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Energy laws govern the use and taxation of energy, both renewable and non-renewable. These laws are the primary authorities (such as caselaw, statutes, rules, regulations and edicts) related to energy. In contrast, energy policy refers to the policy and politics of energy.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object. Energy is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the science of justice" and "the art of justice". Law regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.
Energy law includes the legal provision for oil, gasoline, and "extraction taxes." The practice of energy law includes contracts for siting, extraction, licenses for the acquisition and ownership rights in oil and gas both under the soil before discovery and after its capture, and adjudication regarding those rights.
Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property and in personal property, within the common law legal system. In the civil law system, there is a division between movable and immovable property. Movable property roughly corresponds to personal property, while immovable property corresponds to real estate or real property, and the associated rights, and obligations thereon.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic and lipophilic. Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are usually flammable and surface active.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas.
There is a growing academic interest in international energy law,including continuing legal education seminars, treatises, law reviews, and graduate courses. In the same line, there has been growing interest on energy-specific issues and their particular relation with international trade and connected organizations like the World Trade Organization.
Continuing legal education (CLE), also known as mandatory or minimum continuing legal education (MCLE) or, in some jurisdictions outside the United States, as continuing professional development, consists of professional education for attorneys that takes place after their initial admission to the bar. Within the United States, U.S. attorneys in many states and territories must complete certain required CLE in order to maintain their U.S. licenses to practice law. Outside the United States, lawyers in various jurisdictions, such as British Columbia in Canada, must also complete certain required CLE. However, some jurisdictions, such as the District of Columbia and Israel, recommend, but do not require, that attorneys complete CLE.
A treatise is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay, and more concerned with investigating or exposing the principles of the subject.
Ghana has a regulatory body over energy, the Energy Commission.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language.
The Energy Commission is a parastatal, mandated by law to regulate and manage the development and utilization of energy resources in Ghana, specifically in electricity licensing, renewable energy, natural gas and energy efficiency.
Nigeria's government owns the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular state.
The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) is the oil corporation through which the federal government of Nigeria regulates and participates in the country's petroleum industry. The NNPC business operations are managed through Strategic Business and Corporate Services Units (SBUs/CSUs) in diverse locations across Nigeria. In that case; The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) initiated a recruitment scheme and since then, until date the NNPC recruitment have been a yearly scheme.
Uganda has adopted a new nuclear power law, which it hopes "will boost technical cooperation between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency," according to "a senior agency official" from that African country.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda, is a country in East-Central Africa. It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the south-west by Rwanda, and to the south by Tanzania. The southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, shared with Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda is in the African Great Lakes region. Uganda also lies within the Nile basin, and has a varied but generally a modified equatorial climate.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power can be obtained from nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion reactions. Presently, the vast majority of electricity from nuclear power is produced by nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium. Nuclear decay processes are used in niche applications such as radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Generating electricity from fusion power remains at the focus of international research. This article mostly deals with nuclear fission power for electricity generation.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was established as an autonomous organisation on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute, the IAEA reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council.
Energy is big business in Australia. The Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association represents 98% of the oil and gas producers in Australia.
Canada has an extensive energy law, both through the federation and the provinces, especially Alberta.These include:
There is some academic interest in the energy law of Canada, with looseleaf periodical services,monographs, and consultation with lawyers specializing in that practice, available.
The Supreme Court of Canada has had issued some Canadian energy case law.
Canada's energy laws are so extensive and complicated in large part because of its government-owned energy resources:
The oil sands are gold not only for the oil companies, but also for Alberta's provincial government, which owns the mineral rights to virtually all the land and has encouraged the industry for three-quarters of a century.— Robert Kunzig, National Geographic , March 2009, p. 49 (emphasis in original)
Canada and the Quebec province also own extensive hydroelectric dam facilities, which have generated not only power but controversy.
