Nature reserve

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The Bee Lick Creek, of the Jefferson Memorial Forest, was designated as a National Audubon Society wildlife refuge. Jefferson Memorial Forest-Bee Lick Creek.jpg
The Bee Lick Creek, of the Jefferson Memorial Forest, was designated as a National Audubon Society wildlife refuge.

A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge,wildlifesanctuary,biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area), is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna, or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for purposes of conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. They may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws. Normally it is more strictly protected than a nature park. Various jurisdictions may use other terminology, such as ecological protection area or private protected area in legislation and in official titles of the reserves.

Contents

History

Charles Waterton established the first nature reserve in 1821. Charles Waterton.jpg
Charles Waterton established the first nature reserve in 1821.

Cultural practices that roughly equate to the establishment and maintenance of reserved areas for animals date back to antiquity, with King Tissa of Ceylon establishing one of the world's earliest wildlife sanctuaries in the 3rd century BC. [1] Early reservations often had a religious underpinning, such as the 'evil forest' areas of West Africa which were forbidden to humans, who were threatened with spiritual attack if they went there. Sacred areas taboo from human entry to fishing and hunting are known by many ancient cultures worldwide. [2]

The world's first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall, West Yorkshire. He spent £9000 on the construction of a three-mile long, 9 ft tall wall to enclose his park against poachers. [3] He tried to encourage bird life by planting trees and hollowing out trunks for owls to nest in.

Drachenfels (Siebengebirge) Drachenfels (Siebengebirge) from Rhondorf.jpg
Drachenfels (Siebengebirge)

Waterton invented artificial nest boxes to house starlings, jackdaws and sand martins; and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce little owls from Italy. [4] Waterton allowed local people access to his reserve and was described by David Attenborough as "one of the first people anywhere to recognise not only that the natural world was of great importance but that it needed protection as humanity made more and more demands on it". [5]

Drachenfels (Siebengebirge) was protected as the first state-designated nature reserve in modern-day Germany; the site was bought by the Prussian State in 1836 to protect it from further quarrying.

The first major nature reserve was Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States, followed by the Royal National Park near Sydney, Australia and the Barguzin Nature Reserve of Imperial Russia, the first of zapovedniks set up by a federal government entirely for the scientific study of nature. [6]

Around the world

There are several national and international organizations that oversee the numerous non-profit animal sanctuaries and refuges in order to provide a general system for sanctuaries to follow. Among them, the American Sanctuary Association monitors and aids in various facilities to care for exotic wildlife. [7] The number of sanctuaries has substantially increased over the past few years.[ citation needed ]

Australia

In Australia, a nature reserve is the title of a type of protected area used in the jurisdictions of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Tasmania and Western Australia. The term "nature reserve" is defined in the relevant statutes used in those states and territories rather than by a single national statute. As of 2016, 1767 out of a total of 11044 protected areas listed within the Australian National Reserve System used the term "nature reserve" in their names. [8]

Brazil

In Brazil, nature reserves are classified by the National System of Conservation Units as ecological stations (Portuguese : estações ecológicas) or biological reserves (Portuguese : reservas biológicas). Their main objectives are preserving fauna and flora and other natural attributes, excluding direct human interference. Visits are allowed only with permission, and only for educational or scientific purposes. Changes to the ecosystems in both types of reserve are allowed to restore and preserve the natural balance, biological diversity and natural ecological processes. [9] Ecological stations are also allowed to change the environment within strictly defined limits (e.g. affecting no more than three percent of the area or 1,500 hectares (3,700 acres), whichever is less) for the purpose of scientific research. [10] A wildlife reserve in Brazil is also protected, and hunting is not allowed, but products and by-products from research may be sold. [9]

Wildlife refuges in Brazil have as their objective the protection of natural flora and fauna where conditions are assured for the existence and reproduction of species or communities of the local flora and the resident or migratory fauna. The refuges can consist of privately owned land, as long as the objectives of the unit are compatible with the landowners' usage of the land and natural resources. Public visits are subject to the conditions and restrictions established by the management plan of the unit and are subject to authorisation by and regulations of the main administrative and scientific research body. [11]

Canada

In Canada, UNESCO has recognized 18 nature reserves, mostly along the Niagara Escarpment and St. Lawrence River in Ontario. [12]

