Daily Mirror

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Daily Mirror
Daily Mirror logo.svg
DailyMirror.jpg
Front page on 9 March 2017
TypeDaily newspaper
Format Red top
Owner(s) Reach plc
Editor Alison Phillips
Founded2 November 1903;118 years ago (1903-11-02)
Political alignment Labour
Headquarters One Canada Square, London, United Kingdom
Circulation 348,087(as of September 2021) [1]
OCLC number 223228477
Website mirror.co.uk

The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid-sized newspaper that is considered to be engaged in tabloid-style journalism. [2] Founded in 1903, it is owned by parent company Reach plc. From 1985 to 1987, and from 1997 to 2002, the title on its masthead was simply The Mirror. It had an average daily print circulation of 716,923 in December 2016, dropping to 587,803 the following year. [3] Its Sunday sister paper is the Sunday Mirror . Unlike other major British tabloids such as The Sun and the Daily Mail , the Mirror has no separate Scottish edition; this function is performed by the Daily Record and the Sunday Mail , which incorporate certain stories from the Mirror that are of Scottish significance.

Contents

Originally pitched to the middle-class reader, it was converted into a working-class newspaper after 1934, in order to reach a larger audience. The Mirror has had a number of owners. It was founded by Alfred Harmsworth, who sold it to his brother Harold Harmsworth (from 1914 Lord Rothermere) in 1913. In 1963 a restructuring of the media interests of the Harmsworth family led to the Mirror becoming a part of International Publishing Corporation. During the mid-1960s, daily sales exceeded 5 million copies, a feat never repeated by it or any other daily (non-Sunday) British newspaper since. [4] The Mirror was owned by Robert Maxwell between 1984 and 1991. The paper went through a protracted period of crisis after his death before merging with the regional newspaper group Trinity in 1999 to form Trinity Mirror.

History

1903–1995

Alfred Harmsworth (later Lord Northcliffe), founder of the Daily Mirror Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe - Project Gutenberg eText 15305.jpg
Alfred Harmsworth (later Lord Northcliffe), founder of the Daily Mirror

The Daily Mirror was launched on 2 November 1903 by Alfred Harmsworth (later Lord Northcliffe) as a newspaper for women, run by women. [5] About the name, he said: "I intend it to be really a mirror of feminine life as well on its grave as on its lighter sides ... to be entertaining without being frivolous, and serious without being dull." [6] It cost one penny (equivalent to 46p in 2020).

It was not an immediate success and in 1904 Harmsworth decided to turn it into a pictorial newspaper with a broader focus. Harmsworth appointed Hamilton Fyfe as editor and all of the paper's female journalists were fired. The masthead was changed to The Daily Illustrated Mirror, which ran from 26 January to 27 April 1904 (issues 72 to 150), when it reverted to The Daily Mirror. [7] The first issue of the relaunched paper did not have advertisements on the front page as previously, but instead news text and engraved pictures (of a traitor and an actress), with the promise of photographs inside. [8] Two days later, the price was dropped to one halfpenny and to the masthead was added: "A paper for men and women". [9] This combination was more successful: by issue 92, the guaranteed circulation was 120,000 copies [10] and by issue 269, it had grown to 200,000: [11] by then the name had reverted and the front page was mainly photographs. Circulation grew to 466,000 making it the second-largest morning newspaper. [12]

Alfred Harmsworth sold the newspaper to his brother Harold Harmsworth (from 1914 Lord Rothermere) in 1913. In 1917, the price was increased to one penny. [13] Circulation continued to grow: in 1919, some issues sold more than a million copies a day, making it the largest daily picture paper. [14] In 1924 the newspaper sponsored the 1924 Women's Olympiad held at Stamford Bridge in London.

Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere Lord Rothermere.jpg
Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere

Lord Rothermere was a friend of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, and directed the Mirror's editorial stance towards them in the early 1930s. [15] [16] On Monday, 22 January 1934 the Daily Mirror ran the headline "Give the Blackshirts a helping hand" urging readers to join Sir Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists, and giving the address to which to send membership applications. [17] By the mid-1930s, the Mirror was struggling – it and the Mail were the main casualties of the early 1930s circulation war that saw the Daily Herald and the Daily Express establish circulations of more than two million, and Rothermere decided to sell his shares in it.