European energy law has been focused on the legal mechanisms for managing short-term disruptions to the continent's energy supply, such as Germany's 1974 Law to Secure the Energy Supply.The European integrated hydrogen project was a European Union project to integrate United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) guidelines and create a basis of ECE regulation of hydrogen vehicles and the necessary infrastructure replacing national legislation and regulations. The aim of this project was enhancing of the safety of hydrogen vehicles and harmonizing their licensing and approval process.
Five nations have created the EurObserv'ER energy consortium. The EU has also created an Energy Community to extend their policies into Southeastern Europe.
Germany's renewable energy law mandates the use of renewable energy through its taxes and tariffs. It promotes the development of renewable energy sources via a system of feed-in tariffs. It regulates the amount of energy generated by the producer and the type of renewable energy source. It also creates an incentive to encourage technological advancements and costs.The results have been startling: on 6 June 2014, more than half of the nation's energy used on that date came from solar power. Despite regulatory processes adding more renewable energy to its energy mix, Germany's electric grid has become more reliable, not less.
The German government has proposed abandoning "its planned phase-out of nuclear energy to help rein in surging electricity prices and protect the environment, according to proposals drawn up by an energy task force under Economy Minister Michael Glos."The German Green Party has opposed nuclear energy, as well as the market power of German utilities, claiming the "energy shortfall" has been artificially created.
There is significant academic interest in German energy law.A chart summarizing German energy legislation is available.
Italy has few natural resources. lacking substantial deposits of iron, coal, or oil. Proven natural gas reserves, mainly in the Po Valley and offshore Adriatic, constitute the country's most important mineral resource. More than 80% of the country's energy sources are imported. The energy sector is highly dependent on imports from abroad: in 2006 the country imported more than 86% of its total energy consumption.
In the last decade, Italy has become one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy, ranking as the world's fifth largest solar energy producer in 2009and the sixth largest producer of wind power in 2008.
In 1987, after the Chernobyl disaster, a large majority of Italians passed a referendum opting for phasing out nuclear power. The government responded by closing existing nuclear power plants and completely putting a halt to the national nuclear program. Italy also imports about 16% of its electricity need from France for 6.5 GWe, which makes it the world's biggest importer of electricity. Due to its reliance on expensive fossil fuels and imports, Italians pay approximately 45% more than the EU average for electricity.
In 2004, a new Energy Law brought the possibility of joint ventures with foreign companies to build nuclear power plants and import electricity. In 2005, Italy's power company, ENEL made an agreement with Electricite de France for 200 MWe from a nuclear reactor in France and potentially an additional 1,000 MWe from new construction.As part of the agreement, ENEL received a 12.5% stake in the project and direct involvement in design, construction, and operation of the plants. In another move, ENEL also bought 66% of the Slovak Electric utility that operates six nuclear reactors. As part of this agreement, ENEL will pay the Slovak government EUR 1.6 billion to complete a nuclear power plant in Mochovce, which has a gross output of 942 MWe. With these agreements, Italy has managed to access nuclear power without placing reactors on Italian territory.
The nation of Lithuania has an energy law, Energetikos teisė.
In Ukraine, renewable energy projects are supported by a feed-in tariff system. The law of Ukraine "On alternative sources of energy"refers to alternative energy sources: solar, wind, geothermal, hydrothermal, marine and hydrokinetic energy, hydroelectricity, biomass, landfill biogas and others. Ukrainian National Energy and Utilities Regulatory Commission and State Agency on Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving of Ukraine are the main renewable energy regulation authorities. Reforms have been made by Ukrainian government in alternative energy sphere. There is a need of energy savings services in Ukraine. Its potential reaches about 5 billion EUR only in state-owned buildings.
Ukraine has a separate regulatory agency to manage the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.
Albania has an established the Albanian Institute of Oil and Gas.
There is significant geothermal power in Iceland; about 80% of the nation's energy needs are met by geothermal sources, all of which is owned by the government, or regulated by it.
Technically, Iraq has no energy law, but proposed legislation has been pending for almost five years as of early 2012.
