhinoceros, the bison, the North American cougar, the Altai argali sheep, the Asian elephant and many more, primarily for commercial sale or sport. All these animals have been hunted to endangerment or extinction. [138] Poaching currently threatens bird and mammalian populations around the world. [139] [140] [141] The 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services lists the direct exploitation of organisms, including hunting, as the second leading cause of biodiversity loss, after land use for agriculture. [142] In 2022, IPBES released another report which stated that unsustainable hunting, along with unsustainable logging and fishing, are primary drivers of the global extinction crisis. [143]


Pittman–Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937

In 1937, American hunters successfully lobbied the US Congress to pass the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act, which placed an eleven percent tax on all hunting equipment. This self-imposed tax now generates over $700 million each year and is used exclusively to establish, restore and protect wildlife habitats. [144] The act is named for Nevada Senator Key Pittman and Virginia Congressman Absalom Willis Robertson.

Federal Duck Stamp program

On 16 March 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, which requires an annual stamp purchase by all hunters over the age of sixteen. The stamps are created on behalf of the program by the US Postal Service and depict wildlife artwork chosen through an annual contest. They play an important role in habitat conservation because ninety-eight percent of all funds generated by their sale go directly toward the purchase or lease of wetland habitat for protection in the National Wildlife Refuge System. [145] In addition to waterfowl, it is estimated that one third of the nation's endangered species seek food and shelter in areas protected using Duck Stamp funds.[ citation needed ]

Since 1934, the sale of Federal Duck Stamps has generated $670 million, and helped to purchase or lease 5,200,000 acres (8,100 sq mi; 21,000 km2) of habitat. The stamps serve as a license to hunt migratory birds, an entrance pass for all National Wildlife Refuge areas, and are also considered collectors items often purchased for aesthetic reasons outside of the hunting and birding communities. Although non-hunters buy a significant number of Duck Stamps, eighty-seven percent of their sales are contributed by hunters. Distribution of funds is managed by the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (MBCC). [146]


Arabian oryx

The Arabian oryx, a species of large antelope, once inhabited much of the desert areas of the Middle East. [132] However, the species' striking appearance made it (along with the closely related scimitar-horned oryx and addax) a popular quarry for sport hunters, especially foreign executives of oil companies working in the region.[ citation needed ] The use of automobiles and high-powered rifles destroyed their only advantage: speed, and they became extinct in the wild exclusively due to sport hunting in 1972. The scimitar-horned oryx followed suit, while the addax became critically endangered. [147] However, the Arabian oryx has now made a comeback and been upgraded from "extinct in the wild" to "vulnerable" due to conservation efforts like captive breeding. [148]


The markhor is an endangered species of wild goat which inhabits the mountains of Central Asia and Pakistan. The colonization of these regions by Britain gave British sport hunters access to the species, and they were hunted heavily, almost to the point of extinction. Only their willingness to breed in captivity and the inhospitability of their mountainous habitat prevented this. Despite these factors, the markhor is still endangered. [149]

American bison

The American bison is a large bovid which inhabited much of western North America prior to the 1800s, living on the prairies in large herds. However, the vast herds of bison attracted market hunters, who killed dozens of bison for their hides only, leaving the rest to rot. Thousands of these hunters quickly eliminated the bison herds, bringing the population from several million in the early 1800s to a few hundred by the 1880s. Conservation efforts have allowed the population to increase, but the bison remains near-threatened due to lack of habitat. [150]

White rhino

The Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy cites that the legalization of white rhinoceros hunting in South Africa motivated private landowners to reintroduce the species onto their lands. As a result, the country saw an increase in white rhinos from fewer than one hundred individuals to more than 11,000, even while a limited number were killed as trophies. [151]

However, the illegal hunting of rhinoceros for their horns is highly damaging to the population and is currently growing globally, [152] with 1004 being killed in South Africa alone according to the most recent estimate. [153] The White Rhino (along with the other 4 rhino species) are poached due to beliefs that the Rhinos horns can be used to cure Cancer, Arthritis and other diseases and illnesses, even though they are scientifically proven wrong. [154]

Other species

According to Richard Conniff, Namibia is home to 1,750 of the roughly 5,000 black rhinos surviving in the wild because it allows trophy hunting of various species. Namibia's mountain zebra population has increased to 27,000 from 1,000 in 1982. Elephants, which "are gunned down elsewhere for their ivory", have gone to 20,000 from 15,000 in 1995. Lions, which were on the brink of extinction "from Senegal to Kenya", are increasing in Namibia. [155]

In contrast, Botswana in 2012 banned trophy hunting following a precipitous wildlife decline. [156] The numbers of antelope plummeted across Botswana, with a resultant decline in predator numbers, while elephant numbers remained stable and hippopotamus numbers rose. According to the government of Botswana, trophy hunting is at least partly to blame for this, but many other factors, such as poaching, drought and habitat loss are also to blame. [157] Uganda recently did the same, arguing that "the share of benefits of sport hunting were lopsided and unlikely to deter poaching or improve [Uganda's] capacity to manage the wildlife reserves." [158] In 2020, Botswana reopened trophy hunting on public lands. [159]


Cage trap (live trap) for cheetahs on a farm in Namibia Cage trap on a farm, Namibia.jpg
Cage trap (live trap) for cheetahs on a farm in Namibia