In 1935 Rothermere sold the paper to H. G. Bartholomew and Hugh Cudlipp. [18] With Cecil King (Rothermere's nephew) in charge of the paper's finances and Guy Bartholomew as editor, during the late 1930s the Mirror was transformed from a conservative, middle class newspaper into a left-wing paper for the working class. [19] Partly on the advice of the American advertising agency J. Walter Thompson, the Mirror became the first British paper to adopt the appearance of the New York tabloids. The headlines became bigger, the stories shorter and the illustrations more abundant. [20] By 1939, the publication was selling 1.4 million copies a day. In 1937, Hugh McClelland introduced his wild Western comic strip Beelzebub Jones in the Daily Mirror. After taking over as cartoon chief at the Mirror in 1945, [21] he dropped Beelzebub Jones and moved on to a variety of new strips.

During the Second World War the Mirror positioned itself as the paper of the ordinary soldier and civilian, and was critical of the political leadership and the established parties. At one stage, the paper was threatened with closure following the publication of a Philip Zec cartoon (captioned by William Connor), which was misinterpreted by Winston Churchill and Herbert Morrison. [22] In the 1945 general election the paper strongly supported the Labour Party in its eventual landslide victory. In doing so, the paper supported Herbert Morrison, who co-ordinated Labour's campaign, and recruited his former antagonist Philip Zec to reproduce, on the front page, a popular VE Day cartoon on the morning of the election, suggesting that Labour were the only party who could maintain peace in post-war Britain. [23] By the late 1940s, it was selling 4.5 million copies a day, outstripping the Express; for some 30 years afterwards, it dominated the British daily newspaper market, selling more than 5 million copies a day at its peak in the mid-1960s.

The Mirror was an influential model for German tabloid Bild , which was founded in 1952 and became Europe's biggest-selling newspaper. [24]

Daily Mirror Building (1957-1960) in Langham Place, London Daily Mirror 20130413 052.jpg
Daily Mirror Building (1957–1960) in Langham Place, London

In 1955, the Mirror and its stablemate the Sunday Pictorial (later to become the Sunday Mirror) began printing a northern edition in Manchester. In 1957 it introduced the Andy Capp cartoon, created by Reg Smythe from Hartlepool, in the northern editions. [25]

The Mirror's mass working-class readership had made it the United Kingdom's best-selling daily tabloid newspaper. In 1960, it acquired the Daily Herald (the popular daily of the labour movement) when it bought Odhams, in one of a series of takeovers which created the International Publishing Corporation (IPC). The Mirror management did not want the Herald competing with the Mirror for readers, and in 1964, relaunched it as a mid-market paper, now named The Sun . When it failed to win readers, The Sun was sold to Rupert Murdoch – who immediately relaunched it as a more populist and sensationalist tabloid and a direct competitor to the Mirror.

In an attempt to cater to a different kind of reader, the Mirror launched the "Mirrorscope" pull-out section on 30 January 1968. The Press Gazette commented: "The Daily Mirror launched its revolutionary four-page supplement "Mirrorscope". The ambitious brief for the supplement, which ran on Wednesdays and Fridays, was to deal with international affairs, politics, industry, science, the arts and business". [26] The British Journalism Review said in 2002 that "Mirrorscope" was "a game attempt to provide serious analysis in the rough and tumble of the tabloids". [27] It failed to attract significant numbers of new readers, and the pull-out section was abandoned, its final issue appearing on 27 August 1974.[ citation needed ]

In 1978, The Sun overtook the Mirror in circulation, and in 1984 the Mirror was sold to Robert Maxwell. After Maxwell's death in 1991, David Montgomery became Mirror Group's CEO, and a period of cost-cutting and production changes ensued. The Mirror went through a protracted period of crisis before merging with the regional newspaper group Trinity to form Trinity Mirror in 1999. Printing of the Daily and Sunday Mirror moved to Trinity Mirror's facilities in Watford and Oldham.[ citation needed ]

1995–2004

Front page of the Mirror 24 June 1996, with headline "ACHTUNG! SURRENDER For you Fritz, ze Euro 96 Championship is over", and accompanying contribution from the editor, "Mirror declares football war on Germany" Daily Mirror front page 24 June 1996.jpg
Front page of the Mirror 24 June 1996, with headline "ACHTUNG! SURRENDER For you Fritz, ze Euro 96 Championship is over", and accompanying contribution from the editor, "Mirror declares football war on Germany"

