The Times

Last updated

The Times
The Times masthead.svg
Front page, 19 October 2015
Type Daily newspaper
Format Compact
Owner(s) News UK
Editor Tony Gallagher
Founded1 January 1785;238 years ago (1785-01-01) (as The Daily Universal Register)
Political alignment Conservative [1]
Headquarters The News Building, London
1 London Bridge Place, SE1 9GF
CountryUnited Kingdom
Circulation 365,880(as of March 2020) [2]
Sister newspapers The Sunday Times
ISSN 0140-0460
Website OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times (founded in 1821) are published by Times Media, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, in turn wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times, which do not share editorial staff, were founded independently and have had common ownership only since 1966. [3] In general, the political position of The Times is considered to be centre-right. [4]


The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times . In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is often referred to as The London Times, [5] [6] or as The Times of London, [7] although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution. It is considered a newspaper of record in the UK. [8]

The Times had an average daily circulation of 365,880 in March 2020; in the same period, The Sunday Times had an average weekly circulation of 647,622. [2] The two newspapers also had 304,000 digital-only paid subscribers as of June 2019. [9] An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006. [10] The Times has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2019, is online from Gale Cengage Learning. [11] [12]


1785 to 1890

Front page of The Times from 4 December 1788 Times 1788.12.04.jpg
Front page of The Times from 4 December 1788

The Times was founded by publisher John Walter (1738–1812) on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, [13] with Walter in the role of editor. [14] Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company for which he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. [15] [16] At that time, Henry Johnson invented the logography, a new typography that was reputedly faster and more precise (although three years later, it was proved less efficient than advertised). Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce books. [16] The first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register was on 1 January 1785. Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. [13] [16] In 1803, Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son of the same name. [16] Walter Sr's pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news, especially from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers, [17] in spite of a sixteen-month incarceration in Newgate Prison for libels printed in The Times. [16]

The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science, literature, and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were very large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig (1774–1833). [18] [19] In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. [20]

Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson died, and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson (1802–1852). Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights, especially in politics and amongst the City of London. Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, and gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname 'The Thunderer' (from "We thundered out the other day an article on social and political reform."). The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to rapidly growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence. [21]

A wounded British officer reading The Times's report of the end of the Crimean War, in John Everett Millais' painting Peace Concluded Sir John Everett Millais - Peace Concluded - Google Art Project.jpg
A wounded British officer reading The Times's report of the end of the Crimean War, in John Everett Millais' painting Peace Concluded

The Times was one of the first newspapers to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. William Howard Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. [22] [23]

1890 to 1981

The Times faced financial extinction in 1890 under Arthur Fraser Walter, but it was rescued by an energetic editor, Charles Frederic Moberly Bell. During his tenure (1890–1911), The Times became associated with selling the Encyclopædia Britannica using aggressive American marketing methods introduced by Horace Everett Hooper and his advertising executive, Henry Haxton. Due to legal fights between the Britannica's two owners, Hooper and Walter Montgomery Jackson, The Times severed its connection in 1908 and was bought by pioneering newspaper magnate, Alfred Harmsworth, later Lord Northcliffe. [24]

In editorials published on 29 and 31 July 1914, Wickham Steed, the Times's Chief Editor, argued that the British Empire should enter World War I. [25] On 8 May 1920, also under the editorship of Steed, The Times in an editorial endorsed the anti-Semitic fabrication The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion as a genuine document, and called Jews the world's greatest danger. In the leader entitled "The Jewish Peril, a Disturbing Pamphlet: Call for Inquiry", Steed wrote about The Protocols of the Elders of Zion:

What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment?". [26]

The following year, when Philip Graves, the Constantinople (modern Istanbul) correspondent of The Times, exposed The Protocols as a forgery, [27] The Times retracted the editorial of the previous year.