A study published by the Wildlife Society concluded that hunting and trapping are cost effective tools that reduce wildlife damage by reducing a population below the capacity of the environment to carry it and changing the behaviors of animals to stop them from causing damage. The study furthermore states that the cessation of hunting could cause wildlife to be severely harmed, rural property values to fall, and the incentive of landowners to maintain natural habitats to diminish. [160]

Although deforestation and forest degradation have long been considered the most significant threats to tropical biodiversity, across Southeast Asia (Northeast India, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines) substantial areas of natural habitat have few wild animals (>1 kg), bar a few hunting‐tolerant species. [161] [162] [163]

Opposition to hunting

It has been argued by animal rights activists that killing animals for sport is unethical, cruel, and unnecessary. [16] They note the suffering and cruelty inflicted on animals hunted for sport: "Many animals endure prolonged, painful deaths when they are injured but not killed by hunters ... Hunting disrupts migration and hibernation patterns and destroys families." [16] Animal rights activists also comment that hunting is not needed to maintain an ecological balance, and that "nature takes care of its own". [16] They say that hunting can be combated on public lands by "spread[ing] deer repellent or human hair (from barber shops) near hunting areas". [16] Animal rights activists also argue that hunting is speciesist: [17]

Whether hunters try to justify their killing by citing human deaths caused by wild animals, by making conservationist claims, by claiming that it's acceptable to hunt as long as the animals' bodies are eaten, or simply because of the pleasure it brings them, the fact remains that hunting is morally unacceptable if we consider the interests of nonhuman animals. Hunted animals endure fear and pain, and then are deprived of their lives. Understanding the injustices of speciesism and the interests of nonhuman animals makes it clear that human pleasure cannot justify nonhuman animals' pain. [17]

Hunting in the arts

Limbourg Brothers, Boar hunt with hounds, illumination from the Tres Riches Heures du duc de Berry, c. 1445 Les Tres Riches Heures du duc de Berry decembre.jpg
Limbourg Brothers, Boar hunt with hounds, illumination from the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry , c.1445
Gustave Courbet, The Kill - Deer Hunting in the Grand Jura Forests, 1857 Gustave Courbet - The Quarry (La Curee) - WGA5466.jpg
Gustave Courbet, The Kill – Deer Hunting in the Grand Jura Forests , 1857
Albert Gleizes, La Chasse (The Hunt), 1911, oil on canvas depicting a scene in the Cubist style of hunting by horseback in France Albert Gleizes, La Chasse, 1911, oil on canvas, 123.2 x 99 cm.jpg
Albert Gleizes, La Chasse (The Hunt) , 1911, oil on canvas depicting a scene in the Cubist style of hunting by horseback in France

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Poaching</span> Illegal hunting of wildlife

Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights. Poaching was once performed by impoverished peasants for subsistence purposes and to supplement meager diets. It was set against the hunting privileges of nobility and territorial rulers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Game reserve</span> Area of land set aside for wild animals

A game reserve is a large area of land where wild animals live safely or are hunted in a controlled way for sport. If hunting is prohibited, a game reserve may be considered a nature reserve; however, the focus of a game reserve is specifically the animals (fauna), whereas a nature reserve is also, if not equally, concerned with all aspects of native biota of the area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Game (hunting)</span> Wild animals under pursuit or taken in hunting

Game or quarry is any wild animal hunted for animal products, for recreation ("sporting"), or for trophies. The species of animals hunted as game varies in different parts of the world and by different local jurisdictions, though most are terrestrial mammals and birds. Fish caught non-commercially are also referred to as game fish.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medieval hunting</span>

Throughout Western Europe in the Middle Ages, humans hunted wild animals. While game was at times an important source of food, it was rarely the principal source of nutrition. All classes engaged in hunting, but by the High Middle Ages, the necessity of hunting was transformed into a stylized pastime of the aristocracy. More than a pastime, it was an important arena for social interaction, essential training for war, and a privilege and measurement of nobility.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trophy hunting</span> Hunting of wild animals for trophies

Trophy hunting is a sport hunting in which wild animals are valued as trophies. Parts of the hunted animal are kept and displayed by the hunter to honour the animal and remember the experience of the hunt. The animal being targeted, known as the "game", is typically a mature male specimen from a popular species of collectable interests, usually of large sizes, holding impressive horns/antlers or magnificent furs/manes. Generally, only some parts of the animal are kept as trophies, are mounted by a taxidermist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wildlife management</span> Management and control of wildlife populations

Wildlife management is the management process influencing interactions among and between wildlife, its habitats and people to achieve predefined impacts. It attempts to balance the needs of wildlife with the needs of people using the best available science. Wildlife management can include wildlife conservation, gamekeeping and pest control. Wildlife management draws on disciplines such as mathematics, chemistry, biology, ecology, climatology and geography to gain the best results.

