The front page of the Financial Times on 29 December 2010
|Founded||9 January 1888|
|Political alignment|| Liberal conservatism |
|Headquarters||Bracken House, London, UK|
740.000 (Digital)(as of 2018)
The Financial Times (FT) is an English-language international daily newspaper owned by Japanese company Nikkei Inc, headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background.
The Nikkei, formally known as The Nihon Keizai Shinbun, is Nikkei, Inc.'s flagship publication and the world's largest financial newspaper, with a daily circulation exceeding three million. The Nikkei 225, a stock market index for the Tokyo Stock Exchange, has been calculated by the newspaper since 1950.
London is the capital of and largest city in England and the United Kingdom, and the largest city in the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
The paper was founded in 1888 by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley, and merged in 1945 with its closest rival, the Financial News (which had been founded in 1884).
Horatio William Bottomley was an English financier, journalist, editor, newspaper proprietor, swindler, and Member of Parliament. He is best known for his editorship of the popular magazine John Bull, and for his patriotic oratory during the First World War. His career came to a sudden end when, in 1922, he was convicted of fraud and sentenced to seven years' imprisonment.
The Financial News was a daily British newspaper published in London. It was founded in 1884 by Harry Marks, who had begun on United States newspapers, and set up to expose fraudulent investments. Marks himself was key to the paper's early growth, when it had a buccaneering life fighting against corruption and competing with the Financial Times, but after Marks' death it declined. Bought by publishers Eyre & Spottiswoode in 1928 and run by Brendan Bracken, it eventually merged with its great rival in 1945.
The Financial Times has a record paying readership of one million, three-quarters of which are digital subscriptions (as of April 2019).
On 23 July 2015, Nikkei Inc. agreed to buy the Financial Times from Pearson for £844m ($1.32 billion)and the acquisition was completed on 30 November 2015.
Pearson plc is a British multinational publishing and education company headquartered in London. It was founded as a construction business in the 1840s but switched to publishing in the 1920s. It is the largest education company and was once the largest book publisher in the world. In 2013 Pearson merged its Penguin Books with German conglomerate Bertelsmann. In 2015 the company announced a change to focus solely on education. Pearson has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange in the form of American depositary receipts.
The FT was launched as the London Financial Guide on 10 January 1888, renaming itself the Financial Times on 13 February the same year. Describing itself as the friend of "The Honest Financier, the Bona Fide Investor, the Respectable Broker, the Genuine Director, and the Legitimate Speculator", it was a four-page journal. The readership was the financial community of the City of London, its only rival being the slightly older and more daring Financial News. On 2 January 1893 the FT began printing on light salmon-pink paper to distinguish it from the similarly named Financial News: at the time it was also cheaper to print on unbleached paper (several other more general newspapers such as The Sporting Times had the same policy), but nowadays it is more expensive as the paper has to be dyed specially.
The City of London is a city and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London; however, the City of London is not a London borough, a status reserved for the other 32 districts. It is also a separate county of England, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London. It is the smallest county in the United Kingdom.
The Sporting Times was a weekly British newspaper devoted chiefly to sport, and in particular to horse racing. It was informally known as The Pink 'Un, as it was printed on salmon-coloured paper.
After 57 years of rivalry the Financial Times and the Financial News were merged in 1945 by Brendan Bracken to form a single six-page newspaper. The Financial Times brought a higher circulation while the Financial News provided much of the editorial talent. The Lex column was also introduced from Financial News.
Pearson bought the paper in 1957.Over the years the paper grew in size, readership and breadth of coverage. It established correspondents in cities around the world, reflecting a renewed impetus in the world economy towards globalisation. As cross-border trade and capital flows increased during the 1970s, the FT began international expansion, facilitated by developments in technology and the growing acceptance of English as the international language of business. On 1 January 1979 the first FT (Continental Europe edition) was printed outside the UK, in Frankfurt. Since then, with increased international coverage, the FT has become a global newspaper, printed in 22 locations with five international editions to serve the UK, continental Europe, the U.S., Asia and the Middle East.