The Iraqi Oil Ministry awards contracts to only a few companies. As of July 2014, there are 23 established oil companies, but only 17 banking corporations in Iraq.
The Israel Energy Sources Law, 5750-1989 ("Energy Law"), defines what is considered as "energy" and "energy source" and its purpose is to regulate the exploitation of energy sources whilst ensuring the efficiently of its use. Under the Energy Law, certain regulation methods of measurement have been nominated by the Israel legislature in order to regulate the efficiency of the use of the energy source. In addition to which entity shall be entitled to the pursuit and use of such sources.
Furthermore, in Israel there are certain additional laws that deal with the use of energy sources, such as the Natural Gas Sector Law,5762-2002 which provides the conditions for the development of the natural gas sphere in Israel, and the Electricity Sector Law, 5756-1996, which established the "Public Utility Authority – Electricity" which publishes directives and regulations for the use of renewable electricity sources, including solar energy and hydro-energy.
Prior to the earthquake and tsunami of March 2011, and the nuclear disasters that resulted from it, Japan generated 30% of its electrical power from nuclear reactors and planned to increase that share to 40%.
Nuclear energy was a national strategic priority in Japan, but there had been concern about the ability of Japan's nuclear plants to withstand seismic activity. The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant was completely shut down for 21 months following an earthquake in 2007.
The 2011 earthquake and tsunami caused the failure of cooling systems at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant on March 11 and a nuclear emergency was declared. 140,000 residents were evacuated. The total amount of radioactive material released is unclear, as the crisis is ongoing.On 6 May 2011, Prime Minister Naoto Kan ordered the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant be shut down as an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 or higher is likely to hit the area within the next 30 years.
Problems in stabilizing the Fukushima I nuclear plant had hardened attitudes to nuclear power. As of June 2011, "more than 80 percent of Japanese now say they are anti-nuclear and distrust government information on radiation".
As of October 2011, there have been electricity shortages, but Japan survived the summer without the extensive blackouts that had been predicted.An energy white paper, approved by the Japanese Cabinet in October 2011, says "public confidence in safety of nuclear power was greatly damaged" by the Fukushima disaster, and calls for a reduction in the nation's reliance on nuclear power.
Many of Japan's nuclear plants have been closed, or their operation has been suspended for safety inspections. The last of Japan's 54 reactors (Tomari-3) went offline for maintenance on May 5, 2012.,leaving Japan completely without nuclear-produced electrical power for the first time since 1970. Despite protests, on 1 July 2012 unit 3 of the Ōi Nuclear Power Plant was restarted. As of September 2012, Ōi units 3 and 4 are Japan's only operating nuclear power plants, although the city and prefecture of Osaka have requested they be shut down.
The United States-Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan is a bilateral agreement aimed at putting in place a framework for the joint research and development of nuclear energy technology, which was signed on April 18, 2007.It is believed that the agreement is the first that the US has signed to develop nuclear power technologies with another country, although Japan has agreements with Australia, Canada, China, France, and the United Kingdom. Under the plan, the United States and Japan would each conduct research into fast reactor technology, fuel cycle technology, advanced computer simulation and modeling, small and medium reactors, safeguards and physical protection; and nuclear waste management, which it to be coordinated by a joint steering committee. The treaty's progress has been in limbo since the Fukushima I nuclear accidents.
The Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) is a government-owned company involved in fossil-fuel energy exploration, amongst other activities. In 2013, its corporate workers first extracted Methane clathrate from seabed deposits.
Malaysia heavily regulates its energy sector.
From 1982 to 1992, the Government of Sabah owned Sabah Gas Industries for the downstream operations of Sabah natural gas resources, based in Labuan, Malaysia,which was put up for privatization. Its methanol plant was sold to Petronas and operates today as Petronas Methanol (Labuan) Sdn Bhd. The power station was sold to Sabah Electricity.