In 1922, John Jacob Astor, son of the 1st Viscount Astor, bought The Times from the Northcliffe estate. The paper gained a measure of notoriety in the 1930s with its advocacy of German appeasement; editor Geoffrey Dawson was closely allied with those in the government who practised appeasement, most notably Neville Chamberlain. Candid news reports by Norman Ebbut from Berlin that warned of warmongering were rewritten in London to support the appeasement policy. [28] [29]

Kim Philby, a double agent with primary allegiance to the Soviet Union, was a correspondent for the newspaper in Spain during the Spanish Civil War of the late 1930s. Philby was admired for his courage in obtaining high-quality reporting from the front lines of the bloody conflict. He later joined British Military Intelligence (MI6) during World War II, was promoted into senior positions after the war ended, and defected to the Soviet Union when discovery was inevitable in 1963. [30]

Frontpage weekly magazine The Times, 15 May 1940, with headline: "The old prime minister and the new". Frontpage weekly magazine "The Times" May 15 1940, With headline "The Old prime minister and the new".jpg
Frontpage weekly magazine The Times, 15 May 1940, with headline: "The old prime minister and the new".

Between 1941 and 1946, the left-wing British historian E. H. Carr was assistant editor. Carr was well known for the strongly pro-Soviet tone of his editorials. [31] In December 1944, when fighting broke out in Athens between the Greek Communist ELAS and the British Army, Carr in a Times leader sided with the Communists, leading Winston Churchill to condemn him and the article in a speech to the House of Commons. [32] As a result of Carr's editorial, The Times became popularly known during that stage of World War II as "the threepenny Daily Worker " (the price of the Communist Party's Daily Worker being one penny). [33]

Roy Thomson Roy Thomson Cropped.jpg
Roy Thomson

On 3 May 1966, it resumed printing news on the front page – previously the front page had been given over to small advertisements, usually of interest to the moneyed classes in British society. Also in 1966, the Royal Arms, which had been a feature of the newspaper's masthead since its inception, was abandoned. [34] [35] In the same year, members of the Astor family sold the paper to Canadian publishing magnate Roy Thomson. His Thomson Corporation brought it under the same ownership as The Sunday Times to form Times Newspapers Limited. [36]

An industrial dispute prompted the management to shut the paper for nearly a year from 1 December 1978 to 12 November 1979. [37]

The Thomson Corporation management were struggling to run the business due to the 1979 energy crisis and union demands. Management sought a buyer who was in a position to guarantee the survival of both titles, and had the resources and was committed to funding the introduction of modern printing methods.[ citation needed ]

Several suitors appeared, including Robert Maxwell, Tiny Rowland and Lord Rothermere; however, only one buyer was in a position to meet the full Thomson remit, Australian media magnate Rupert Murdoch. [38] Robert Holmes à Court, another Australian magnate had previously tried to buy The Times in 1980. [39]

From 1981

In 1981, The Times and The Sunday Times were bought from Thomson by Rupert Murdoch's News International. [40] The acquisition followed three weeks of intensive bargaining with the unions by company negotiators John Collier and Bill O'Neill. Murdoch gave legal undertakings to maintain separate journalism resources for the two titles. [41] The Royal Arms was reintroduced to the masthead at about this time, but whereas previously it had been that of the reigning monarch, it would now be that of the House of Hanover, who were on the throne when the newspaper was founded. [35]

After 14 years as editor, William Rees-Mogg resigned upon completion of the change of ownership. [40] Murdoch began to make his mark on the paper by appointing Harold Evans as his replacement. [42] One of his most important changes was the introduction of new technology and efficiency measures. Between March 1981 and May 1982, following agreement with print unions, the hot-metal Linotype printing process used to print The Times since the 19th century was phased out and replaced by computer input and photo-composition. This allowed print room staff at The Times and The Sunday Times to be reduced by half. However, direct input of text by journalists ("single-stroke" input) was still not achieved, and this was to remain an interim measure until the Wapping dispute of 1986, when The Times moved from New Printing House Square in Gray's Inn Road (near Fleet Street) to new offices in Wapping. [43] [44]

Robert Fisk, [45] seven times British International Journalist of the Year, [46] resigned as foreign correspondent in 1988 over what he saw as "political censorship" of his article on the shooting-down of Iran Air Flight 655 in July 1988. He wrote in detail about his reasons for resigning from the paper due to meddling with his stories, and the paper's pro-Israel stance. [47]

In June 1990, The Times ceased its policy of using courtesy titles ("Mr", "Mrs", or "Miss" prefixes) for living persons before full names on first reference, but it continues to use them before surnames on subsequent references. In 1992, it accepted the use of "Ms" for unmarried women "if they express a preference." [48]

In November 2003, News International began producing the newspaper in both broadsheet and tabloid sizes. [49] Over the next year, the broadsheet edition was withdrawn from Northern Ireland, Scotland, and the West Country. Since 1 November 2004, the paper has been printed solely in tabloid format. [50]