The European edition is distributed in continental Europe and Africa. It is printed Monday to Saturday at five centres across Europe reporting on matters concerning the European Union, the Euro and European corporate affairs.
In 1994 FT launched a luxury lifestyle magazine, How To Spend It. In 2009 it launched a standalone website for the magazine.
On 13 May 1995 the Financial Times group made its first foray into the online world with the launch of FT.com. This provided a summary of news from around the globe, which was supplemented in February 1996 with stock price coverage; the second-generation site was launched in spring 1996. The site was funded by advertising and contributed to the online advertising market in the UK in the late 1990s. Between 1997 and 2000 the site underwent several revamps and changes of strategy, as the FT Group and Pearson reacted to changes online. FT introduced subscription services in 2002.FT.com is one of the few UK news sites successfully funded by individual subscription.
In 1997 the FT launched a U.S. edition, printed in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Dallas, Atlanta, Orlando and Washington, D.C., although the newspaper was first printed outside New York City in 1985. In September 1998 the FT became the first UK-based newspaper to sell more copies internationally than within the UK.
In 2000 the Financial Times started publishing a German-language edition, Financial Times Deutschland , with a news and editorial team based in Hamburg. Its initial circulation in 2003 was 90,000. It was originally a joint venture with a German publishing firm, Gruner + Jahr. In January 2008 the FT sold its 50% stake to its German partner.FT Deutschland never made a profit and is said to have accumulated losses of €250 million over 12 years. It closed on 7 December 2012.
The Financial Times launched a new weekly supplement for the fund management industry on 4 February 2002. FT fund management (FTfm) was and still is distributed with the paper every Monday. FTfm is the world's largest-circulation fund management title.
Since 2005 the FT has sponsored the annual ''Financial Times'' and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award.
On 23 April 2007 the FT unveiled a "refreshed" version of the newspaper and introduced a new slogan, "We Live in Financial Times."
In 2007 the FT pioneered a metered paywall, which lets visitors to its site read a limited number of free articles during any one month before asking them to pay.Four years later the FT launched its HTML5 mobile internet app. Smartphones and tablets now drive 12% of subscriptions and 19% of traffic to FT.com. In 2012 the number of digital subscribers surpassed the circulation of the newspaper for the first time and the FT drew almost half of its revenue from subscriptions rather than advertising.
Since 2010 the FT has been available on Bloomberg Terminal.
Since 2013 the FT has been available on Wisers platform.
In 2016, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Alpha Grid, a London-based media company specialising in the development and production of quality branded content across a range of channels, including broadcast, video, digital, social and events.
In 2018, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Longitude, a specialist provider of thought leadership and research services to a multinational corporate and institutional client base.This investment builds on the Financial Times’ recent growth in several business areas, including branded content via the acquisition of Alpha Grid, and conferences and events through Financial Times Live and extends the FT's traditional commercial offering into a wider set of integrated services.
In January 2019 the FT began a series of investigative articles detailing fraud suspicions at German payments group Wirecard. When the Wirecard share price plunged, German news media speculated that market manipulation was behind this attack on a German corporate, focusing on the lead author of the FT series, Dan McCrum. The Public prosecutor's office in Munich subsequently launched an investigation.  The FT strongly disputed the claims, pointing out that it had not been contacted by the German authorities.
According to the Global Capital Markets Survey, which measures readership habits amongst most senior financial decision makers in the world's largest financial institutions, the Financial Times is considered the most important business read, reaching 36% of the sample population, 11% more than The Wall Street Journal (WSJ), its main rival. The Economist , which was once 50% owned by FT, reaches 32%. FT's The Banker also proved vital reading, reaching 24%.In addition FT was regarded as the most credible publication in reporting financial and economic issues among the Worldwide Professional Investment Community audience. The Economist was also rated the third most credible title by most influential professional investors (those who personally managed asset funds worth $5 billion or more), while the WSJ was second.