Federally, Canada recognizes 55 National Wildlife Areas across the country, containing species of ecological significance. The relevant Ministry is known as Environment and Climate Change Canada, which protects these areas under legislation known as the Canada Wildlife Act. The areas comprise approximately 1,000,000 ha (2,500,000 acres) of habitat, half of which is marine habitat, for the purpose of conservation and research. [13]

Many conservation groups protect nature reserves in Canada as well, including Nature Conservancy Canada, Ducks Unlimited, and Escarpment Biosphere Conservancy. These charities operate to protect wilderness on privately owned lands, including through Canada's Ecological Gifts Program. [14]

Egypt

There are 30 nature reserves in Egypt which cover 12% of Egyptian land. Those nature reserves were built according to the laws no. 102/1983 and 4/1994 for protection of the Egyptian nature reserve. Egypt announced a plan from to build 40 nature reserves from 1997 to 2017, to help protect the natural resources and the culture and history of those areas. The largest nature reserve in Egypt is Gebel Elba (35,600 square kilometres (13,700 sq mi)) in the southeast, on the Red Sea coast.

Europe

A bridged stone river in Bistrishko Branishte, an early Bulgarian nature reserve established in 1934. Golyamata-Gramada.jpg
A bridged stone river in Bistrishko Branishte, an early Bulgarian nature reserve established in 1934.

Denmark

Denmark has three national parks and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas. The largest single reserve is Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which covers 40 km2 (9,900 acres) and is part of Thy National Park.

Sweden

In Sweden, there are 29 national parks. The first of them was established in 1909. In fact, Sweden was the first European country that established 9 national parks. [15] There are almost 4,000 nature reserves in Sweden. They comprise about 85% of the surface that is protected by the Swedish Environmental Code. [16]

Estonia

The Tarvasjogi river at Pohja-Korvemaa Nature Reserve in Estonia Tarvasjogi.jpg
The Tarvasjõgi river at Põhja-Kõrvemaa Nature Reserve in Estonia

In Estonia, there are 5 national parks, more than 100 nature reserves, and around 130 landscape protection areas. The largest nature reserve in Estonia is Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve, which covers 342 km2 (85,000 acres).

France

As of 2017, France counts 10 national parks, around 50 regional nature parks, and 8 marine parks.

Germany

In 1995 Germany had 5,314 nature reserves (German : Naturschutzgebiete ) covering 6,845 km2 (2,643 sq mi), the largest total areas being in Bavaria with 1,416 km2 (547 sq mi) and Lower Saxony with 1,275 km2 (492 sq mi).

Hungary

Nature reserve near Budapest, next to Lake Naplas Termeszetvedelmi terulet.JPG
Nature reserve near Budapest, next to Lake Naplás

In Hungary, there are 10 national parks, more than 15 nature reserves and more than 250 protected areas. Hortobágy National Park is the largest continuous natural grassland in Europe and the oldest national park in Hungary. It is situated on the eastern part of Hungary, on the plain of the Alföld. It was established in 1972. There are alkaline grasslands interrupted by marshes. They have a sizable importance because there are the fishponds. One of the most spectacular sights of the park is the autumn migration of cranes. Some famous Hungarian animal species live in Hortobágy National Park, such as the grey cattle, racka long-wool sheep living only in Hungary, Hungarian horses and buffalo. Hortobágy National Park has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1 December 1999.

Poland

Path on Szczeliniec Wielki, a famous nature reserve in the Stolowe Mountains in SW Poland Szczeliniec Wielki 2007.jpg
Path on Szczeliniec Wielki, a famous nature reserve in the Stołowe Mountains in SW Poland

As of 2011, Poland has 1469 nature reserves. [17]

Portugal

Nature reserves are one of the 11 types of protected areas in Portugal. As of 2012, Portugal had a total of 46 protected areas, which represented 6,807.89 km2 (2,628.54 sq mi) of land and 463.94 km2 (179.13 sq mi) of marine surfaces. Among the protected areas, nine are classified as nature reserve (Portuguese : reserva natural). [18] [19]

Romania

About 5.18% of the area of Romania has a protected status (12,360 km2 (4,770 sq mi)), including the Danube Delta, which makes up half of this area (2.43% of Romania's total area).