On 6 June 2005, The Times redesigned its Letters page, dropping the practice of printing correspondents' full postal addresses. Published letters were long regarded as one of the paper's key constituents. According to its leading article "From Our Own Correspondents", the reason for removal of full postal addresses was to fit more letters onto the page. [51]

In a 2007 meeting with the House of Lords Select Committee on Communications, which was investigating media ownership and the news, Murdoch stated that the law and the independent board prevented him from exercising editorial control. [52]

In May 2008, printing of The Times switched from Wapping to new plants at Waltham Cross in Hertfordshire, and Merseyside and Glasgow, enabling the paper to be produced with full colour on every page for the first time. [53]

On 26 July 2012, to coincide with the official start of the London 2012 Olympics and the issuing of a series of souvenir front covers, The Times added the suffix "of London" to its masthead.[ citation needed ]

In March 2016, the paper dropped its rolling digital coverage for a series of 'editions' of the paper at 9am, midday and 5pm on weekdays. [54] The change also saw a redesign for the paper's app for smartphones and tablets. [55]

In April 2018, IPSO upheld a complaint against The Times for its report of a court hearing in a Tower Hamlets fostering case. [56]

In April 2019, culture secretary Jeremy Wright said he was minded to allow a request by News UK to relax the legal undertakings given in 1981 to maintain separate journalism resources for The Times and The Sunday Times. [41] [57]

In 2019, IPSO upheld complaints against The Times over their article "GPS data shows container visited trafficking hotspot", [58] and for three articles as part of a series on pollution in Britain's waterways – "No river safe for bathing", "Filthy Business" and "Behind the story". [56] IPSO also upheld complaints in 2019 against articles headlined "Funding secret of scientists against hunt trophy ban", [59] and "Britons lose out to rush of foreign medical students". [60]

In 2019, The Times published an article about Imam Abdullah Patel which wrongly claimed Patel had blamed Israel for the 2003 murder of a British police officer by a terror suspect in Manchester. The story also wrongly claimed that Patel ran a primary school that had been criticised by Ofsted for segregating parents at events, which Ofsted said was contrary to "British democratic principles". The Times settled Patel's defamation claim by issuing an apology and offering to pay damages and legal costs. Patel's solicitor, Zillur Rahman, said the case "highlights the shocking level of journalism to which the Muslim community are often subject". [61]

In 2019, The Times published an article titled "Female Circumcision is like clipping a nail, claimed speaker". The article featured a photo of Sultan Choudhury beside the headline, leading some readers to incorrectly infer that Choudhury had made the comment. Choudhury lodged a complaint with the Independent Press Standards Organisation and sued The Times for libel. In 2020, The Times issued an apology, amended its article and agreed to pay Choudhury damages and legal costs. Choudhury's solicitor, Nishtar Saleem, said "This is another example of irresponsible journalism. Publishing sensational excerpts on a 'free site' whilst concealing the full article behind a paywall is a dangerous game". [62]

In December 2020, Cage and Moazzam Begg received damages of £30,000 plus costs in a libel case they had brought against The Times newspaper. In June 2020, a report in The Times had suggested that Cage and Begg were supporting a man who had been arrested in relation to a knife attack in Reading in which three men were murdered. The Times report also suggested that Cage and Begg were excusing the actions of the accused man by mentioning mistakes made by the police and others. In addition to paying damages, The Times printed an apology. Cage stated that the damages amount would be used to "expose state-sponsored Islamophobia and those complicit with it in the press. ... The Murdoch press empire has actively supported xenophobic elements and undermined principles of open society and accountability. ... We will continue to shine a light on war criminals and torture apologists and press barons who fan the flames of hate". [63] [64]


The Times features news for the first half of the paper; the Opinion/Comment section begins after the first news section with world news normally following this. The business pages begin on the centre spread, and are followed by The Register, containing obituaries, a Court & Social section, and related material. The sport section is at the end of the main paper. In April 2016, the cover price of The Times became £1.40 on weekdays and £1.50 on Saturdays. [65]