Under the editorship of Piers Morgan (from October 1995 to May 2004) the paper saw a number of controversies. [28] Morgan was widely criticised and forced to apologise for the headline "ACHTUNG! SURRENDER For you Fritz, ze Euro 96 Championship is over" a day before England met Germany in a semi-final of the Euro 96 football championships. [29]

In 2000, Morgan was the subject of an investigation after Suzy Jagger wrote a story in The Daily Telegraph revealing that he had bought £20,000 worth of shares in the computer company Viglen soon before the Mirror's 'City Slickers' column tipped Viglen as a good buy. [30] Morgan was found by the Press Complaints Commission to have breached the Code of Conduct on financial journalism, but kept his job. The 'City Slickers' columnists, Anil Bhoyrul and James Hipwell, were both found to have committed further breaches of the Code, and were sacked before the inquiry. In 2004, further enquiry by the Department of Trade and Industry cleared Morgan from any charges. [31] On 7 December 2005 Bhoyrul and Hipwell were convicted of conspiracy to breach the Financial Services Act. During the trial it emerged that Morgan had bought £67,000 worth of Viglen shares, emptying his bank account and investing under his wife's name too. [32]

In 2002, the Mirror attempted to move mid-market, claiming to eschew the more trivial stories of show-business and gossip. The paper changed its masthead logo from red to black (and occasionally blue), in an attempt to dissociate itself from the term "red top", a term for a sensationalist mass-market tabloid. (On 6 April 2005, the red top came back.) Under then-editor Piers Morgan, the newspaper's editorial stance opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and ran many front pages critical of the war. It also gave financial support to the 15 February 2003 anti-war protest, paying for a large screen and providing thousands of placards. Morgan re-hired John Pilger, who had been sacked during Robert Maxwell's ownership of the Mirror titles. Despite such changes, Morgan was unable to halt the paper's decline in circulation, a decline shared by its direct tabloid rivals The Sun and the Daily Star .[ citation needed ]

Morgan was fired from the Mirror on 14 May 2004 after authorising the newspaper's publication of photographs allegedly showing Iraqi prisoners being abused by British Army soldiers from the Queen's Lancashire Regiment. [33] Within days the photographs were shown to be fakes. Under the headline "SORRY.. WE WERE HOAXED", the Mirror responded that it had fallen victim to a "calculated and malicious hoax" and apologised for the publication of the photographs. [34]

2004–present

The Mirror's front page on 4 November 2004, after the re-election of George W. Bush as U.S. President, read "How can 59,054,087 people be so DUMB?". It provided a list of states and their alleged average IQ, showing the Bush states all below average intelligence (except for Virginia), and all John Kerry states at or above average intelligence. The source for this table was The Economist , [35] although it was a hoax. [36] Richard Wallace became editor in 2004.

On 30 May 2012, Trinity Mirror announced the merger of the Daily Mirror and Sunday Mirror into a single seven-day-a-week title. [37] Richard Wallace and Tina Weaver, the respective editors of the Daily Mirror and Sunday Mirror, were simultaneously dismissed and Lloyd Embley, editor of The People, appointed as editor of the combined title with immediate effect. [38] [39] In 2018, Reach plc acquired the Northern & Shell titles, including the Daily Express, which led to a number of editor moves across the stable. Lloyd Embley was then promoted to editor-in-chief across the entire group, and Alison Phillips (previously deputy editor-in-chief for the Trinity Mirror titles) was appointed editor of the Daily Mirror.

Political allegiance

The Mirror has consistently supported the Labour Party since the 1945 general election. [40] On 3 May 1979, the day of the general election, the Daily Mirror urged its readers to vote for the governing Labour Party led by James Callaghan. [41] As widely predicted by the opinion polls, Labour lost this election and Conservative Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister. [41] The Mirror's continued support of the Labour government was in spite of its falling popularity over the previous few months which had been the result of the Winter of Discontent, where the country was crippled by numerous public sector strikes. [42]

By the time of the 1983 general election, Labour support was at a postwar low, partly due to the strong challenge by the recently formed SDP–Liberal Alliance. Despite this, the Daily Mirror remained loyal to Labour and urged its readers to vote for the party, now led by Michael Foot, condemning the Thatcher-led Tory government for its "waste of our nation" [41] and the rise in unemployment that Thatcher's Conservative government had seen in its first term in power largely due to monetarist economic policies to reduce inflation, although the government's previously low popularity had dramatically improved since the success of the Falklands conflict a year earlier. [43] However, the Conservatives were re-elected and Labour suffered its worst postwar general election result, only narrowly bettering the SDP–Liberal Alliance in terms of votes whilst winning considerably more seats. [41]

