Nature reserve

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The Bee Lick Creek, of the Jefferson Memorial Forest, was designated as a National Audubon Society wildlife refuge. Jefferson Memorial Forest-Bee Lick Creek.jpg
The Bee Lick Creek, of the Jefferson Memorial Forest, was designated as a National Audubon Society wildlife refuge.

A nature reserve (also known as a wildlife refuge, wildlifesanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area) is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna, funga, or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for purposes of conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. They may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws. Normally it is more strictly protected than a nature park. Various jurisdictions may use other terminology, such as ecological protection area or private protected area in legislation and in official titles of the reserves.



Charles Waterton established the first nature reserve in 1821. Charles Waterton.jpg
Charles Waterton established the first nature reserve in 1821.

Cultural practices that roughly equate to the establishment and maintenance of reserved areas for animals date back to antiquity, with King Devanampiya Tissa of Sri Lanka establishing Mihintale Wildlife sanctuary,one of the world's earliest wildlife sanctuaries in the 3rd century BC,Anuradhapura Ancient Kingdom. [1] Early reservations often had a religious underpinning, such as the 'evil forest' areas of West Africa which were forbidden to humans, who were threatened with spiritual attack if they went there. Sacred areas taboo from human entry to fishing and hunting are known by many ancient cultures worldwide. [2]

The world's first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall, West Yorkshire. He spent £9000 on the construction of a three-mile long, 9 ft tall wall to enclose his park against poachers. [3] He tried to encourage bird life by planting trees and hollowing out trunks for owls to nest in.

Drachenfels (Siebengebirge) Drachenfels (Siebengebirge) from Rhondorf.jpg
Drachenfels (Siebengebirge)

Waterton invented artificial nest boxes to house starlings, western jackdaws and sand martins; and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce little owls from Italy. [4] Waterton allowed local people access to his reserve and was described by David Attenborough as "one of the first people anywhere to recognise not only that the natural world was of great importance but that it needed protection as humanity made more and more demands on it". [5]

Drachenfels (Siebengebirge) was protected as the first state-designated nature reserve in modern-day Germany; the site was bought by the Prussian State in 1836 to protect it from further quarrying.

The first major nature reserve was Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States, followed by the Royal National Park near Sydney, Australia and the Barguzin Nature Reserve of Imperial Russia, the first of zapovedniks set up by a federal government entirely for the scientific study of nature. [6]

Around the world

A forest of the Aulanko Reserve in Hameenlinna, Tavastia Proper, Finland Hame Tower on Aulanko Hill 04.jpg
A forest of the Aulanko Reserve in Hämeenlinna, Tavastia Proper, Finland

There are several national and international organizations that oversee the numerous non-profit animal sanctuaries and refuges to provide a general system for sanctuaries to follow. Among them, the American Sanctuary Association monitors and aids in various facilities to care for exotic wildlife. [8] The number of sanctuaries has substantially increased over the past few years.[ citation needed ]


In Australia, a nature reserve is the title of a type of protected area used in the jurisdictions of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Tasmania and Western Australia. The term "nature reserve" is defined in the relevant statutes used in those states and territories rather than by a single national statute. As of 2016, 1767 out of a total of 11044 protected areas listed within the Australian National Reserve System used the term "nature reserve" in their names. [9]


In Brazil, nature reserves are classified by the National System of Nature Conservation Units as ecological stations (Portuguese : estações ecológicas) or biological reserves (Portuguese : reservas biológicas). Their main objectives are preserving fauna and flora and other natural attributes, excluding direct human interference. Visits are allowed only with permission, and only for educational or scientific purposes. Changes to the ecosystems in both types of reserve are allowed to restore and preserve the natural balance, biological diversity and natural ecological processes. [10] Ecological stations are also allowed to change the environment within strictly defined limits (e.g. affecting no more than three percent of the area or 1,500 hectares (3,700 acres), whichever is less) for the purpose of scientific research. [11] A wildlife reserve in Brazil is also protected, and hunting is not allowed, but products and by-products from research may be sold. [10]

Wildlife refuges in Brazil have as their objective the protection of natural flora and fauna where conditions are assured for the existence and reproduction of species or communities of the local flora and the resident or migratory fauna. The refuges can consist of privately owned land, as long as the objectives of the unit are compatible with the landowners' usage of the land and natural resources. Public visits are subject to the conditions and restrictions established by the management plan of the unit and are subject to authorisation by and regulations of the main administrative and scientific research body. [12]


The Niagara Escarpment and the St. Lawrence River in Ontario are among the 18 nature reserves recognized by UNESCO in Canada.