The Times' main supplement, every day, is the times2, featuring various columns. [66] [67] It was discontinued in early March 2010, [68] [69] but reintroduced on 12 October 2010 after discontinuation was criticised. [70] Its regular features include a puzzles section called Mind Games. Its previous incarnation began on 5 September 2005, before which it was called T2 and previously Times 2. [70] The supplement contains arts and lifestyle features, TV and radio listings, and theatre reviews. The newspaper employs Richard Morrison as its classical music critic. [71]

The Game

The Game is included in the newspaper on Mondays, and details all the weekend's football activity (Premier League and Football League Championship, League One and League Two.) The Scottish edition of The Game also includes results and analysis from Scottish Premier League games. During the FIFA World Cup and UEFA Euros there is a daily supplement of The Game. [72]

Saturday supplements

The Saturday edition of The Times contains a variety of supplements. These supplements were relaunched in January 2009 as: Sport, Saturday Review (arts, books, TV listings and ideas), Weekend (including travel and lifestyle features), Playlist (an entertainment listings guide) and The Times Magazine (columns on various topics). [73]

The Times Magazine

The Times Magazine features columns touching on various subjects such as celebrities, fashion and beauty, food and drink, homes and gardens or simply writers' anecdotes. Notable contributors include Giles Coren, Food and Drink Writer of the Year in 2005 and Nadiya Hussain, winner of The Great British Bake Off . [74]

Online presence

The Times and The Sunday Times have had an online presence since 1996, originally at and, and later at There are now two websites: is aimed at daily readers, and the site at providing weekly magazine-like content. There are also iPad and Android editions of both newspapers. Since July 2010, News UK has required readers who do not subscribe to the print edition to pay £2 per week to read The Times and The Sunday Times online. [75]

Visits to the websites have decreased by 87% since the paywall was introduced, from 21 million unique users per month to 2.7 million. [76] In April 2009, the timesonline site had a readership of 750,000 readers per day. [77] In October 2011, there were around 111,000 subscribers to The Times' digital products. [78] A Reuters Institute survey in 2021 put the number of digital subscribers at around 400,000, and ranked The Times as having the sixth highest trust rating out of 13 different outlets polled. [79]

The Times Digital Archive is available by subscription.


The Times has had the following eight owners since its foundation in 1785: [80]


The Times had a circulation of 70,405 on 5 September 1870, due to a reduction in price and the Franco-Prussian War. [83] [84] [85] The Times had a circulation of 150,000 in March 1914, due to a reduction in price. [86] The Times had a circulation of 248,338 in 1958, a circulation of 408,300 in 1968, and a circulation of 295,863 in 1978. [87] At the time of Harold Evans' appointment as editor in 1981, The Times had an average daily sale of 282,000 copies in comparison to the 1.4 million daily sales of its traditional rival The Daily Telegraph . [42] By 1988, The Times had a circulation of 443,462. [87] By November 2005, The Times sold an average of 691,283 copies per day, the second-highest of any British "quality" newspaper (after The Daily Telegraph, which had a circulation of 903,405 copies in the period), and the highest in terms of full-rate sales. [88] By March 2014, average daily circulation of The Times had fallen to 394,448 copies, [89] compared to The Daily Telegraph's 523,048, [90] with the two retaining respectively the second-highest and highest circulations among British "quality" newspapers. In contrast The Sun , the highest-selling "tabloid" daily newspaper in the United Kingdom, sold an average of 2,069,809 copies in March 2014, [91] and the Daily Mail, the highest-selling "middle market" British daily newspaper, sold an average of 1,708,006 copies in the period. [92]

The Sunday Times has a significantly higher circulation than The Times, and sometimes outsells The Sunday Telegraph. In January 2019, The Times had a circulation of 417,298 [93] and The Sunday Times 712,291. [93]

In a 2009 national readership survey, The Times was found to have the highest number of ABC1 25–44 readers and the largest numbers of readers in London of any of the "quality" papers. [94]


The Times is the originator of the widely used Times New Roman typeface, originally developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with Monotype Imaging for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006, The Times began printing headlines in a new typeface, Times Modern. The Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet.

[T]he various typefaces used before the introduction (The) Times New Roman [ sic ] didn't really have a formal name.

They were a suite of types originally made by Miller and Co. (later Miller & Richards) in Edinburgh around 1813, generally referred to as "modern". When The Times began using Monotype (and other hot-metal machines) in 1908, this design was remade by Monotype for its equipment. As near as I can tell, it looks like Monotype Series no. 1 – Modern (which was based on a Miller & Richards typeface) – was what was used up until 1932.