At the 1987 general election, the Daily Mirror remained loyal to Labour, now led by Neil Kinnock, and urged its readers with the slogan "You know he's right, chuck her out." [41] By this stage, unemployment was falling and inflation had remained low for several years. [44] As a result, the Tories were re-elected for a third successive term, although Labour did cut the Tory majority slightly. [41] For the 1992 general election, the Daily Mirror continued to support Labour, still led by Neil Kinnock. By this stage, Thatcher had stepped down and the Tory government was now led by John Major. [41] The election was won by the Conservatives, although Labour managed to significantly cut the Tory majority to 21 seats compared to the triple-digit figure of the previous two elections, which led to a difficult term for Major. The outcome of this election had been far less predictable than any of the previous three elections, as opinion polls over the previous three years had shown both parties in the lead, although any Labour lead in the polls had been relatively narrow since the Conservative government's change of leader from Thatcher to Major in November 1990, in spite of the onset of the early 1990s recession which had pushed unemployment up again after several years of decline. Labour's credibility was helped by plans including extra National Health Service (NHS) funding and moving away from firm commitments on re-nationalisation to reverse the Conservative policy of privatisation, but its decision to be up-front about tax increases was seen as a key factor in its failure to win. [45]

By the time of the 1997 general election, support for the Labour Party, now led by Tony Blair, in the opinion polls had exceeded that of support for the Conservative government led by John Major since late 1992, whose reduced popularity largely blamed on the failings of Black Wednesday in September of that year and it had failed to recover popularity in spite of a strong economic recovery and fall in unemployment. A reinvented New Labour had further improved its credibility under Blair by promising traditional Labour essentials including more funding for healthcare and education, but also promising not to increase income tax and ending its commitment to the nationalisation of leading industries. [46] The Daily Mirror urged its readers that their country needed Tony Blair, and to vote Labour. [41]

The 1997 election produced a Labour landslide that ended the party's 18-year exile from power, followed by two further election wins in 2001 and 2005. On 4 May 2010, the newspaper printed a picture of Conservative leader David Cameron with a giant red cross through his face. The headline read "How to stop him" in reference to the 2010 general election two days later, confirming the Daily Mirror's Labour allegiance. The election ended in Britain's first hung parliament since 1974, but Cameron still became prime minister within days as the Conservatives formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats. The Daily Mirror was the only leading national newspaper to remain loyal to Labour and Gordon Brown at a time when opinion polls showed the party on course for their worst election result since 1983. [47]

The newspaper was critical of the Liberal Democrats for forming the coalition which enabled the Conservatives to form a new government in 2010, and branded leader Nick Clegg as Pinickio (alluding to the lying fictional character Pinocchio) [48] for going back on numerous pre-election pledges. It has frequently referred to the party as the "Fib Dems" [49] or "Lib Dumbs". [50] The Daily Mirror endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 United States presidential election. [51] Also in 2016, the newspaper asked for Jeremy Corbyn's resignation "for the good of the party and of the country." [52] Despite this critical position, the Daily Mirror endorsed the Labour Party in the 2017 general election. [53] For the 2019 general election, the newspaper again endorsed Labour "to protect NHS, end poverty and for a kinder Britain." [54]

Famous features

Blue issue

On 2 April 1996, the Daily Mirror was printed entirely on blue paper.[ citation needed ] This was done as a marketing exercise with Pepsi-Cola, who on the same day had decided to relaunch its cans with a blue design instead of the traditional red and white logo.[ citation needed ]

Libel, contempt of court, errors and criticism

Significant staff members

Editors

1903 to 1904: Mary Howarth
1904 to 1907: Hamilton Fyfe
1907 to 1915: Alexander Kenealy
1915 to 1916: Ed Flynn
1916 to 1929: Alexander Campbell
1929 to 1931: Cameron Hogg
1931 to 1934: Leigh Brownlee
1934 to 1948: Cecil Thomas
1948 to 1953: Silvester Bolam
1953 to 1961: Jack Nener
1961 to 1971: Lee Howard
1971 to 1974: Tony Miles
1974 to 1975: Michael Christiansen
1975 to 1985: Mike Molloy
1985 to 1990: Richard Stott
1990 to 1991: Roy Greenslade
1991 to 1992: Richard Stott
1992 to 1994: David Banks
1994 to 1995: Colin Myler
1995 to 2004: Piers Morgan
2004 to 2012: Richard Wallace
2012 to 2018: Peter Willis
2018 to date: Alison Phillips