As a federal government, Canada recognizes 55 National Wildlife Areas, containing species of ecological significance. This area is protected by legislation known as the Canada Wildlife Act, which is overseen by the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. About half of the habitat is marine habitat, and the remainder is terrestrial habitat.

Nature Conservancy Canada, Ducks Unlimited, and Escarpment Biosphere Conservancy, among others, protect nature reserves in Canada as well. As part of Canada's Ecological Gifts Program, these charities protect wilderness on privately owned lands.


There are 30 nature reserves in Egypt which cover 12% of Egyptian land. Those nature reserves were built according to the laws no. 102/1983 and 4/1994 for protection of the Egyptian nature reserve. Egypt announced a plan from to build 40 nature reserves from 1997 to 2017, to help protect the natural resources and the culture and history of those areas. The largest nature reserve in Egypt is Gebel Elba (35,600 square kilometres (13,700 sq mi)) in the southeast, on the Red Sea coast.


On 16 March 1959, the British established the Yob Wildlife Reserve in northern Eritrea specifically to protect significant populations of Nubian ibex in the area.[ citation needed ]


A bridged stone river in Bistrishko Branishte, an early Bulgarian nature reserve established in 1934 Golyamata-Gramada.jpg
A bridged stone river in Bistrishko Branishte, an early Bulgarian nature reserve established in 1934


Denmark has three national parks and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas. The largest single reserve is Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which covers 40 km2 (9,900 acres) and is part of Thy National Park.


In Sweden, there are 30 national parks. The first of them was established in 1909. [13] There are almost 4,000 nature reserves in Sweden. They comprise about 85% of the surface that is protected by the Swedish Environmental Code. [14]


The Tarvasjogi river at Pohja-Korvemaa Nature Reserve in Estonia Tarvasjogi.jpg
The Tarvasjõgi river at Põhja-Kõrvemaa Nature Reserve in Estonia

In Estonia, there are five national parks, more than 100 nature reserves, and around 130 landscape protection areas. The largest nature reserve in Estonia is Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve, which covers 342 km2 (85,000 acres).


As of 2017, France counts 10 national parks, around 50 regional nature parks, and 8 marine parks.


In 1995 Germany had 5,314 nature reserves (German : Naturschutzgebiete ) covering 6,845 km2 (2,643 sq mi), the largest total areas being in Bavaria with 1,416 km2 (547 sq mi) and Lower Saxony with 1,275 km2 (492 sq mi).


Nature reserve near Budapest, next to Lake Naplas Termeszetvedelmi terulet.JPG
Nature reserve near Budapest, next to Lake Naplás

In Hungary, there are 10 national parks, more than 15 nature reserves and more than 250 protected areas. Hortobágy National Park is the largest continuous natural grassland in Europe and the oldest national park in Hungary. It is situated on the eastern part of Hungary, on the plain of the Alföld. It was established in 1972. There are alkaline grasslands interrupted by marshes. They have a sizable importance because there are the fishponds. One of the most spectacular sights of the park is the autumn migration of cranes. Some famous Hungarian animal species live in Hortobágy National Park, such as the grey cattle, racka long-wool sheep living only in Hungary, Hungarian horses and buffalo. Hortobágy National Park has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1 December 1999.


In Kosovo, there are 2 national parks, 11 nature reserves, 99 natural monuments and 3 protected landscapes. [15] The national parks are Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park and Sharr Mountains National Park.

Bjeshket e Nemuna National Park, one of two national parks in Kosovo Parku Kombetar Bjeshket Nemuna, Liqeni i madh ne Liqenat, Rugove.jpg
Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, one of two national parks in Kosovo


Path on Szczeliniec Wielki, a famous nature reserve in the Stolowe Mountains in SW Poland Szczeliniec Wielki 2007.jpg
Path on Szczeliniec Wielki, a famous nature reserve in the Stołowe Mountains in SW Poland

As of 2011, Poland has 1469 nature reserves. [16]


Nature reserves are one of the 11 types of protected areas in Portugal. As of 2012, Portugal had a total of 46 protected areas, which represented 6,807.89 km2 (2,628.54 sq mi) of land and 463.94 km2 (179.13 sq mi) of marine surfaces. Among the protected areas, nine are classified as nature reserve (Portuguese : reserva natural). [17] [18]


About 5.18% of the area of Romania has a protected status (12,360 km2 (4,770 sq mi)), including the Danube Delta, which makes up half of this area (2.43% of Romania's total area).