Dan Rhatigan, type director [95]
An example of the Times New Roman typeface Times New Roman-sample.svg
An example of the Times New Roman typeface

In 1908, The Times started using the Monotype Modern typeface. [96]

The Times commissioned the serif typeface Times New Roman , created by Victor Lardent at the English branch of Monotype, in 1931. [97] It was commissioned after Stanley Morison had written an article criticizing The Times for being badly printed and typographically antiquated. [98] The typeface was supervised by Morison and drawn by Victor Lardent, an artist from the advertising department of The Times. Morison used an older typeface named Plantin as the basis for his design, but made revisions for legibility and economy of space. Times New Roman made its debut in the issue of 3 October 1932. [99] After one year, the design was released for commercial sale. The Times stayed with Times New Roman for 40 years, but new production techniques and the format change from broadsheet to tabloid in 2004 have caused the newspaper to switch typeface five times since 1972. However, all the new typeface have been variants of the original New Roman type:

Political alignment

Historically, the paper was not overtly pro-Tory or Whig, but has been a long time bastion of the British Establishment and empire. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite, writing:

For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain. Its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street. [105]

The Times adopted a stance described as "peculiarly detached" at the 1945 general election; although it was increasingly critical of the Conservative Party's campaign, it did not advocate a vote for any one party. [106] However, the newspaper reverted to the Conservatives for the next election five years later. It supported the Conservatives for the subsequent three elections, followed by support for both the Conservatives and the Liberal Party for the next five elections, expressly supporting a Con–Lib coalition in 1974. The paper then backed the Conservatives solidly until 1997, when it declined to make any party endorsement but supported individual (primarily Eurosceptic) candidates. [107]

For the 2001 general election, The Times declared its support for Tony Blair's Labour government, which was re-elected by a landslide (although not as large as in 1997). It supported Labour again in 2005, when Labour achieved a third successive win, though with a reduced majority. [108] In 2004, according to MORI, the voting intentions of its readership were 40% for the Conservative Party, 29% for the Liberal Democrats, and 26% for Labour. [109] For the 2010 general election, the newspaper declared its support for the Conservatives once again; the election ended in the Tories taking the most votes and seats but having to form a coalition with the Liberal Democrats in order to form a government as they had failed to gain an overall majority. [110]

Its changes in political alignment make it the most varied newspaper in terms of political support in British history. [110] Some columnists in The Times are connected to the Conservative Party such as Daniel Finkelstein, Tim Montgomerie, Matthew Parris, and Matt Ridley, but there are also columnists connected to the Labour Party such as David Aaronovitch and Jenni Russell. [111]

The Times occasionally makes endorsements for foreign elections. In November 2012, it endorsed a second term for Democrat Barack Obama, although it also expressed reservations about his foreign policy. [112]

During the 2019 Conservative leadership election, The Times endorsed Boris Johnson, [113] and subsequently endorsed the Conservative Party in the general election of that year. [114]

In 2022 Tony Gallagher was appointed to replace John Witherow, who had served nine years as editor. A former Sun editor, Gallagher enthusiastically backed Brexit during the 2016 EU referendum. According to The Guardian, "The Times’ readership is split politically, with journalists at the outlet speculating on how Gallagher will shape the paper’s editorial line as the prospect of a Labour government becomes more likely (in 2024)." [115]


The Times, along with the British Film Institute, sponsors "The Times" bfi London Film Festival. [116] It also sponsors the Cheltenham Literature Festival and the Asia House Festival of Asian Literature at Asia House, London. [117]


Name [14] Tenure
John Walter 1785 to 1803
John Walter, Jnr 1803 to 1812
Sir John Stoddart 1812 to 1816
Thomas Barnes 1817 to 1841
John Thadeus Delane 1841 to 1877
Thomas Chenery 1877 to 1884
George Earle Buckle 1884 to 1912
George Geoffrey Dawson 1912 to 1919
George Sydney Freeman1919 (two-month 'inter-regnum') [118]
Henry Wickham Steed 1919 to 1922
George Geoffrey Dawson 1923 to 1941
Robert McGowan Barrington-Ward 1941 to 1948
William Francis Casey 1948 to 1952
Sir William John Haley 1952 to 1966
William Rees-Mogg 1967 to 1981
Harold Evans 1981 to 1982
Charles Douglas-Home 1982 to 1985
Charles Wilson 1985 to 1990
Simon Jenkins 1990 to 1992
Peter Stothard 1992 to 2002
Robert Thomson 2002 to 2007
James Harding 2007 to 2012
John Witherow 2013 to 2022
Tony Gallagher 2022 to date