Varmint hunting or varminting is the practice of hunting vermin — generally small/medium-sized wild mammals or birds — as a means of pest control, rather than as games for food or trophy. The targeted animals are culled because they are considered economically harmful pests to agricultural crops, livestocks or properties; pathogen-carrying hosts/vectors that transmit cross-species/zoonotic diseases; or for population control as a mean of protecting other vulnerable species and ecosystems.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wildlife tourism</span>

Wildlife tourism is an element of many nations' travel industry centered around observation and interaction with local animal and plant life in their natural habitats. While it can include eco- and animal-friendly tourism, safari hunting and similar high-intervention activities also fall under the umbrella of wildlife tourism. Wildlife tourism, in its simplest sense, is interacting with wild animals in their natural habitat, either by actively or passively. Wildlife tourism is an important part of the tourism industries in many countries including many African and South American countries, Australia, India, Canada, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Maldives among many. It has experienced a dramatic and rapid growth in recent years worldwide and many elements are closely aligned to eco-tourism and sustainable tourism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Big-game hunting</span> Hunting of large animals

Big-game hunting is the hunting of large game animals for meat, commercially valuable by-products, trophy/taxidermy, or simply just for recreation ("sporting"). The term is often associated with the hunting of Africa's "Big Five" games, and with tigers and rhinoceroses on the Indian subcontinent.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deer hunting</span>

Deer hunting is hunting for deer for meat and sport, an activity which dates back tens of thousands of years. Venison, the name for deer meat, is a nutritious and natural food source of animal protein that can be obtained through deer hunting. There are many different types of deer around the world that are hunted for their meat. For sport, often hunters try to kill deer with the largest and most antlers to score them using inches. There are two different categories of antlers. They are typical and nontypical. They measure tine length, beam length, and beam mass by each tine. They will add all these measurements up to get a score. This score is the score without deductions. Deductions occur when the opposite tine is not the same length as it is opposite. That score is the deducted score.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hunting and shooting in the United Kingdom</span>

In the United Kingdom, the term hunting with no qualification generally refers to hunting with hounds, e.g. normally fox hunting, stag (deer) hunting, beagling, or minkhunting, whereas shooting is the shooting of game birds. What is called deer hunting elsewhere is deer stalking. According to the British Association for Shooting and Conservation (BASC) over a million people a year participate in shooting, including stalking, shooting, hunting, clay shooting and target shooting. To undertake shooting in the UK a valid firearms license and insurance is required.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hunting license</span> Regulatory or legal mechanism to control hunting

A hunting license or hunting permit is a regulatory or legal mechanism to control hunting, both commercial and recreational. A license specifically made for recreational hunting is sometimes called a game license.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiger hunting</span>

Tiger hunting is the capture and killing of tigers. Humans are the tigers' most significant predator, and illegal poaching is a major threat to the tigers. The Bengal tiger is the most common subspecies of tiger, constituting approximately 80% of the entire tiger population in Indian Sub-Continent, and is endemic to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and India. Tigers have mythological, cultural and religious significance in these countries. Foreign invaders saw hunting of Tigers as a symbol of masculinity and an adventurous sporting event. It has been hunted in these countries for centuries. In 1924, the Tiger population in Asia was estimated to be more than 100,000. However, within less than a hundred years, it had declined to fewer than 3,200. Tiger has historically been a popular big game animal and has been hunted for prestige as well as for taking trophies. Extensive poaching has continued even after such hunting became illegal and legal protection was provided to the tiger. Now a conservation-reliant endangered species, the majority of the world's tigers live in captivity. Tigers were once considered to be harder to hunt than lions, due to their habit of living alone in dense cover and not noisily asserting their presence with roars as often.

A hunting season is the designated time in which certain game animals can be killed in certain designated areas. In the United States, each state determines and sets its own specific dates to hunt the certain game animal, such as California, in which they designate certain zones, in which each have their own separate dates in order to legally hunt.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Endangered species</span> Species of organisms facing a very high risk of extinction

An endangered species is a species that is very likely to become extinct in the near future, either worldwide or in a particular political jurisdiction. Endangered species may be at risk due to factors such as habitat loss, poaching and invasive species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List lists the global conservation status of many species, and various other agencies assess the status of species within particular areas. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species which, for example, forbid hunting, restrict land development, or create protected areas. Some endangered species are the target of extensive conservation efforts such as captive breeding and habitat restoration.

Romania has a long history of hunting and remains a remarkable hunting destination, drawing many hunters because of its large numbers of brown bears, wolves, wild boars, red deer, and chamois. The concentration of brown bears in the Carpathian Mountains of central Romania is largest in the world and contains half of all Europe's population, except Russia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hunting in New Zealand</span>

Hunting is a popular recreational pursuit and a tourist activity in New Zealand with numerous books and magazines published on the topic. Unlike most other developed countries with a hunting tradition, there are no bag-limits or seasons for hunting large game in New Zealand. Hunting in national parks is a permitted activity. The wide variety of game animals and the limited restrictions means hunting is a popular pastime which has resulted in a high level of firearms ownership among civilians.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Professional hunter</span>

A professional hunter is a person who hunts and/or manages game by profession. Some professional hunters work in the private sector or for government agencies and manage species that are considered overabundant, others are self-employed and make a living by selling hides and meat, while still others guide clients on big-game hunts.

Australia has a population of about 25 million, with recent survey estimating between 200,000 and 350,000 recreational hunters in the country. There are around 5.8 million legally owned guns in Australia, ranging from airguns to single-shot, bolt-action, pump-action, lever-action or semi-automatic firearms.

Fair chase is a term used by hunters to describe an ethical approach to hunting big game animals. North America's oldest wildlife conservation group, the Boone and Crockett Club, defines "fair chase" as requiring the targeted game animal to be wild and free-ranging. "Wild" refers to an animal that is naturally bred and lives freely in nature. "Free-ranging" means an animal that is not restrained by traps or artificial barriers, so it has a fair chance of successfully escaping from the hunt.