There are 15 National Parks, and around 90 Natural Parks in Spain. Spain is the country with the most sites listed in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.


The Limmatspitz nature reserve of Pro Natura Aare - Limmat (Limmatspitz) IMG 6763.jpg
The Limmatspitz nature reserve of Pro Natura

The Swiss National Park, created in 1914, was one of the earliest national parks in Europe. In addition to the Swiss National Park, Switzerland also has sixteen regional nature parks. [19]

The environmental organization Pro Natura takes care of about 650 nature reserves of various sizes throughout Switzerland (250 km2 (97 sq mi)).


There are 4 biosphere reserves (two of them are dated 1927 and 1874) and 17 nature reserves in Ukraine, covering 160,000 ha (400,000 acres). Ukraine administers 40 national parks, 2632 habitat management areas, 3025 nature monuments, and 1430 other preservations.

United Kingdom

There are some differences between the regulations for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, which are separately managed.

At the end of March 2004, there were 215 national nature reserves in England with a total area of 879 km2 (339 sq mi). The reserves are scattered through England, from Lindisfarne in Northumberland to The Lizard in Cornwall. Nearly every rural county has at least one. Many national nature reserves contain nationally important populations of rare flowers, ferns and mosses, butterflies and other insects, and nesting and wintering birds. Examples include unique alpine plants at Upper Teesdale and the field of snake's head fritillaries at North Meadow, Cricklade, Wiltshire.

There are now over 1,050 local nature reserves in England. They range from windswept coastal headlands, ancient woodlands and flower-rich meadows to former inner-city railways, long-abandoned landfill sites and industrial areas now re-colonized by wildlife. In total, they cover almost 40,000 ha (99,000 acres)—a natural resource which makes an important contribution to England's biodiversity. A good example is Rye Harbour Nature Reserve in East Sussex, where a network of footpaths enables visitors to explore shingle, saltmarsh, saline lagoon, reedbed, and grazing marsh habitats.

Through the Natural Heritage (Scotland) Act 1991 the Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) was established in 1992 as a government body, responsible to the Scottish Government Ministers and through them to the Scottish Parliament. At 31 March 2008, there were 65 Scottish national nature reserves with a total area of approximately 1,330 km2 (510 sq mi). Section 21 of the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 gives local authorities the exclusive statutory power to establish a local nature reserve in consultation with the SNH. [20]


Dena, a biosphere reserve in Iran Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran - panoramio.jpg
Dena, a biosphere reserve in Iran

The biosphere reserves of Iran have a total land area of 1.64 million km2. The "reserves" support more than 8,000 recorded species of plants (almost 2,421 are endemic), 502 species of birds, 164 species of mammals, 209 species of reptiles, and 375 species of butterflies. [21]


India's 18 biospheres extend over a total of 85,940 km2 (33,180 sq mi) and protect larger areas than typical national parks in other countries. The first national reserve of India was established in 1986.


Israel's national parks are declared historic sites or nature reserves, which are mostly operated and maintained by the National Nature and Parks Authority. As of 2019, Israel maintains more than 490 nature reserves that protect 2,500 species of indigenous wild plants, 20 species of fish, 530 species of birds and 70 species of mammals. In total, they cover 6,400 km2 (2,500 sq mi) of nature reserves, approximately 28% of the country's land area. In 1984, the two areas with the highest number of nature reserves were the South (15.2%) and Samaria (the Shomron, 13.5%). [22]


Under the Nature Conservation Law, places can be designated as 'wilderness areas', 'nature conservation areas' and 'prefectural nature conservation areas'. In 1995, when the Japanese Government published its information in English, there were 5 wilderness areas, 10 nature conservation areas and 516 prefectural nature conservation areas. [23]


There are seven nature reserves in Jordan. In 1966 the organization that would later start Jordan's nature reserves, the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature, was founded. RSCN's first efforts involved bringing back severely endangered species. In 1973, RSCN was given the right to issue hunting licenses, giving RSCN an upper hand in preventing extinction. The first step was the founding of Jordan's first nature reserve, Shaumari Wildlife Reserve, in 1975. The primary purpose was to create means to breed endangered species, specifically: the Arabian oryx, gazelles, ostriches, and Persian onagers in their natural environment.