Philippines law has provisions concerning energy, fossil fuels, and renewable energy.Energy law in the Philippines is important because that nation is one of the fastest growing in Asia, and has over 80 million residents.
The earliest Philippine energy law dates from 1903, during the American Commonwealth, Act No. 667, concerning franchises for utilities,and Act No. 1022, which allowed such to have mortgages. A uniform law in 1929 allowed for new utilities.
The first coal mining law, known as the Coal Land Act, dates to 1917.Oil exploration was allowed in a 1920 law. The Mining Act (1936) has been amended several times by acts and decrees.
The first hydroelectric power law dates from 1933,and have been updated since, including one that created the National Power Corporation, and has been amended several times through 1967. The Renewable Energy Law (2009) encourages the development and use of non-traditional energy sources.
Saudi Arabia has some laws concerning energy, especially oil and gas law. Saudi Arabia is the largest oil producer in the world and therefore its energy law has great influence over the world's overall energy supply.
Under the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia, all its oil and gas wealth belongs to the government: "All Allah's bestowed wealth, be it under the ground, on the surface or in national territorial waters, in the land or maritime domains under the state's control, are the property of the state as defined by law. The law defines means of exploiting, protecting, and developing such wealth in the interests of the state, its security and economy."Energy taxes are also specifically allowed; Article 20 of the basic law states, "Taxes and fees are to be imposed on a basis of justice and only when the need for them arises. Imposition, amendment, revocation and exemption is only permitted by law."
Two ministries of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia share the responsibility of the energy sector: the Ministry of Oil and the Ministry of Water and Electricity. [ citation needed ]The country's laws have also established other agencies that have some legal powers, but are not strictly regulatory. These include Saudi Aramco, originally a joint venture between the Kingdom and the California-Arabian Standard Oil, but now a wholly owned by the Kingdom, and Saudi Consolidated Electricity Companies (SCECOs).
Turkey's old Petroleum Law was in effect for 70 years until 2013, when it enacted a new Petroleum Law, number 6491. Amongst other provisions, it extends the permissible years for drilling permits, reduces a fee, and eliminates a state monopoly.
This section concerns the law of the United States, as well as the states that are the most populous or largest producers of energy.
In the United States, energy is regulated extensively through the United States Department of Energy, as well as state regulatory agencies.
Every state, the Federal government, and the District of Columbia collect some motor vehicle excise taxes.Specifically, these are excise taxes on gasoline, diesel fuel, and gasohol. While many states in the western U.S.A. rely to a great deal on severance taxes (taxes on mineral extraction), most states get a relatively small amount of their revenue from such sources.
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Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utilities in the electric power industry, it is the first stage in the delivery of electricity to end users, the other stages being transmission, distribution, energy storage and recovery, using the pumped-storage method.
Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources. These activities include production of conventional, alternative and renewable sources of energy, and for the recovery and reuse of energy that would otherwise be wasted. Energy conservation and efficiency measures reduce the demand for energy development, and can have benefits to society with improvements to environmental issues.
A nuclear power phase-out is the discontinuation of usage of nuclear power for energy production. Often initiated because of concerns about nuclear power, phase-outs usually include shutting down nuclear power plants and looking towards fossil fuels and renewable energy.
Energy in Japan refers to energy and electricity production, consumption, import and export in Japan. The country's primary energy consumption was 477.6 Mtoe in 2011, a decrease of 5% over the previous year.
The energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state, and local entities in the United States, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption, such as building codes and gas mileage standards. Energy policy may include legislation, international treaties, subsidies and incentives to investment, guidelines for energy conservation, taxation and other public policy techniques.
The current energy policy of the United Kingdom is set out in the Energy White Paper of May 2007 and Low Carbon Transition Plan of July 2009, building on previous work including the 2003 Energy White Paper and the Energy Review Report in 2006. It was led by the Department of Energy and Climate Change, then headed by Amber Rudd. The current focus of policy are on reforming the electricity market, rolling out smart meters and improving the energy efficiency of the UK building stock through the Green Deal.