Spain

There are 15 National Parks, and around 90 Natural Parks in Spain. Spain is the country with the most sites listed in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.

Switzerland

The Limmatspitz nature reserve of Pro Natura Aare - Limmat (Limmatspitz) IMG 6763.jpg
The Limmatspitz nature reserve of Pro Natura

The Swiss National Park, created in 1914, was one of the earliest national parks in Europe. In addition to the Swiss National Park, Switzerland also has sixteen regional nature parks. [20]

The environmental organization Pro Natura takes care of about 650 nature reserves of various sizes throughout Switzerland (250 km2 (97 sq mi)).

India

India's 18 biospheres extend over a total of 85,940 km2 (33,180 sq mi) and protect larger areas than typical national parks in other countries. The first national reserve of India was established in 1986.

Israel

Israel's national parks are declared historic sites or nature reserves, which are mostly operated and maintained by the National Nature and Parks Authority. As of 2019, Israel maintains more than 490 nature reserves that protect 2,500 species of indigenous wild plants, 20 species of fish, 530 species of birds and 70 species of mammals. In total, they cover 6,400 km2 (2,500 sq mi) of nature reserves, approximately 28% of the country's land area. In 1984, the two areas with the highest number of nature reserves were the South (15.2%) and Samaria (the Shomron, 13.5%). [21]

Japan

Under the Nature Conservation Law, places can be designated as 'wilderness areas', 'nature conservation areas' and 'prefectural nature conservation areas'. In 1995, when the Japanese Government published its information in English, there were 5 wildernesses, 10 nature conservation areas and 516 prefectural nature conservation areas. [22]

Jordan

There are seven nature reserves in Jordan. In 1966 the organization that would later start Jordan's nature reserves, the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature, was founded. RSCN's first efforts involved bringing back severely endangered species. In 1973, RSCN was given the right to issue hunting licenses, giving RSCN an upper hand in preventing extinction. The first step was the founding of Jordan's first nature reserve, Shaumari Wildlife Reserve, in 1975. The primary purpose was to create means to breed endangered species, specifically: the Arabian oryx, gazelles, ostriches, and Persian onagers in their natural environment.

Kyrgyzstan

By the end of 2009 there were 10 nature reserves (Kyrgyz : корук, koruk) in Kyrgyzstan covering 600,000 hectares (6,000 km2) or about three percent of the total area of the country.

New Zealand

Aoraki / Mount Cook National Park in New Zealand Tramping or hiking in Aoraki Mount Cook National Park..jpg
Aoraki / Mount Cook National Park in New Zealand

New Zealand has a variety of types of reserve, including national parks, various types of conservation areas (including stewardship land that is yet to be officially classified), and seven specific types of "reserve", each of which prioritize various degrees of protection to different amenities such as scenery, recreation, flora and fauna, scientific value, or history. Land is often sub-categorised beneath its general classification, as defined in law between the Reserves Act of 1977 , the National Parks Act of 1980 , and the Conservation Act of 1987 . Under these classifications, the Department of Conservation administers more than 80,000 square kilometres (31,000 sq mi)—nearly 30% of the nation's total area—with at least some degree of protection. This land is composed of 14 National Parks, 30 Conservation Parks, and approximately 8,900 discrete areas of land in total.

Although the most public land is strongly protected for natural preservation, the term nature reserve is specifically defined in the Reserves Act to mean a reserve that prioritizes the protection of rare flora and fauna, to the extent that public access is by permit only. Some of these reserves include Ecological Islands, a comparatively new concept in wildlife preservation, pioneered in New Zealand to help rebuild the populations of nearly extinct birds, and other species that are heavily threatened by introduced predators.

Nicaragua

Penas Blancas, part of the Bosawas Biosphere Reserve is the second largest rainforest in the Western Hemisphere, after the Amazonian Rainforest in Brazil. Located northeast of the city of Jinotega in Northeastern Nicaragua. PenasBlancas, part of the Bosawas Reserve, Jinotega Department, Nicaragua.jpg
Peñas Blancas, part of the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is the second largest rainforest in the Western Hemisphere, after the Amazonian Rainforest in Brazil. Located northeast of the city of Jinotega in Northeastern Nicaragua.