By the end of 2009 there were 10 nature reserves (Kyrgyz : корук, koruk) in Kyrgyzstan covering 600,000 hectares (6,000 km2) or about three percent of the total area of the country.

New Zealand

Aoraki / Mount Cook National Park in New Zealand Tramping or hiking in Aoraki Mount Cook National Park..jpg
Aoraki / Mount Cook National Park in New Zealand

New Zealand has a variety of types of reserve, including national parks, various types of conservation areas (including stewardship land that is yet to be officially classified), and seven specific types of "reserve", each of which prioritize various degrees of protection to different amenities such as scenery, recreation, flora and fauna, scientific value, or history. Land is often sub-categorised beneath its general classification, as defined in law between the Reserves Act of 1977 , the National Parks Act of 1980 , and the Conservation Act of 1987 . Under these classifications, the Department of Conservation administers more than 80,000 square kilometres (31,000 sq mi)—nearly 30% of the nation's total area—with at least some degree of protection. This land is composed of 14 National Parks, 30 Conservation Parks, and approximately 8,900 discrete areas of land in total.

Although the most public land is strongly protected for natural preservation, the term nature reserve is specifically defined in the Reserves Act to mean a reserve that prioritizes the protection of rare flora and fauna, to the extent that public access is by permit only. Some of these reserves include Ecological Islands, a comparatively new concept in wildlife preservation, pioneered in New Zealand to help rebuild the populations of nearly extinct birds, and other species that are heavily threatened by introduced predators.


Penas Blancas, part of the Bosawas Biosphere Reserve is the second largest rainforest in the Western Hemisphere, after the Amazonian Rainforest in Brazil. Located northeast of the city of Jinotega in Northeastern Nicaragua. PenasBlancas, part of the Bosawas Reserve, Jinotega Department, Nicaragua.jpg
Peñas Blancas, part of the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is the second largest rainforest in the Western Hemisphere, after the Amazonian Rainforest in Brazil. Located northeast of the city of Jinotega in Northeastern Nicaragua.

In Nicaragua, the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) is in charge of environmental protection and of the study, planning, and management of Nicaragua's natural resources. Nearly one-fifth of the territory is designated as protected areas like national parks, nature reserves (including the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve), and biological reserves. Nicaragua has 78 protected areas that cover 22,422 km2 (8,657 sq mi), about 17.3% of the nation's landmass. Private nature reserves exist with land excluded from private land trusts and maintained at the sole cost of the proprietor. For example, O Parks, WildLife, and Recreation, Or El_Ostional Private Wildlife Reserve, was established within the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor by retired FDNY firefighter Kevin Michael Shea, who purchased 46 acres (0.19 km2) of land for the purpose of restoring the ecological system of a dry tropical forest, ravaged during the Nicaraguan Revolution. The park provides a private nature reserve, wildlife corridor and verified carbon credits. [24]


South Ural Nature Reserve in Russia Les vokrug g.Iamantau.jpg
South Ural Nature Reserve in Russia

There are around 100 nature reserves (Russian : заповедник, zapovednik) in Russia, covering some 330,000 km2 (130,000 sq mi), or about 1.4% of the country's total area. A few of them predate the October Revolution of 1917, but most have been created during the Soviet Union era. There are also natural protected areas where only certain species are protected, or only certain activities are prohibited; those are known as zakaznik (Russian : заказник).

Unofficial sanctuaries can also occur as a result of human accidents; the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone has in practice become a wildlife refuge since very few people live in the area. Wildlife has flourished in the zone since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. [25]

South Africa

Hills and valleys (207920050).jpg
Matjulu waterhole near Berg-en-dal in the Kruger National Park.
Clarens Drive - Cape Whale Coast - Western Cape.jpg
With ~9000 plant species found in ~78km², the Cape Floristic Region has a concentration of plants that is greater than anywhere else on earth.

South Africa is well known for its many nature reserves. The oldest nature reserve in the country (and oldest conservation area in the world) is the Groenkloof Nature Reserve that was established in 1892 in the capital city Pretoria in the old South African Republic and current Republic of South Africa.