Source: Tabloid Nation [23]

Notable columnists

Notable former and current columnists of the Daily Mirror include:

Awards

The Daily Mirror won "Newspaper of the Year" in 2002 at the British Press Awards. It won "Scoop of the Year" in 2003 ("3am", 'Sven and Ulrika'), 2004 (Ryan Parry, 'Intruder at the Palace'), 2006 and 2007 (both Stephen Moyes). [81] The Mirror won "Team of the Year" in 2001 ('Railtrack'), 2002 ('War on the World: World against Terrorism'), 2003 ('Soham'), and 2006 ('London bombings'); and "Front Page of the Year" in 2007. [81] The Mirror also won the "Cudlipp Award" in 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2010. [81]

See also

Notes

  1. "Daily Mirror - Data". www.abc.org.uk. Audit Bureau of Circulations.
  2. "Tabloid journalism". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  3. Ponsford, Dominic (23 January 2017). "Print ABCs: Seven UK national newspapers losing print sales at more than 10 per cent year on year". Press Gazette. London. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  4. "United Newspapers PLC and Fleet Holdings PLC". Monopolies and Mergers Commission (1985), pp.516
  5. "The Mirror | British newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  6. Daily Mirror No. 1 (2 November 1903) page 3
  7. Albion (1973) Vol 5, 2-page 150
  8. Daily Mirror issue 72, 26 January 1904
  9. Daily Illustrated Mirror issue 74, 28 January 1904
  10. Daily Illustrated Mirror issue 92, 18 February 1904
  11. Daily Mirror issue 269, 13 September 1904
  12. Daily Mirror issue 1335, 8 February 1908
  13. Daily Mirror issue 4163, 26 February 1917
  14. Daily Mirror issue 4856, 19 May 1919
  15. Griffiths, Richard (1980). Fellow Travellers of the Right: British Enthusiasts for Nazi Germany, 1933-9. London: Constable. ISBN   0-09-463460-2"."{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  16. Roy Greenslade, Don't damn the Daily Mail for its fascist flirtation 80 years ago, theguardian.com (7 December 2011)
  17. "Revealed: the fascist past of the Daily Mirror". The Independent. 11 November 2003.
  18. McKibbin, Ross. Classes and Cultures: England 1918-1951. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 406.
  19. Adrian Bingham, and Martin Conboy, "The Daily Mirror and the Creation of a Commercial Popular Language," Journalism Studies (2009) 19#5 pp 639-654.
  20. McKibbin, Ross. Classes and Cultures: England 1918-1951. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 506.
  21. Horn, Maurice (1983). The World encyclopedia of comics. Chelsea House. ISBN   9780877543237.
  22. Connor, Robert (1969). Cassandra: Reflections in a Mirror. London: Cassell. ISBN   978-0-304-93341-9.
  23. 1 2 Horrie, Chris (2003). Tabloid Nation: From the Birth of the Mirror to the Death of the Tabloid Newspaper. André Deutsch. p. 248. ISBN   978-0-233-00012-1.
  24. Sex, Smut and Shock: Bild Zeitung Rules Germany Spiegel Online 25 April 2006
  25. "Tabloid journalism". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  26. "Back Issues 23.01.03". Press Gazette . 23 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2 August 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
  27. Evans, Harold (2002). "Attacking the devil". British Journalism Review . 13 (4): 6–14. doi: 10.1177/095647480201300402 .
  28. "Piers Morgan | British journalist and television personality". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  29. Thomsen, Ian (26 June 1996). "Oh, Sorry: Tabloids Lose the Soccer War". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  30. Jagger, Suzy (2 February 2000). "Mirror editor saw his shares soar after paper tipped company". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 22 November 2002.
  31. "Morgan cleared after shares probe". BBC News. 10 June 2004.
  32. Tryhorn, Chris (23 November 2005). "Mirror editor 'bought £67,000 of shares before they were tipped'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  33. "Daily Mirror statement in full". CNN. 13 May 2004. Archived from the original on 25 November 2004. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  34. "Fake abuse photos: Editor quits". CNN London. 15 May 2004. Archived from the original on 12 October 2004.
  35. Sutherland, John (11 November 2004). "The Axis of Stupidity". The Guardian. London.
  36. "Fool Me Twice". Snopes . 12 November 2004. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
  37. Sweney, Mark (30 May 2012). "Richard Wallace and Tina Weaver depart as Mirror titles go seven-day". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  38. Alleyne, Richard (30 May 2012). "Daily Mirror to merge with Sunday Mirror as both editors sacked" . The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  39. "Daily Mirror and Sunday Mirror to merge: full statement" . The Daily Telegraph. London. 30 May 2012. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  40. "Newspaper support in UK general elections", The Guardian, 4 May 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  41. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "A century of Daily Mirror front pages". Daily Mirror. London. 20 April 2010.