In Nicaragua, the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) is in charge of environmental protection and of the study, planning, and management of Nicaragua's natural resources. Nearly one-fifth of the territory is designated as protected areas like national parks, nature reserves (including the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve), and biological reserves. Nicaragua has 78 protected areas that cover 22,422 km2 (8,657 sq mi), about 17.3% of the nation's landmass. Private nature reserves exist with land excluded from private land trusts and maintained at the sole cost of the proprietor. For example, "O Parks, WildLife, and Recreation" was established within the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor by former FDNY firefighter Kevin Michael Shea, who purchased 46 acres (0.19 km2) of land in this manner and is an example of this type of private nature reserve. [23]

Russia

South Ural Nature Reserve in Russia Les vokrug g.Iamantau.jpg
South Ural Nature Reserve in Russia

There are around 100 nature reserves (Russian : заповедник, zapovednik) in Russia, covering some 330,000 km2 (130,000 sq mi), or about 1.4% of the country's total area. A few of them predate the October Revolution of 1917, but most have been created during the Soviet Union era. There are also natural protected areas where only certain species are protected, or only certain activities are prohibited; those are known as zakaznik (Russian : заказник).

Unofficial sanctuaries can also occur as a result of human accidents; the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone has in practice become a wildlife refuge since very few people live in the area. Wildlife has flourished in the zone since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. [24]

South Africa

South Africa is well known for its many nature reserves. The oldest nature reserve in the country (and oldest conservation area in the world) is the Groenkloof Nature Reserve that was established in 1892 in the capital city Pretoria in the old South African Republic and current Republic of South Africa. The country has many national parks but the best-known is the Kruger National Park, which was announced in 1898, and is the largest, at nearly 2,000,000 ha (20,000 km2). The Kruger Park and Table Mountain National Park are two of South Africa's most visited tourist attractions. South Africa also has a number of World Heritage Sites and provincial game reserves including Shamwari, Londolozi, Sanbona and Lalibela. The country currently has 20 national parks covering 3,700,000 ha (37,000 km2), about 3% of the total area of South Africa.

Sri Lanka

The area around Mihintale, Sri Lanka as a sanctuary for wildlife, [25] probably the first of its generation in the ancient world. According to stone inscriptions found in the vicinity, the king commanded the people not to harm animals or destroy trees within the area.

Ukraine

There are 4 biosphere reserves (two of them are dated 1927 and 1874) and 17 nature reserves in Ukraine, covering 160,000 ha (400,000 acres). Ukraine administers 40 national parks, 2632 habitat management areas, 3025 nature monuments, and 1430 other preservations.

United Kingdom

There are some differences between the regulations for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, which are separately managed.

At the end of March 2004, there were 215 national nature reserves in England with a total area of 879 km2 (339 sq mi). The reserves are scattered through England, from Lindisfarne in Northumberland to The Lizard in Cornwall. Nearly every rural county has at least one. Many national nature reserves contain nationally important populations of rare flowers, ferns and mosses, butterflies and other insects, and nesting and wintering birds. Examples include unique alpine plants at Upper Teesdale and the field of snake's head fritillaries at North Meadow, Cricklade, Wiltshire.

There are now over 1,050 local nature reserves in England. They range from windswept coastal headlands, ancient woodlands and flower-rich meadows to former inner-city railways, long-abandoned landfill sites and industrial areas now re-colonized by wildlife. In total, they cover almost 40,000 ha (99,000 acres)—an impressive natural resource which makes an important contribution to England's biodiversity. A good example is Rye Harbour Nature Reserve in East Sussex, where a network of footpaths enables visitors to explore shingle, saltmarsh, saline lagoon, reedbed, and grazing marsh habitats.