The country has many national parks but the best-known is the Kruger National Park, which was announced in 1898, and is the largest, at nearly 2,000,000 ha (20,000 km2). The Kruger Park and Table Mountain National Park are two of South Africa's most visited tourist attractions, along with the Addo Elephant National Park.

South Africa also has 10 World Heritage Sites, including four natural sites and one mixed site. And it has provincial game reserves including Shamwari, Londolozi, Sanbona and Lalibela. The country currently has 20 national parks covering 3,700,000 ha (37,000 km2), about 3% of the total area of South Africa.

The Prince Edward Islands, which are South African territories in the Southern Ocean, have been declared a special nature reserve. It is a highly protected area from which all human activity is excluded, except for conservation and scientific research.

Sri Lanka

The area around Mihintale, Sri Lanka, was a sanctuary for wildlife, [26] probably the first of its generation in the ancient world. According to stone inscriptions found in the vicinity, the king commanded the people not to harm animals or destroy trees within the area.

United States

Cascade Head, Oregon, United States, is a UNESCO biosphere reserve. USFWS cascade head (23768226491).jpg
Cascade Head, Oregon, United States, is a UNESCO biosphere reserve.

In the United States, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, managed by the Secretary of the Interior, is responsible for managing many of the federal nature reserves including the National Wildlife Refuge System. The National Wildlife Refuge System includes areas administered for the protection and conservation of fish and wildlife that are threatened with extinction, as well as wildlife ranges, game ranges, wildlife management areas, and waterfowl production areas. [27]

The first North American wildlife refuge, Lake Merritt Wildlife sanctuary at Lake Merritt, was established by Samuel Merritt and enacted in California state law in 1870 as the first government owned refuge. [28] The first federally owned refuge in the United States is Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge and was established by Theodore Roosevelt in 1903 as part of his Square Deal campaign to improve the country. At the time, setting aside land for wildlife was not a constitutional right of the president. In 2006, a bi-partisan group of US House of Representatives members established the Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus to further support the needs of the National Wildlife Refuge System in Congress.

There are also state-level administered State Nature Reserves found throughout the country, as well as smaller reserves operated by local governments, private trusts, or even funded through public donations. Private nature reserves also exist, with land excluded from private land trusts and maintained at the sole cost of the proprietor, such as the 1,800 acres (730 ha) Wilbur Hot Springs.

See also

Related Research Articles

In situ conservation is the on-site conservation or the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species, such as forest genetic resources in natural populations of tree species. This process protects the inhabitants and ensures the sustainability of the environment and ecosystem.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jim Corbett National Park</span> National park in India

Jim Corbett National Park is a national park in India located in the Nainital district of Uttarakhand state. The first national park in India, it was established in 1936 during the British Raj and named Hailey National Park after William Malcolm Hailey, a governor of the United Provinces in which it was then located. In 1956, nearly a decade after India's independence, it was renamed Corbett National Park after the hunter and naturalist Jim Corbett, who had played a leading role in its establishment and had died the year before. The park was the first to come under the Project Tiger initiative.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Protected areas of the United States</span> Legally protected land, eg national parks

The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state, tribal and local level authorities and receive widely varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation. As of 2022, the 42,826 protected areas covered 1,235,486 km2 (477,024 sq mi), or 13 percent of the land area of the United States. This is also one-tenth of the protected land area of the world. The U.S. also had a total of 871 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,240,000 sq mi (3,200,000 km2), or 26 percent of the total marine area of the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sundarbans National Park</span> National park and nature reserve in West Bengal, India

The Sundarbans National Park is a national park, tiger reserve and biosphere reserve in West Bengal, India. It is part of the Sundarbans on the Ganges Delta and adjacent to the Sundarban Reserve Forest in Bangladesh. It is located to south-west of Bangladesh. The delta is densely covered by mangrove forests, and is one of the largest reserves for the Bengal tiger. It is also home to a variety of bird, reptile and invertebrate species, including the salt-water crocodile. The present Sundarban National Park was declared as the core area of Sundarban Tiger Reserve in 1973 and a wildlife sanctuary in 1977. On 4 May 1984 it was declared a national park. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site inscribed in 1987, and it has been designated as a Ramsar site since 2019. It is considered as a World Network of Biosphere Reserve from 1989.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve</span> International biosphere reserve of India