The FT is split into two sections. The first section covers domestic and international news, editorial commentary on politics and economics from FT journalists such as Martin Wolf, Gillian Tett and Edward Luce, and opinion pieces from globally renowned leaders, policymakers, academics and commentators. The second section consists of financial data and news about companies and markets. Despite being generally regarded as primarily a financial newspaper, it does also contain TV listings, weather and other more informal articles.
About 110 of its 475 journalists are outside the UK.
The Lex column is a daily feature on the back page of the first section. It features analyses and opinions covering global economics and finance. The FT calls Lex its agenda-setting column. The column first appeared on Monday, 1 October 1945. The name may originally have stood for Lex Mercatoria, a Latin expression meaning literally "merchant law". It was conceived by Hargreaves Parkinson for the Financial News in the 1930s and moved to the Financial Times when the two merged.
Lex boasts some distinguished alumni who have gone on to make careers in business and government – including Nigel Lawson (former Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer), Richard Lambert (CBI director and former member of the Bank of England's monetary policy committee), Martin Taylor (former chief executive of Barclays), John Makinson (chairman and chief executive of Penguin), John Gardiner (former chairman of Tesco), David Freud (former UBS banker and Labour adviser, now a Conservative peer), John Kingman (former head of UKFI and a banker at Rothschild's), George Graham (RBS banker), Andrew Balls (head of European portfolio management at PIMCO) and Jo Johnson (Conservative Member of Parliament for Orpington).
The FT publishes a Saturday edition of the newspaper called the Financial Times Weekend. It consists of international economic and political news, Companies & Markets, Life & Arts, House & Home and FT Magazine .
How to Spend It is a monthly magazine published with FT Weekend. Founded and launched by Julia Carrickwith Lucia van der Post as founding editor, its articles concern luxury goods such as yachts, mansions, apartments, horlogerie, haute couture and automobiles, as well as fashion and columns by individuals in the arts, gardening, food, and hotel and travel industries. How to Spend It started in 1967 as a one-page consumer goods feature in the newspaper, which was edited by Sheila Black, a former actor and FT’s first female journalist. To celebrate its 15th anniversary, FT launched the on-line version of this publication, Howtospendit.com on 3 October 2009.
Some media commentators were taken aback by the online launch of a website supporting conspicuous consumption during the financial austerity of the late-2000s recession.The magazine has been derided in rival publishers' blogs, as "repellent" in the Telegraph and "a latter-day Ab Fab manual" in the Guardian. A 'well-thumbed' copy of the supplement was found when rebel forces broke into Colonel Gaddafi's Tripoli compound during the 2011 Libyan Civil War.
The FT advocates free marketsand is in favour of globalisation, as well as globalist policies.
During the 1980s it supported Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan's monetarist policies.It has supported the UK Labour Party in the past, including at the general election in 1992 when Neil Kinnock was Labour leader.
The FT's editorials tend to be europhilic, supporting the European Union (including Britain's membership thereof) in the context of a common economic market and opposing political integration.The FT was firmly opposed to the Iraq War.
In the general election in the UK in 2010 the FT was receptive to the Liberal Democrats' positions on civil liberties and political reform, and praised the then Labour leader Gordon Brown for his response to the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, but on balance it backed the Conservatives while questioning their tendency to Euroscepticism.
At the subsequent general election in 2015, the FT called for the continuation of the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition that had governed for the previous five years.
In the 2017 UK general election a Financial Times editorial reluctantly backed Theresa May (Conservative Party) over Jeremy Corbyn (Labour Party) while warning about her stance on immigration and the eurosceptic elements in her party.
In the U.S. presidential election in 2008 the Financial Times endorsed Barack Obama. While it raised concerns over hints of protectionism, it praised his ability to "engage the country's attention," his calls for a bipartisan politics, and his plans for "comprehensive health-care reform".The FT favoured Obama again in 2012. The FT endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 U.S. presidential election.
The Financial Times Group, a division of Pearson PLC since 1957, was sold in July 2015 to the Japanese company Nikkei for £844m.Until August 2015 the FT group had a 50% shareholding in The Economist , which was sold to the Agnelli family for £469 million.