  1. Oxford Dictionary of English. Stevenson, Angus (3 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2010. p. 856. ISBN   9780199571123. OCLC   729551189. 'hunt [...] pursue and kill (a wild animal) for sport or food [...]'; 'hunting [...] the activity of hunting wild animals or game.'{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. Peterson, M. Nils (2019), "Hunting", in Fath, Brian D. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Ecology, vol. 3 (2 ed.), Elsevier, pp. 438–440, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-409548-9.11168-6, ISBN   978-0-444-64130-4, Hunting is the practice of pursuing, capturing, or killing wildlife.
  3. Park, Chris; Allaby, Michael (2013). A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 208. ISBN   978-0-19-964166-6. OCLC   993020467. hunting The activity of finding and killing or capturing wild animals for food, pelts, or as a field sport.
  4. Neves-Garca, Katja (2007). "Hunting". In Robbins, Paul (ed.). Encyclopedia of Environment and Society. Vol. 3. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. pp. 894–896. ISBN   978-1-4129-5627-7. OCLC   228071686. In very general terms, hunting refers to the activity of pursuing and killing free-roaming animals.
  5. Collin, P. H. (Peter Hodgson) (2009). Dictionary of Environment and Ecology: Over 7,000 terms clearly defined. Bloomsbury Reference (5 ed.). London: Bloomsbury. p. 108. ISBN   978-1-4081-0222-0. OCLC   191700369. hunting [...] the activity of following and killing wild animals for sport
  6. "HUNTING | meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary". Cambridge English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019. hunting [...] chasing and killing an animal or bird for food, sport, or profit
  7. "Hunting definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary". Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019. Hunting is the chasing and killing of wild animals by people or other animals, for food or as a sport.
  8. "hunting | History, Methods, & Management". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019. Hunting, sport that involves the seeking, pursuing, and killing of wild animals and birds, called game and game birds, [...]
  9. Cartmill, Matt (1996). A View to a Death in the Morning: Hunting and Nature Through History (1 ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN   9780674029255. OCLC   298105066.
  10. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
  11. Williams, Ted. "Wanted: More Hunters," Audubon magazine, March 2002, copy retrieved 26 October 2007.
  12. "Recreational Hunting Areas". Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  13. Harper, Craig A. "Quality Deer Management Guidelines for Implementation" (PDF). Agricultural Extension Service, The University of Tennessee. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 September 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2006.
  14. Nugent, Graham; Choquenot, David (2004). "Comparing Cost-Effectiveness of Commercial Harvesting, State-Funded Culling, and Recreational Deer Hunting in New Zealand". Wildlife Society Bulletin. 32 (2): 481–492. doi:10.2193/0091-7648(2004)32[481:CCOCHS]2.0.CO;2. ISSN   0091-7648. JSTOR   3784988. S2CID   86110872.
  15. 1 2 "Red List Overview". IUCN Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 8 September 2010.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 "Why Sport Hunting Is Cruel and Unnecessary". PETA. 15 December 2003. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  17. 1 2 3 "Hunting". Animal Ethics. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  18. Harper, Douglas. "Hunt". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  19. Gaudzinski, S (2004). "Subsistence patterns of Early Pleistocene hominids in the Levant – Taphonomic evidence from the 'Ubeidiya Formation (Israel)". Journal of Archaeological Science. 31: 65–75. doi:10.1016/s0305-4403(03)00100-6.. Rabinovich, R.; Gaudzinski-Windheuser, S.; Goren-Inbar, N. (2008). "Systematic butchering of fallow deer (Dama) at the early Middle Pleistocene Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel)". Journal of Human Evolution. 54 (1): 134–49. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.07.007. PMID   17868780.
  20. 1992 trace element studies of the strontium/calcium ratios in robust australopithecine fossils suggested the possibility of animal consumption, as did a 1994 using stable carbon isotopic analysis. Billings, Tom. "Comparative Anatomy and Physiology Brought Up to Date—continued, Part 3B" . Retrieved 6 January 2007.
  21. "Bonobos Hunt Other Primates". 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  22. Courtney Laird. "Bonobo social spacing". Davidson College. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
  23. Plummer, T.W., Bishop, L., Ditchfield, P., Kingston, J., Ferraro, J., Hertel, F. & D. Braun (2009). "The environmental context of Oldowan hominin activities at Kanjera South, Kenya". In: Hovers, E. & D. Braun (eds.), Interdisciplinary Approaches to Understanding the Oldowan, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 149–60. Tom Plummer, "The Hard Stuff of Culture: Oldowan Archaeology at Kanjera South, Kenya", Popular Archaeology, June 2012.
  24. Binford, Louis (1986). "Human ancestors: Changing views of their behavior". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 4 (4): 292–327. doi:10.1016/0278-4165(85)90009-1.
  25. Blumenschine, Robert J. (1986) Early hominid scavenging opportunities: Implications of carcass availability in the Serengeti and Ngorongoro ecosystems. Oxford, England: B.A.R.
  26. Monte Morin, "Stone-tipped spear may have much earlier origin", Los Angeles Times , 16 November 2012
  27. Rick Weiss, "Chimps Observed Making Their Own Weapons", The Washington Post , 22 February 2007
  28. Thieme, Hartmut (1997). "Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany". Nature. 385 (6619): 807–810. Bibcode:1997Natur.385..807T. doi:10.1038/385807a0. PMID   9039910. S2CID   4283393. .