The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is a biosphere reserve in the Nilgiri Mountains of the Western Ghats in South India. It is the largest protected forest area in India, spreading across Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. It includes the protected areas Mudumalai National Park, Mukurthi National Park, Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary in Tamil Nadu; Nagarhole National Park, Bandipur National Park, both in Karnataka; Silent Valley National Park, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, and Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Protected areas of Canada</span> Areas protected for conservation or historical reasons

Protected areas of Canada consist of approximately 12.1 percent of the nation's landmass and freshwater are considered conservation areas, including 11.4 percent designated as protected areas. Approximately 13.8 percent of Canada's territorial waters are conserved, including 8.9 percent designated as protected areas. Terrestrial areas conserved have increased by 65 percent in the 21st century, while marine areas conserved have increased by more than 3,800 percent.

There are four categories of protected areas in India, constituted under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Tiger reserves consist of areas under national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. There are 53 tiger reserves in India. As of January 2023, the protected areas of India cover 173,629.52 square kilometres (67,038.73 sq mi), roughly 5.28% of the total geographical area of the country.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Protected areas of California</span> Protected environmental areas of California, US

According to the California Protected Areas Database (CPAD), in the state of California, United States, there are over 14,000 inventoried protected areas administered by public agencies and non-profits. In addition, there are private conservation areas and other easements. They include almost one-third of California's scenic coastline, including coastal wetlands, estuaries, beaches, and dune systems. The California State Parks system alone has 270 units and covers 1.3 million acres (5,300 km2), with over 280 miles (450 km) of coastline, 625 miles (1,006 km) of lake and river frontage, nearly 18,000 campsites, and 3,000 miles (5,000 km) of hiking, biking, and equestrian trails.

Protected areas of Sri Lanka are administrated by Department of Forest Conservation and Department of Wildlife Conservation of Sri Lanka.There are 501 protected areas in Sri Lanka. The protected areas that fall under supervision of the Department of Forest Conservation include forests defined in National Heritage Wilderness Area Act in 1988, forest reservations, and forests managed for sustainability. Sinharaja Forest Reserve is an example for a National Heritage forest. There are 32 forests categorized as conservation forests including Knuckles Mountain Range. Strict nature reserves, national parks, nature reserves, forest corridors, and sanctuaries recognized under the Flora and Fauna Protection Ordinance are managed by Department of Wildlife Conservation. Total of all protected areas is 1,767,000 ha. Protected areas in Sri Lanka account for 26.5 percent of the total area. This is a higher percentage of protected areas than in all of Asia and much of the World.

Agasthyavanam Biological Park is a protected area in the Western Ghats in Kerala State, India. The park is located within Vazhichal Panchiyat and lies between the Neyyar and Peppara Wildlife Sanctuaries which covers an area of about 31 square kilometres (12 sq mi).

The Okomu National Park, formerly the Okomu Wildlife Sanctuary, has been identified as one of the largest remaining natural rainforest ecosystem. Due to the high biodiversity seen in the Okomu National Park, a Wildlife Sanctuary was first established there.

Categories of Natural Environment Protected Areas of Ukraine were reestablished (redefined) by the Verkhovna Rada after the fall of the Soviet Union. On 16 June 1992 the President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk signed the law on the Nature-Preservation Fund of Ukraine. The law redefined already the established system of environment protection management for Ukraine as a fully sovereign and independent country. National Parks in Ukraine and other protected areas of Ukraine include Ramsar sites in Ukraine, biosphere reserves of Ukraine, National Nature Parks of Ukraine, Nature Reserves of Ukraine, Regional landscape parks of Ukraine, Nature monuments of Ukraine, Protected tracts of Ukraine and Habitat/Species Managed Areas of Ukraine.

Bor Tiger Reserve is a wildlife sanctuary which was declared as a tiger reserve in July 2014. It is located near Hingani in Wardha District in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is a home to a variety of wild animals. The reserve covers an area of 138.12 km2 (53.33 sq mi). which includes the drainage basin of the Bor Dam.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Environment and Forests Department (Tamil Nadu)</span>

The Department of Environment and Forests is one of the departments of Government of Tamil Nadu. The department was created in 1995 and is responsible for environmental management and forests in the state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Protected areas of Quebec</span>

In Quebec, a protected area is defined as "a territory, in a terrestrial or aquatic environment, geographically delimited, whose legal framework and administration aim specifically to ensure the protection and maintenance of biological diversity and of associated natural and cultural resources.


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