Related publications include the Financial Times, FT.com, FT Search Inc., the publishing imprint FT Press and numerous joint ventures. In November 2013 it agreed to sell Mergermarket, an online intelligence reporting business, to the London private equity investor BC Partners.In addition, the FT Group has a unit called FT Specialist, which is a provider of specialist information on retail, personal and institutional finance segments. It publishes The Banker , Money Management and Financial Adviser (a publication targeted at professional advisers), fDi Intelligence and Professional Wealth Management (PWM).
The Financial Times Group announced the beta launch of newssift,part of FT Search, in March 2009. Newssift.com is a next-generation search tool for business professionals that indexes millions of articles from thousands of global business news sources, not just the FT. The Financial Times Group acquired Money Media (an online news and commentary site for the industry) and Exec-Appointments (an online recruitment specialist site for the executive jobs market). The FT Group once had a 13.85% stake in Business Standard Ltd of India, the publisher of the Business Standard. It sold this stake in April 2008 and has entered into an agreement with Network 18 to launch the Financial Times in India, though it is speculated that they may find it difficult to do so, as the brand 'Financial Times' in India is owned by The Times Group, the publisher of The Times of India and The Economic Times . The group also publishes America's Intelligence Wire, a daily general newswire service.
The Financial Times' Financial Publishing division (formerly FT Business) provides print and online content for retail, personal and institutional finance audiences. Examples of publications and services include: Investors Chronicle , a personal finance magazine and website; "FT Money", a weekly personal finance supplement in "FT Weekend"; FT Wealth, a magazine for the global high-net-worth community and FTfm, a weekly review of the global fund management industry, Money Management and Financial Adviser (a publication targeted at professional advisers). The institutional segment includes: The Banker , This Is Africa , fDi Intelligence and Professional Wealth Management (PWM).Money-Media, a separate arm of Financial Publishing, delivers a range of digital information services for fund management professionals around the globe, including: Ignites, Ignites Europe, Ignites Asia, FundFire and BoardIQ. Financial Publishing includes publications ( Pensions Expert and Deutsche Pensions & Investmentnachrichten) and events (Investment Expert) for the European pensions industry. The group also publishes MandateWire, a financial information company that provides sales and market intelligence for investment professionals in North America, Europe and Asia.
FT Knowledge is an associated company which offers educational products and services. FT Knowledge has offered the "Introducing the City" course (which is a series of Wednesday night lectures and seminars, as well as weekend events) during each autumn and spring since 2000.
FT Predict is a prediction market contest hosted by the Financial Times that allows users to buy and sell contracts based on future financial, political, and news-driven events by spending fictional Financial Times Dollars (FT$). Based on the assumptions displayed in James Surowiecki's The Wisdom of Crowds , this contest allows people to use prediction markets to observe future occurrences while competing for weekly and monthly prizes.
The Financial Times also ran a business-related game called "In the Pink" (a phrase meaning "in good health", also a reference to the colour of the newspaper and to the phrase "in the red" meaning to be making a loss). Each player was put in the virtual role of Chief Executive and the goal was to have the highest profit when the game closes. The winner of the game (the player who makes the highest profit) was to receive a real monetary prize of £10,000. The game ran from 1 May to 28 June 2006.
The Financial Times collates and publishes a number of financial market indices, which reflect the changing value of their constituent parts. The longest-running of these was the former Financial News Index, started on 1 July 1935 by the Financial News. The FT published a similar index; this was replaced by the Financial News Index—which was then renamed the Financial Times (FT) Index—on 1 January 1947. The index started as an index of industrial shares, and companies with dominant overseas interests were excluded, such as the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (later BP), British-American Tobacco, Lever Brothers (later Unilever) and Shell. The oil and financial sectors were included decades later.