Through the Natural Heritage (Scotland) Act 1991 the Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) was established in 1992 as a government body, responsible to the Scottish Government Ministers and through them to the Scottish Parliament. At 31 March 2008, there were 65 Scottish national nature reserves with a total area of approximately 1,330 km2 (510 sq mi). Section 21 of the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 gives local authorities the exclusive statutory power to establish a local nature reserve in consultation with the SNH. [26]

United States

Cascade Head, Oregon, United States, is a UNESCO biosphere reserve USFWS cascade head (23768226491).jpg
Cascade Head, Oregon, United States, is a UNESCO biosphere reserve

In the United States, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, managed by the Secretary of the Interior, is responsible for managing many of the federal nature reserves including the National Wildlife Refuge System. The National Wildlife Refuge System includes areas administered for the protection and conservation of fish and wildlife that are threatened with extinction, as well as wildlife ranges, game ranges, wildlife management areas, and waterfowl production areas. [27]

The first North American wildlife refuge, Lake Merritt Wildlife sanctuary at Lake Merritt, was established by Samuel Merritt and enacted in California state law in 1870 as the first government owned refuge. [28] The first federally owned refuge in the United States is Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge and was established by Theodore Roosevelt in 1903 as part of his Square Deal campaign to improve the country. At the time, setting aside land for wildlife was not a constitutional right of the president. In 2006, a bi-partisan group of US House of Representatives members established the Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus to further support the needs of the National Wildlife Refuge System in Congress.

There are also state-level administered State Nature Reserves found throughout the country, as well as smaller reserves operated by local governments, private trusts, or even funded through public donations. Private nature reserves also exist, with land excluded from private land trusts and maintained at the sole cost of the proprietor, such as the 1,800 acres (730 ha) Wilbur Hot Springs.

See also

Related Research Articles

Protected areas of South Australia areas protected for conservation in the Australian state of South Australia

Protected areas of South Australia consists of protected areas located within South Australia and its immediate onshore waters and which are managed by South Australian Government agencies. As of March 2018, South Australia contains 359 separate protected areas declared under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972, the Crown Land Management Act 2009 and the Wilderness Protection Act 1992 which have a total land area of 211,387.48 km2 (81,617.16 sq mi) or 21.5% of the state's area.

Protected area location which receives protection because of its recognised natural, ecological or cultural landscape values

Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved. Generally speaking though, protected areas are understood to be those in which human presence or at least the exploitation of natural resources is limited.

In-situ conservation is the on-site conservation or the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species, such as forest genetic resources in natural populations of Teagan species. This process protects the inhabitants and ensures the sustainability of the environment and ecosystem.

Jim Corbett National Park National park in India

Jim Corbett National Park is the oldest national park in India and was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect the endangered Bengal tiger. It is located in Nainital district and Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand and was named after Jim Corbett, a well known hunter and naturalist. The park was the first to come under the Project Tiger initiative.

Protected areas of the United States Area subject to management by federal, state, tribal or local authorities, with variability in protection received

The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state, tribal and local level authorities and receive widely varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation. As of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2 (499,800 sq mi), or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is also one-tenth of the protected land area of the world. The U.S. also had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2 (490,893 sq mi), or 12 percent of the total marine area of the United States.

Marine protected area Protected areas of seas, oceans, estuaries or large lakes

Marine protected areas (MPA) are protected areas of seas, oceans, estuaries or in the US, the Great Lakes. These marine areas can come in many forms ranging from wildlife refuges to research facilities. MPAs restrict human activity for a conservation purpose, typically to protect natural or cultural resources. Such marine resources are protected by local, state, territorial, native, regional, national, or international authorities and differ substantially among and between nations. This variation includes different limitations on development, fishing practices, fishing seasons and catch limits, moorings and bans on removing or disrupting marine life. In some situations, MPAs also provide revenue for countries, potentially equal to the income that they would have if they were to grant companies permissions to fish.

Protected areas of India

As in May 2012, the protected areas of India cover 156,700 square kilometres (60,500 sq mi), roughly 4.95% of the total surface area.

Hemis National Park National Park in Ladakh, India

Hemis National Park is a high altitude national park in the eastern Ladakh Union Territory of the Republic of India. Globally famous for its snow leopards, it is believed to have the highest density of them in any protected area in the world. It is the only national park in India that is north of the Himalayas, the largest notified protected area in India and is the second largest contiguous protected area, after the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve and surrounding protected areas. The park is home to a number of species of endangered mammals, including the snow leopard. Hemis National Park is India's protected area inside the Palearctic realm, outside the Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary northeast of Hemis, and the proposed Tso Lhamo Cold Desert Conservation Area in North Sikkim.