World energy consumption is the total energy produced and used by the entire human civilization. Typically measured per year, it involves all energy harnessed from every energy source applied towards humanity's endeavors across every single industrial and technological sector, across every country. It does not include energy from food, and the extent to which direct biomass burning has been accounted for is poorly documented. Being the power source metric of civilization, world energy consumption has deep implications for humanity's socio-economic-political sphere.
Denmark has considerable sources of oil and natural gas in the North Sea and ranked as number 32 in the world among net exporters of crude oil in 2008. Denmark expects to be self-sufficient with oil until 2050. However, gas resources are expected to decline, and production may decline below consumption in 2020, making imports necessary. A large but decreasing proportion of electricity is produced from coal, and hydropower and 3-4% nuclear power is imported while wind turbines supply the equivalent of about 42% of electricity demand by 2015.
The energy policy of Australia is subject to the regulatory and fiscal influence of all three levels of government in Australia, although only the State and Federal levels determine policy for primary industries such as coal.
Energy in Iran describes energy and electricity production, consumption, import and export in Iran. Iran has the fourth largest oil reserves and the largest natural gas reserves in the world.
Ensuring adequate energy supply to sustain economic growth has been a core concern of the Chinese government since 1949. Primary energy use in China was 26,250 TWh and 20 TWh per million persons in 2009. According to the International Energy Agency, the primary energy use grew 40% and electricity use 70% from 2004 to 2009.
Energy in Germany is sourced predominantly by fossil fuels, followed by nuclear power, biomass, wind, hydro and solar.
Energy in Armenia describes energy and electricity production, import and consumption in Armenia.
Energy in Saudi Arabia involves petroleum and natural gas production, consumption, and exports, and electricity production. Saudi Arabia is the world's leading oil producer and exporter. Saudi Arabia's economy is petroleum-based; oil accounts for 90% of the country's exports and nearly 75% of government revenue. The oil industry produces about 45% of Saudi Arabia's gross domestic product, against 40% from the private sector. Saudi Arabia has per capita GDP of $20,700. The economy is still very dependent on oil despite diversification, in particular in the petrochemical sector.
The energy sector in Switzerland is, by its structure and importance, typical of a developed country. Apart from hydroelectric power and firewood, the country has few indigenous energy resources: oil products, natural gas and nuclear fuel are imported, so that by 2013 only 22.6% of primary energy consumption will have been covered by local resources.
The electricity sector in France is dominated by nuclear power, which accounted for 72.3% of total production in 2016, while renewables and fossil fuels accounted for 17.8% and 8.6%, respectively. France has the largest share of nuclear electricity in the world. France's electrical grid is part of the Synchronous grid of Continental Europe and it is among the world's biggest net exporters of electricity. The French nuclear power sector is almost entirely owned by the French government and the degree of the government subsidy is difficult to ascertain because of a lack of transparency.
Energy in Sweden describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Sweden. Electricity sector in Sweden is the main article of electricity in Sweden. The Swedish climate bill of February 2017 aims to make Sweden carbon neutral by 2045. The Swedish target is to decline emission of climate gases 63% from 1990 to 2030 and international transportation excluding foreign flights 70%. By 2014 just over half of the country's total final energy consumption in electricity, heating and cooling and transport combined was provided by renewables, the highest share amongst the 28 EU member countries.
Energy in the United Arab Emirates describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). UAE has 7% of global proved oil reserves, about 100 billion barrels. Primary energy use in 2009 in UAE was 693 TWh and 151 TWh per million persons.
Energy in Hungary describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Hungary. Energy policy of Hungary describes the politics of Hungary related to energy.
Most energy in Israel comes from hydrocarbon fuels. The country's total primary energy demand is significantly higher than its total primary energy production, relying heavily on imports to meet its energy needs. Total primary energy consumption was 1.037 quad (304 TWh) in 2016, or 26.2 Mtoe.