The FTSE All-Share Index, the first of the FTSE series of indices, was created in 1962, comprising the largest 594 UK companies by market capitalisation.The letters F-T-S-E represented that FTSE was a joint venture between the Financial Times (F-T) and the London Stock Exchange (S-E). On 13 February 1984 the FTSE 100 was introduced, representing about eighty percent of the London Stock Exchange's value. In 1995 FTSE Group was made an independent company. The first of several overseas offices was opened in New York City in 1999; Paris followed in early 2000, Hong Kong, Frankfurt and San Francisco in 2001, Madrid in 2002 and Tokyo in 2003.
Other well-known FTSE indices include the FTSE 350 Index, the FTSE SmallCap Index, the FTSE AIM UK 50 Index and FTSE AIM 100 Index as well as the FTSE AIM All-Share Index for stocks, and the FTSE UK Gilt Indices for government bonds.
In July 2006 the FT announced a "New Newsroom" project to integrate the newspaper more closely with FT.com. At the same time it announced plans to cut the editorial staff from 525 to 475. In August 2006 it announced that all the required job cuts had been achieved through voluntary layoffs.
A number of former FT journalists have gone on to high-profile jobs in journalism, politics and business. Robert Thomson, previously the paper's US managing editor, was the editor of The Times and is now the publisher of the Wall Street Journal. Will Lewis, a former New York correspondent and News Editor for the FT, is the current editor of the Daily Telegraph . Dominic Lawson went on to become editor of the Sunday Telegraph until he was sacked in 2005. Andrew Adonis, a former education correspondent, became an adviser on education to the then British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, and was given a job as an education minister and a seat in the House of Lords after the 2005 election. Ed Balls became chief economic adviser to the Treasury, working closely with Gordon Brown, the chancellor of the exchequer (or finance minister), before being elected a Member of Parliament in 2005, and became Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families in July 2007. Bernard Gray, a former defence correspondent and Lex columnist, was chief executive of the publishing company CMP before becoming chief executive of TSL Education, publisher of the Times Educational Supplement . David Jones, at one time the FT Night Editor, then became Head of IT. He was a key figure in the newspaper's transformation from hot metal to electronic composition and then onto full-page pagination in the 1990s. He went on to become Head of Technology for the Trinity Mirror Group.
Sir Geoffrey Owen was the editor of the Financial Times from 1981 to 1990. He joined the Centre for Economic Performance (CEP) at the London School of Economics as Director of Business Policy in 1991 and was appointed Senior Fellow, Institute of Management, in 1997. He continues his work there.During his tenure at the FT he had to deal with rapid technological change and issues related to it, for example repetitive strain injury (RSI), which affected dozens of FT journalists, reporters and staff in the late 1980s.
London Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England. As of April 2018, London Stock Exchange had a market capitalisation of US$4.59 trillion. It was founded in 1571, making it one of the oldest exchanges in the world. Its current premises are situated in Paternoster Square close to St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London. It is part of London Stock Exchange Group (LSEG).
The Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index, also called the FTSE 100 Index, FTSE 100, FTSE, or, informally, the "Footsie", is a share index of the 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange with the highest market capitalisation. It is seen as a gauge of prosperity for businesses regulated by UK company law. The index is maintained by the FTSE Group, a subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange Group.
Frank Russell Company is a subsidiary of London Stock Exchange Group (LSEG). However, its asset management division, as Russell Investments, was sold by LSEG to TA Associates in 2015. Russell Investments provides multi-asset investing solutions to institutional investors, as well as to individuals via financial advisors. Russell Investments is owned by private equity firms TA Associates and Reverence Capital Partners.
The Financial Times Deutschland was a German-language financial newspaper based in Hamburg, Germany, published by Bertelsmann's Gruner + Jahr newspaper and magazine division. The daily contained four sections: Business, Politics & Economy, Finance, and Agenda. It ceased publication on 7 December 2012.
The Economist Newspaper Limited, trading as The Economist Group, is a British multinational media company headquartered in London and best known as publisher of The Economist. The Economist Group specialises in international business and world affairs information. Its principal activities are magazines, newspapers, conferences and market intelligence.