  29. Nibert, David (2013). Animal Oppression and Human Violence: Domesecration, Capitalism, and Global Conflict. Columbia University Press. p. 10. ISBN   978-0231151894.
  30. Randall Haas; et al. (2020). "Female hunters of the early Americas". Vol. 6, no. 45. Science Advances. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abd0310.
  31. Surovell, Todd; Nicole Waguespack; P. Jeffrey Brantingham (13 April 2005). "Global archaeological evidence for proboscidean overkill". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (17): 6231–36. Bibcode:2005PNAS..102.6231S. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0501947102 . PMC   1087946 . PMID   15829581.
  32. Dembitzer, Jacob; Barkai, Ran; Ben-Dor, Miki; Meiri, Shai (2022). "Levantine overkill: 1.5 million years of hunting down the body size distribution". Quaternary Science Reviews . 276: 107316. Bibcode:2022QSRv..27607316D. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2021.107316. S2CID   245236379 . Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  33. American Geophysical Union paper PP43A-01, abstract Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 26 October 2007
  34. Miller, G.H. (2005). "Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a Human Role in Megafaunal Extinction". Science . 309 (5732): 287–90. Bibcode:2005Sci...309..287M. doi:10.1126/science.1111288. PMID   16002615. S2CID   22761857.
  35. Prideaux, G.J.; et al. (2007). "An arid-adapted middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from south-central Australia". Nature. 445 (7126): 422–25. Bibcode:2007Natur.445..422P. doi:10.1038/nature05471. PMID   17251978. S2CID   4429899.
  36. Zenin, Vasiliy N.; Evgeny N. Mashenko; Sergey V. Leshchinskiy; Aleksandr F. Pavlov; Pieter M. Grootes; Marie-Josée Nadeau (24–29 May 2003). "The First Direct Evidence of Mammoth Hunting in Asia (Lugovskoye Site, Western Siberia) (L)". 3rd International Mammoth Conference. Dawson City, Yukon Territory, Canada: Government of Yukon. Archived from the original on 17 November 2006. Retrieved 1 January 2007.
  37. "In North America and Eurasia the species has long been an important resource—in many areas the most important resource—for peoples inhabiting the northern boreal forest and tundra regions. Known human dependence on caribou/wild reindeer has a long history, beginning in the Middle Pleistocene (Banfield 1961:170; Kurtén 1968:170) and continuing to the present. […] The caribou/wild reindeer is thus an animal that has been a major resource for humans throughout a tremendous geographic area and across a time span of tens of thousands of years." Burch, Ernest S. Jr. (1972). "The Caribou/Wild Reindeer as a Human Resource". American Antiquity. 37 (3): 339–68. doi:10.2307/278435. JSTOR   278435. S2CID   161921691.
  38. "The Nature Conservancy". The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
  39. Porter, V.I. (2018). Mystique Melodies. Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance Publishing. p. 48. ISBN   978-1-4809-5591-2.
  40. Machiavelli provides a rationale, if not the origin, of noble hunting: Machiavelli, Niccolò (1531). "Discourses on the first decade of Titus Livius, Book 3". In Gilbert, Allan (ed.). Machiavelli: The Chief Works and Others. Vol. 1. Duke University Press (published 1989). p. 516. ISBN   978-0-8223-8157-0 . Retrieved 27 December 2013. [...] hunting expeditions, as Xenophon makes plain, are images of war; therefore to men of rank such activity is honorable and necessary.
  41. Dunlap, Thomas R. (1999). "Remaking Worlds: European models in New Lands". Nature and the English Diaspora: Environment and History in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Studies in Environment and History. Cambridge University Press. p.  61. ISBN   978-0-521-65700-6 . Retrieved 24 December 2013. The settlers adopted sport hunting, as they did other elements of British culture, but they had to adapt it. Social circumstances and biological realities reshaped it and gave it new meaning. There was no elite monopolizing access to land. Indeed, the great attraction and boast of these nations were of land for all.
  42. In his commentary on Martianus Capella's early 5th-century work, The Marriage of Philology and Mercury, one of the main sources for medieval reflection on the liberal arts.
  43. "The Hunting Guide >> Read Before Hunt". Hunting Guide. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  44. "Hunting with dogs « Defra". 18 February 2005. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  45. "Diana - Roman Religion". Encyclopædia Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  46. 1 2 3 "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hunting". Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  47. "Canons On Hunting". Catholic Answers. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  48. "The Jewish Ethicist: Judaism and Hunting". 13 February 2011.
  49. "The Jewish View on Hunting for Sport".
  50. New Muslim Guide. "Hunting according to Islamic Law".
  51. Brennan, Claire (3 July 2015). ""An Africa on your own front door step": the development of an Australian safari". Journal of Australian Studies. 39 (3): 396–410. doi:10.1080/14443058.2015.1052833. ISSN   1444-3058. S2CID   142998322.
  52. "Definition of SAFARI". Retrieved 28 October 2022.
  53. Helplinelaw. "Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972". Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  54. Pegler, Martin (2004). Out of nowhere : a history of the military sniper. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 16. ISBN   1-84176-854-5. OCLC   56654780.
  55. "Snipe". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  56. Ratcliffe, Roger (6 October 2006). "Blast from the past". The Yorkshire Post. Johnston Publishing Ltd. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  57. "BASC site". Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  58. Coggins, George Cameron; Modrcin, William (1979). "Native American Indians and Federal Wildlife Law". Stanford Law Review. 31 (3): 375–423. doi:10.2307/1228367. ISSN   0038-9765. JSTOR   1228367.