  42. "Politics 97". BBC News. 3 May 1979.
  43. "1983: Thatcher triumphs again". BBC News. 5 April 2005.
  44. "1987: Thatcher's third victory". BBC News. 5 April 2005.
  45. "1992: Tories win again against odds". BBC News. 5 April 2005.
  46. "1997: Labour landslide ends Tory rule". BBC News. 15 April 2005.
  47. "Which political parties do the newspapers support?". Supanet.
  48. "Clegg Nose Day – Join our campaign to shame 'Pinickio' Nick Clegg". Daily Mirror. London. 13 January 2011.
  49. Routledge, Paul (4 March 2011). "Security bill for Nick Clegg's Lib Dem conference is more than just coppers". Daily Mirror. London.
  50. "PMQs shows up the Lib Dumbs". Daily Mirror. London. 19 May 2010.
  51. "Americans must vote Hillary Clinton for their own sake". Daily Mirror. 7 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  52. Voice of the Mirror (27 June 2016). "Jeremy Corbyn must quit now for his party and his country". Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2021. And that is why, regretfully, the Mirror today calls on him to step down for the good of the party and the country.
  53. "Help Corbyn kick the Tories into touch - Voice of the Mirror". Daily Mirror. London. 22 April 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  54. "Voice of the Mirror: Vote Labour to protect NHS, end poverty and for a kinder Britain". Daily Mirror. London. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  55. Bamber Gascoigne (1993) Encyclopedia of Britain (Macmillan)
  56. Greenslade, Roy (26 May 2009). "The meaning of 'fruit': how the Daily Mirror libelled Liberace". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
  57. Setterfield, Ray (2 January 2017). "I'm Not Gay Insists 'Fruit-Flavoured, Mincing' Liberace". On This Day. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  58. "queenmania: This repulsive article, which..." random thoughts: queen, life, and everything.
  59. "Dark Side of Freddie". Queencuttings. 28 November 1991. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  60. "Song of the Day, November 26: Lal Waterson's Reply to Joe Haines". Music and Meaning: The RBHS Jukebox. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  61. "Scottish MP wins libel damages". The Herald. Glasgow. 22 December 1992. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  62. "Fake abuse photos: Editor quits". CNN. 15 May 2004. Archived from the original on 12 October 2004.
  63. "Caprice wins libel case over acting claims" . The Daily Telegraph. London. 16 June 2004. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  64. "Sir Andrew Green - an apology". Daily Mirror. 26 November 2007.
  65. "GMTV Kate wins 'affair' libel award". Sunday Express . London. 10 April 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  66. "Shoe hat hoax trips up Mirror". The Guardian. London. 23 September 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  67. McCauley, Ciaran (3 October 2016). "Wikipedia hoaxes: From Breakdancing to Bilcholim". BBC News. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  68. "Mirror journalist caught by Wikipedia hoax". Press Gazette. London. 23 September 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  69. "Wiki warning: sniff out the Omonia". Sports Journalists' Association. 23 September 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  70. "Cristiano Ronaldo wins libel damages against Daily Mirror" . The Daily Telegraph. 9 November 2009. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  71. "Sun and Mirror in contempt case over Jo Yeates stories". BBC News. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  72. "Sun and Mirror accused of Jo Yeates contempt". BBC News. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  73. Halliday, Josh (29 July 2011). "Sun and Mirror fined for contempt of court in Christopher Jefferies articles". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  74. "Ryanair settles defamation action against Daily Mirror out of court". RTÉ News. Dublin. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  75. "Boyle wins £54,650 in 'racism' libel case". BBC News. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  76. "Brits scared about pancake battles". Gazeta.ru. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  77. "Daily Mirror misleads with wrong pictures for article on football 'Ultras' in Russia". TASS. Moscow. 21 March 2017.
  78. "Daily Mirror acknowledged incorrectly illustrated text about world Cup fans" . Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  79. "Western tabloids condemned for 'humanising' NZ mosque attacker". Al Jazeera. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  80. Amarasingam, Amarnath; Kearns, Erin M. (5 April 2019). "How News Media Talk About Terrorism: What the Evidence Shows". Just Security. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  81. 1 2 3 Press Gazette , Roll of Honour Archived 16 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 24 July 2011