Protected areas of Tamil Nadu

The Protected areas of Tamil Nadu State in South India cover an area of 3,305 km2 (1,276 sq mi), constituting 2.54% of the geographic area and 15% of the 22,643 km2 (8,743 sq mi) recorded forest area. It ranks 14th among all the States and Union Territories of India in terms of total protected area.

Wildlife of India Wildlife of India

India is home to a large variety of animals. It is a biodiversity hotspot with its various ecosystems ranging from the Himalayas in the north to the evergreen rain-forests in the south, the desert sands of the west to the marshy mangroves of the east. India, lying within the Indomalayan realm, is home to about 7.6% of mammal, 14.7% of amphibian, 6% of bird, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species. India's forest lands nurture about 500 species of mammals and 2000+ bird species. This richness of Indian wildlife has been celebrated since time immemorial. Four of India’s national symbols consist India’s mammals.

Protected areas of Kerala

The protected areas of Kerala include a wide range of biomes, extending east from the coral reefs, estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves and beaches of the Arabian Sea through the tropical moist broadleaf forests of the Malabar Coast moist forests to the North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests and South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests to South Western Ghats montane rain forests on the western border of Tamil Nadu in the Western Ghats. Most protected areas throughout its 14 districts are under the stewardship of the Kerala Forest Department and like all other protected areas of India receive support from the Ministry of Environment and Forests (India).

Protected areas of California

According to the California Protected Areas Database (CPAD), in the state of California, United States, there are over 14,000 inventoried protected areas administered by public agencies and non-profits. In addition, there are private conservation areas and other easements. They include almost one-third of California's scenic coastline, including coastal wetlands, estuaries, beaches, and dune systems. The California State Parks system alone has 270 units and covers 1.3 million acres (5,300 km2), with over 280 miles (450 km) of coastline, 625 miles (1,006 km) of lake and river frontage, nearly 18,000 campsites, and 3,000 miles (5,000 km) of hiking, biking, and equestrian trails.

Protected areas of Poland

Protected areas of Poland include the following categories, as defined by the Act on Protection of Nature of 16 April 2004, by the Polish Parliament:

Protected areas of Sri Lanka are administrated by Department of Forest Conservation and Department of Wildlife Conservation of Sri Lanka.There are 501 protected areas in Sri Lanka. The protected areas falls under supervision Department of Forest Conservation include forests defined in National Heritage Wilderness Area Act in 1988, forest reservations and forests manage for sustainability. World heritage site, Sinharaja Forest Reserve is an example for a National Heritage forest. There are 32 forests categorized as conservation forests including Knuckles Mountain Range. Strict nature reserves, national parks, nature reserves, forest corridors and sanctuaries recognized under the Flora and Fauna Protection Ordinance are managed by Department of Wildlife Conservation. Total of all categories of areas protected is 1,767,000 ha. Protected areas in Sri Lanka accounts for 26.5 percent of total area. This is a higher percentage of protected areas than in all of Asia and much of the World.

Protected areas of Indonesia comprise both terrestrial and marine environments in any of the six IUCN Protected Area categories. There are over 500 protected areas in Indonesia, of which 54 National Park are covering 16.4 million ha, and another 527 nature and game reserves cover further 28.3 million ha. The total protected land area represents over 15% of Indonesia's landmass. Marine Protected Areas comprise over 15.7 million ha representing ca. 5% of territorial waters.

Agasthyavanam Biological Park is a protected area in the Western Ghats in Kerala State, India. The park is located within Vazhichal Panchiyat and lies between the Neyyar and Peppara Wildlife Sanctuaries which covers an area of about 31 square kilometres (12 sq mi).

Categories of Natural Environment Protected Areas of Ukraine were reestablished (redefined) by the national parliament of Ukraine after the fall of the Soviet Union. On June 16, 1992 the President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk signed the law on the Nature-Preservation Fund of Ukraine. The law redefined already the established system of environment protection management for Ukraine as a fully sovereign and independent country. National Parks in Ukraine and other Protected Areas of Ukraine include Ramsar Sites in Ukraine, *Biosphere Preserves of Ukraine, National Nature Parks of Ukraine, Nature Preserves of Ukraine, Regional landscape parks of Ukraine, Nature monuments of Ukraine, Protected tracts of Ukraine and Habitat / Species Managed Areas of Ukraine.

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