  59. Results Archived 15 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine from a 2006 poll (813 people were polled) done by Responsive Management
  60. National statistics from US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service and US Department of Commerce, US Census Bureau, 2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife Associated Recreation, 27.
  61. Jackson, Patrick. Number of hunters is dwindling—Urbanization and cultural changes discourage newcomers to the sport Archived 22 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine .
  62. Interpretations of the Fair Chase can be found on the web sites of various hunter's organizations, such as the Boone and Crockett Club and Hunt Fair Chase.
  63. Posewitz, Jim (1 August 1994). Beyond Fair Chase: The Ethic and Tradition of Hunting. Globe Pequot Press. p. 57. ISBN   978-1-56044-283-7.
  64. Humane Society Wildlife Abuse Campaign, Fact Sheet on Internet Hunting
  65. "The Rules of Fair Chase". Chatfield, Minnesota: Pope and Young Club. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2012. While inside escape-proof fenced enclosures
  66. Hunter, Kathryn M (2009). Hunting : a New Zealand history. Auckland : Random House New Zealand. ISBN   9781869791544.
  67. Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "5. – Introduced animal pests – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  68. Clarke, C. M. H.; Dzieciolowski, R. M. (September 1991). "Feral pigs in the northern South Island, New Zealand: I. Origin, distribution, and density". Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 21 (3): 237–247. doi: 10.1080/03036758.1991.10418181 . ISSN   0303-6758.
  69. McDowall, R. M. (1994). Gamekeepers for the nation : the story of New Zealand's acclimatisation societies, 1861-1990. Christchurch, N.Z. : Canterbury University Press. ISBN   9780908812417.
  70. "HUNTING IN IRAN i. In the pre-Islamic Period – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  71. "مجوز شکار در ایران ۲۰ دلار یا ۲۰ هزار دلار؟ | پاسخ محیط زیست به انتقادات: صدور پروانه شکار کاملا فنی و کارشناسی شده است". همشهری آنلاین (in Persian). 11 October 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  72. "همه با شکار اتباع خارجی در کشور مخالفند حتی شکارچیان ایرانی!- اخبار محیط زیست - اخبار اجتماعی تسنیم - Tasnim". خبرگزاری تسنیم - Tasnim (in Persian). Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  73. "ژست جدید شکارچیان خارجی با حیوانات شکار شده در ایران + تصاویر- اخبار محیط زیست - اخبار اجتماعی تسنیم - Tasnim". خبرگزاری تسنیم - Tasnim (in Persian). Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  74. [ bare URL PDF ]
  75. Chardonnet, P; Clers, B; Fischer, J; Gerhold, R; Jori, F; Lamarque, F (2002). "The Value of Wildlife" (PDF). Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 21 (1): 15–51. doi:10.20506/rst.21.1.1323. PMID   11974626. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2006., posted by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Accessed 12 December 2006
  76. Herring, Hal. Today's sportsmen and sportswomen are a powerful force for conservation Archived 22 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  77. The hunting section of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service site includes articles and statistics relating to wildlife management.
  78. "Hunting for Wildlife Population Control and Ethical Eating?". Free From Harm. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  79. "Hunting Laws and Regulations". 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  80. Brenner, Michael (2018). "Quo vadis, Jagdrecht?". In Dietlein, Johannes; Froese, Judith (eds.). Jagdliches Eigentum. Bibliothek des Eigentums. Vol. 17. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 289–308. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-54771-7. ISBN   9783662547700.
  81. Gordon, Stacey (2014). "A Solution in Search of a Problem: The Difficulty with State Constitutional "Right to Hunt" Amendments". Public Land and Resources Law Review. University of Montana School of Law. 35 (3): 2–50. ISSN   1093-6858.
  82. 1 2 Eisemann, John D.; O'Hare, Jeanette R.; Fagerstone, Kathleen A. (2013). "State-level approaches to managing the use of contraceptives in wildlife in the United States". Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 44 (4s): 47–51. doi:10.1638/1042-7260-44.4S.S47. ISSN   1042-7260. PMID   24437085. S2CID   44747567.
  83. "Right to hunt and fish constitutional amendments". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  84. Debbie Young. "US Fish and Wildlife Service 2003 proposed bag limits for waterfowl". Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  85. When can I hunt, Game Hunting, Recreation and Tourism; The Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE), Government of Victoria, Australia., Accessed 4 December 2008. Archived 1 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  86. "ghillie suit".
  87. "Catalonian fiat, with picture". Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  88. Nancy L. Struna, People of Prowess: Sport, Leisure, and Labor in Early Anglo-America(1996), ISBN   0-252-06552-2
  89. "Posting | US | Hunter™". Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  90. Knight, John. "Solunar Tables for Fishermen Produced by Register-Guard." The Register-Guard, 11 May 1949: 10. Print.
  91. "Jäger in Europa 2017" (PDF). Deutscher Jagdverband (in German). 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2019.
  92. Scallan, David (20 March 2012). The Place of Hunting in Rural Ireland (PDF). Galway: National University of Ireland. p. 95. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  93. 2012 Canadian Nature Survey: Awareness, participation and expenditures in nature-based recreation, conservation, and subsistence activities (PDF), Ottawa, ON, Canada: Federal, Provincial, and Territorial Governments of Canada, 2014, p. 52, ISBN   978-1-100-23241-6, archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2019, retrieved 29 August 2019