FTSE International Limited trading as FTSE Russell is a British provider of stock market indices and associated data services, wholly owned by the London Stock Exchange (LSE) and operating from premises in Canary Wharf. It operates the well known UK FTSE 100 Index as well as a number of other indices. FTSE stands for Financial Times Stock Exchange.
Man Group plc is an active management business initially founded as a sugar cooperage and brokerage by James Man in 1783. It provides a range of funds for institutional and private investors globally and is the world's largest publicly traded hedge fund company, reporting $103.5 billion in funds under management as of September 2017. The firm is headquartered at Riverbank House in London and employs over 1,000 people in various locations worldwide. The company was a sponsor of the arts and charitable initiatives, including the Man Booker Prize.
Euromoney Institutional Investor PLC is one of Europe's largest business and financial information companies which has interests in business and financial publishing and event organization. It is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. It was formerly 49% owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust Group until the stake was spun-off in 2019.
IG Group is a UK-based company providing trading in financial derivatives such as contracts for difference and financial spread betting and, as of 2014, stockbroking to retail traders. While the majority of the company's activities are based in the UK, the company has expanded internationally. IG is regulated by the FCA, the UK’s financial authority body. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.
The Investors Chronicle is a weekly magazine in the United Kingdom for private investors and is published by the Financial Times Group. The magazine publishes articles about global markets and sectors, and news on corporate actions such as takeovers and share issues. It was established in 1860, and has been considered a "highly influential magazine".
Turquoise is an equities trading platform, created by nine major investment banks in 2008. The aim was to provide dealing services at a 50% discount to traditional exchanges. It is a hybrid system that allows trading both on and off traditional exchanges. The system was advertised as a "pan-European platform based in London".
London Stock Exchange Group plc is a British-based stock exchange and financial information company. It is headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It owns London Stock Exchange, Borsa Italiana, MillenniumIT, Russell Indexes, FTSE International, and majority stakes in LCH and MTS.
Derwent London is a British-based property investment and development business. It is headquartered in London and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.
YOOX NET-A-PORTER Group is an Italian online fashion retailer created on 5 October 2015 after the merger between Yoox GROUP and THE NET-A-PORTER GROUP. Yoox was founded by Federico Marchetti, in Bologna in 2000 and has become an e-commerce company that serves more than 180 countries worldwide. In May 2018, Richemont acquired YNAP by purchasing 95% of the company's available shares.
Lloyds Banking Group plc is a major British financial institution formed through the acquisition of HBOS by Lloyds TSB in 2009. The Group's history stems from the founding in 1695 by the Parliament of Scotland of the Bank of Scotland, which is the second oldest bank in the United Kingdom. The Group's headquarters is located at 25 Gresham Street in the City of London and its registered office is on The Mound in Edinburgh. Lloyds Banking Group's activities are organised into: Retail Banking ; Commercial; Life, Pensions & Insurance; and Wealth & International. Lloyds' has extensive overseas operations in the US, Europe, the Middle East and Asia.
Money Management magazine is a monthly personal finance magazine and is published by the Financial Times Group. It was originally launched in 1962 as the Unitholder and later became a part of the FT Business stable. In 2005 FT Business was integrated into Financial Times Ltd.
CMC Markets is a UK-based financial derivatives dealer. The company offers online trading in spread betting, contracts for difference (CFDs) and foreign exchange (forex) across world markets. CMC is headquartered in London, with hubs in Sydney and Singapore and a further 11 offices internationally. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange.
The 2015–16 stock market selloff was the period of decline in the value of stock prices globally that occurred between June 2015 to June 2016. It included the 2015–16 Chinese stock market turbulence, in which the SSE Composite Index fell 43% in just over 2 months between June 2015 and August 2015, which culminated in the devaluation of the yuan. Investors sold shares globally as a result of slowing growth in the GDP of China, a fall in petroleum prices, the Greek debt default in June 2015, the effects of the end of quantitative easing in the United States in October 2014, a sharp rise in bond yields in early 2016, and finally, in June 2016, the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, in which Brexit was voted upon.
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