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Jonathan Harold Esmond Vere Harmsworth, 4th Viscount Rothermere, is a British aristocrat and inheritor of a newspaper and media empire founded by his great-grandfather Harold Sidney Harmsworth. He is the chairman and controlling shareholder of the Daily Mail and General Trust, formerly "Associated Newspapers", a media conglomerate which includes the Daily Mail.

Vere Harold Esmond Harmsworth, 3rd Viscount Rothermere, known as Vere Harmsworth until 1978, was a British newspaper magnate. He controlled large media interests in the United Kingdom and United States.

Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere British newspaper proprietor

Harold Sidney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, was a leading British newspaper proprietor who owned Associated Newspapers Ltd. He is best known, like his brother Alfred Harmsworth, later Viscount Northcliffe, for the development of the Daily Mail and the Daily Mirror. Rothermere was a pioneer of popular journalism.

Hubert Kinsman Cudlipp, Baron Cudlipp, OBE, was a Welsh journalist and newspaper editor noted for his work on the Daily Mirror in the 1950s and 1960s. He served as chairman of the Mirror Group group of newspapers from 1963 to 1967, and the chairman of the International Publishing Corporation from 1968–1973.

Cecil Harmsworth King

Cecil Harmsworth King was Chairman of Daily Mirror Newspapers, Sunday Pictorial Newspapers and the International Publishing Corporation (1963–1968), and a director at the Bank of England (1965–1968).

<i>The Evening News</i> (London newspaper) London evening newspaper (1881-1980)

The Evening News, earlier styled as The Evening News, was an evening newspaper published in London from 1881 to 1980, reappearing briefly in 1987. It became highly popular under the control of the Harmsworth brothers. For a long time it maintained the largest daily sale of any evening newspaper in London. After financial struggles and falling sales, it was eventually merged with its long-time rival the Evening Standard in 1980. The newspaper was revived for an eight-month period in 1987.

The Mail on Sunday is a British conservative newspaper, published in a tabloid format. It is the biggest-selling Sunday newspaper in the UK and was launched in 1982 by Lord Rothermere. Its sister paper, the Daily Mail, was first published in 1896.

Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe British newspaper and publishing magnate

Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, was a British newspaper and publishing magnate. As owner of the Daily Mail and the Daily Mirror, he was an early developer of popular journalism, and he exercised vast influence over British popular opinion during the Edwardian era. Lord Beaverbrook said he was "the greatest figure who ever strode down Fleet Street." About the beginning of the 20th century there were increasing attempts to develop popular journalism intended for the working class and tending to emphasize sensational topics. Harmsworth was the main innovator.

<i>Sunday Dispatch</i>

The Sunday Dispatch was a British newspaper, published between 27 September 1801 and 18 June 1961, when it was merged with the Sunday Express. Until 1928, it was called the Weekly Dispatch.

<i>The Sun</i> (United Kingdom) British tabloid newspaper

The Sun is a British tabloid newspaper, published by the News Group Newspapers division of News UK, itself a wholly owned subsidiary of Rupert Murdoch's News Corp. It was founded as a broadsheet in 1964 as a successor to the Daily Herald, and became a tabloid in 1969 after it was purchased by its current owner.

<i>i</i> (newspaper) British compact daily newspaper published in London

The i is a British national morning paper published in London by Daily Mail and General Trust and distributed across the United Kingdom. It is aimed at "readers and lapsed readers" of all ages and commuters with limited time, and was originally launched in 2010 as a sister paper to The Independent. It was later acquired by Johnston Press in 2016 after The Independent shifted to a digital-only model. The i came under the control of JPIMedia a day after Johnston Press filed for administration on 16 November 2018. The paper and its website were bought by the Daily Mail and General Trust (DMGT) on 29 November 2019, for £49.6 million. On 6 December 2019 the Competition and Markets Authority served an initial enforcement order on DMGT and DMG Media Limited requiring the paper to be run separately pending investigation.

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