  94. Braden, Kathleen (3 September 2014). "Illegal recreational hunting in Russia: the role of social norms and elite violators". Eurasian Geography and Economics. 55 (5): 457–490. doi:10.1080/15387216.2015.1020320. ISSN   1538-7216. S2CID   154573305.
  95. 2016 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation (PDF), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Census Bureau, May 2018, p. 113, archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2019, retrieved 29 August 2019
  96. Motivations of International Trophy Hunters Choosing to Hunt in South Africa Archived 3 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  97. [ bare URL PDF ]
  98. "Can hunting endangered animals save the species?".
  99. 1 2 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  100. 1 2 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 January 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  101. 1 2 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  102. Baker, Joni E. (1997). "Trophy Hunting as a Sustainable Use of Wildlife Resources in Southern and Eastern Africa". Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 5 (4): 306–321. doi:10.1080/09669589708667294. S2CID   153994508.
  103. Hurt, Robin; Ravn, Pauline (2000). Hunting and Its Benefits: an Overview of Hunting in Africa with Special Reference to Tanzania. Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use. pp. 295–313. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-4012-6_15. ISBN   978-94-010-5773-8. S2CID   168071478.
  104. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  105. "Bear watching more profitable than bear hunting, says study".
  106. Bland, Alastair. "Should Trophy Hunting of Lions Be Banned?".
  107. Cousins, Jenny A.; Sadler, Jon P.; Evans, James (2010). "The Challenge of Regulating Private Wildlife Ranches for Conservation in South Africa". Ecology and Society. 15 (2). doi: 10.5751/es-03349-150228 . ISSN   1708-3087.
  108. Smith, Jada F. (13 June 2016). "Trophy Hunting Fees Do Little to Help Threatened Species, Report Says". The New York Times . Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  109. Milman, Oliver (19 April 2017). "Giraffes must be listed as endangered, conservationists formally tell US". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  110. "Decline in Hunters Threatens How U.S. Pays For Conservation".
  111. Early Day Motion on trophy hunting Archived 22 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  112. see, for example, this internet page Archived 10 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  113. Grossmith, George in The Daily Telegraph , 7 June 1911
  114. Martin, Glen. The lion, once king of vast African savanna, suffers alarming decline in population, San Francisco Chronicle, 6 October 2005. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
  115. League Against Cruel Sports. Trophy Hunting July 2017
  116. Morell, Virginia (18 November 2017). "What Trophy Hunting Does to the Elephants It Leaves Behind". The Atlantic . Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  117. "Persecution "and Hunting".
  118. "Dead or Alive? Valuing an Elephant" (PDF). David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  119. Why You're Wrong About the Right: Behind the Myths: The Surprising Truth About Conservatives. p. 137. By S.E. Cupp & Brett Joshpe Published by: Simon and Schuster, 2009
  120. Johnson, Jamie L.; Zamzow, Benjamin K.; Taylor, Nathan T.; Moran, Matthew D. (2020). "Reported U.S. Wild game consumption and greenhouse gas emissions savings". Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 26: 1–11. doi:10.1080/10871209.2020.1799266. S2CID   225489395.
  121. Dr. Göttlein Axel (7 April 2016). "Eco-toxicological assessment of hunting rifle ammunition". Bavarian Ministry of Nutrition, Agriculture and Forestry upon an initiative of the Bavarian Hunting Association. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  122. Frederik Verdonck (7 April 2016). "Population Trend modelling of European Upland Birds due to Lead Shot Ingestion".
  123. Angelo Moretto; Piermannuccio Mannucci. "Lead in game meat and implications for human health" . Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  124. Michael Todd (14 October 2013). "Gunning for Lead Bullets". Pacific Standard. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  125. Zack Colman (23 December 2014). "EPA can't regulate lead bullets, says federal court". Washington Examiner. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  126. Brockington, Dan. Nature unbound: conservation, capitalism and the future of protected areas , Earthscan, 2008.
    "The birth of the international conservation movement as we recognize it today was due to the influence of powerful aristocratic hunters who wished to preserve suitable specimens for their sport from the alleged depredations of Africans (Mackenzie, 1988). The international hunting fraternity remains a powerful force behind conservation today."
  127. Hack, M.A., East, R. & Rubenstein, D.I. (2008). Equus quagga quagga. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 5 January 2008
  128. Montevecchi, William A.; David A. Kirk (1996). "Demography–Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis)". The Birds of North America Online. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 2010-04-29.
  129. Ellis, Richard (2004). No Turning Back: The Life and Death of Animal Species. New York City: Harper Perennial. p. 134. ISBN   0-06-055804-0.
  130. "Additional Thylacine Topics: Persecution". The Thylacine Museum. 2006. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
  131. Skead, C.J. 1987. Historical mammal incidence in the Cape Province. Volume 1 – The Western and Northern Cape. The Department of Nature and Environmental Conservation of the Provincial Administration of the Cape of Good Hope, Cape Town
  132. 1 2 Talbot, Lee Merriam (1960). A Look at Threatened Species. The Fauna Preservation Society. pp. 84–91.
  133. Geptner, V.G., Sludskii, A.A. (1972). Mlekopitaiušcie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Vysšaia Škola, Moskva. (In Russian; English translation: Heptner, V.G., Sludskii, A.A., Bannikov, A.G.) (1992). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2: Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats).
  134. Valdez, R. (2008). Capra falconeri. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 5 April 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is regarded as endangered
  135. Staff (December/January2012). "Restoring a Prairie Icon". National Wildlife (National Wildlife Federation) 50 (1): 20–25.
  136. Cardoza, J.E.; Langlois, S.A. (2002). "The eastern cougar: A management failure?". Wildlife Society Bulletin. 30 (1): 265–73.
  137. Endangered Animals – A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues
  138. [15] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] [136] [137]
  139. Pennisi, Elizabeth (18 October 2016). "People are hunting primates, bats, and other mammals to extinction". Science . Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  140. Ripple, William J.; Abernethy, Katharine; Betts, Matthew G.; Chapron, Guillaume; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Galetti, Mauro; Levi, Taal; Lindsey, Peter A.; Macdonald, David W.; Machovina, Brian; Newsome, Thomas M.; Peres, Carlos A.; Wallach, Arian D.; Wolf, Christopher; Young, Hillary (2016). "Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals". Royal Society Open Science. 3 (10): 1–16. Bibcode:2016RSOS....360498R. doi:10.1098/rsos.160498. PMC   5098989 . PMID   27853564.
  141. Benítez-López, A.; Alkemade, R.; Schipper, A.M.; Ingram, D. J.; Verweij, P.A.; Eikelboom, J.A.J.; Huijbregts, M.A.J. (14 April 2017). "The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations" (PDF). Science . 356 (6334): 180–83. Bibcode:2017Sci...356..180B. doi:10.1126/science.aaj1891. hdl:1874/349694. PMID   28408600. S2CID   19603093. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
  142. Stokstad E (5 May 2019). "Landmark analysis documents the alarming global decline of nature". Science . AAAS . Retrieved 10 May 2021. For the first time at a global scale, the report has ranked the causes of damage. Topping the list, changes in land use—principally agriculture—that have destroyed habitat. Second, hunting and other kinds of exploitation. These are followed by climate change, pollution, and invasive species, which are being spread by trade and other activities. Climate change will likely overtake the other threats in the next decades, the authors note. Driving these threats are the growing human population, which has doubled since 1970 to 7.6 billion, and consumption. (Per capita of use of materials is up 15% over the past 5 decades.)
  143. Briggs, Helen (8 July 2022). "Unsustainable logging, fishing and hunting 'driving extinction'". BBC. Retrieved 12 August 2022.
  144. "The Pittman–Robertson Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act". United States Fish and Wildlife Service . Retrieved 11 May 2007.
  145. "Migratory Bird Hunting & Conservation Stamp Act". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  146. "Migratory Bird Conservation Commission". United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  147. The Fundamentals of Conservation Biology, Malcolm L Hunter, Jr., James P. Gibbs
  148. Platt, John. "Arabian Oryx Makes History as First Species to Be Upgraded from "Extinct in the Wild" to "Vulnerable"".
  149. Endangered Wildlife and Plants of the World, 2001
  150. American Bison: A Natural History, By Dale F. Lott, Harry W. Greene, ebrary, Inc, Contributor Harry W. Greene, Edition: illustrated, Published by University of California Press, 2003 ISBN   978-0-520-24062-9
  151. "Can trophy hunting actually help conservation?". Conservation. 15 January 2014.
  152. 'Global surge' in rhino poaching BBC. 1 December 2009
  153. "946 rhino killed in 2013". Eyewitness News. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  154. "Why Are Rhinos Poached?". International Anti-Poaching Foundation (IAPF). 4 February 2021.
  155. Conniff, Richard (20 January 2014). "Opinion – A Trophy Hunt That's Good for Rhinos". The New York Times.
  156. "Botswana to ban wildlife hunting". BBC News. 29 November 2012.
  157. Smith, David (17 June 2011). "Drought and poachers take Botswana's natural wonder to brink of catastrophe". The Guardian.
  158. "National Geographic Society Newsroom". Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  159. "Botswana to Kickstart Elephant Hunting With Auction This Week". Bloomberg. 3 February 2020.
  160. Conover, Michael R. "Effect of Hunting and Trapping on Wildlife Damage" (PDF). Wildlife Society Bulletin . Allen Press. 29. No. 2 (Summer. 2001): 521–32. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  161. Harrison, R., Sreekar, R., Brodie, J. F., Brook, S. et al. "Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia" Conservation Biology, Vol. 30. No. 5 (2016). pp. 972-981.
  162. Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Zhao, Jiang-Bo; Pasion, Bonifacio O.; Yasuda, Mika; Zhang, Kai; Peabotuwage, Indika; Wang, Ximin; Quan, Rui-Chang; Ferry Slik, J. W.; Corlett, Richard T.; Goodale, Eben; Harrison, Rhett D. (2015). "The use of species-area relationships to partition the effects of hunting and deforestation on bird extirpations in a fragmented landscape". Diversity and Distributions. 21 (4): 441–450. doi:10.1111/ddi.12292. S2CID   55972282.
  163. Huang, G.; Sreekar, R.; Velho, N.; Corlett, R. T.; Quan, R.‐C.; Tomlinson, K. W. (2020). "Combining camera‐trap surveys and hunter interviews to determine the status of mammals in protected rainforests and rubber plantations of Menglun, Xishuangbanna, SW China". Animal Conservation. 23 (6): 689–699. doi:10.1111/acv.12588. S2CID   218779515.

Further reading