An Irish digital edition of the paper was launched in September 2015 at [119] [120] A print edition was launched in June 2017, replacing the international edition previously distributed in Ireland. [121] The Irish edition was set to close in June 2019 with the loss of 20 jobs. [122]

The Times Literary Supplement (TLS) first appeared in 1902 as a supplement to The Times, becoming a separately paid-for weekly literature and society magazine in 1914. [123] The TLS is owned and published by News International and co-operates closely with The Times, with its online version hosted on The Times website, and its editorial offices based in 1 London Bridge Street, London. [124]

Between 1951 and 1966, The Times published a separately paid-for quarterly science review, The Times Science Review . The Times started a new, free, monthly science magazine, Eureka, in October 2009. [125] The magazine closed in October 2012. [126]

The Times Review of Industry [127] (which began in 1947) [128] and Technology (which began in 1957) [129] merged in March 1963 [130] to become The Times Review of Industry & Technology. [131] From 1952, The Times Review of Industry included the London and Cambridge Economic Bulletin. [132]

Times Atlases have been produced since 1895. They are currently produced by the Collins Bartholomew imprint of HarperCollins Publishers. The flagship product is The Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World . [133]

In 1971, The Times began publishing the Times Higher Education Supplement (now known as the Times Higher Education ) which focuses its coverage on tertiary education. [134]

Historical value

In 1915, R P Farley said "the files of the Times must be constantly studied" as an authority for the political and social history of the English people during the period from the Reform Bill 1832 to the Education Act 1870 (1832 to 1870). [135] From 1971 to 1973, John Joseph Bagley said The Times is "valuable" as a source of Nineteenth Century English history, [136] and that the annual index to The Times is useful for the Twentieth Century. [137] In 2003, Richard Krzys said The Times is very reliable as a source of history. [138] In 2016, Denise Bates said The Times is "indispensable" as a source for historical events of national importance. [139]

In 2019, James Oldham said The Times is an important source for nisi prius trials. [140] In 2015, Johnston and Plummer said that The Times is an important source for music reviews. [141]

In the dystopian future world of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four , The Times has been transformed into an organ of the totalitarian ruling party. [142] The book's lead character Winston Smith is employed in the task of rewriting past issues of the newspaper for the Ministry of Truth. [143]

Rex Stout's fictional detective Nero Wolfe is described as fond of solving the London Times' crossword puzzle at his New York home, in preference to those of American papers. [144] [145]

In the James Bond series by Ian Fleming, James Bond reads The Times. As described by Fleming in From Russia, with Love : The Times was "the only paper that Bond ever read." [146]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of British newspapers</span> Dates to the 17th century

The history of British newspapers begins in the 17th century with the emergence of regular publications covering news and gossip. The relaxation of government censorship in the late 17th century led to a rise in publications, which in turn led to an increase in regulation throughout the 18th century. The Times began publication in 1785 and became the leading newspaper of the early 19th century, before the lifting of taxes on newspapers and technological innovations led to a boom in newspaper publishing in the late 19th century. Mass education and increasing affluence led to new papers such as the Daily Mail emerging at the end of the 19th century, aimed at lower middle-class readers.

<i>The Independent</i> British online daily newspaper

The Independent is a British online newspaper. It was established in 1986 as a national morning printed paper. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet and changed to tabloid format in 2003. The last printed edition was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only the online edition.

<i>News of the World</i> 1843–2011 British tabloid newspaper

The News of the World was a weekly national "red top" tabloid newspaper published every Sunday in the United Kingdom from 1843 to 2011. It was at one time the world's highest-selling English-language newspaper, and at closure still had one of the highest English-language circulations. It was originally established as a broadsheet by John Browne Bell, who identified crime, sensation and vice as the themes that would sell most copies. The Bells sold to Henry Lascelles Carr in 1891; in 1969, it was bought from the Carrs by Rupert Murdoch's media firm News Limited. Reorganised into News International, a subsidiary of News Corporation, the newspaper was transformed into a tabloid in 1984 and became the Sunday sister paper of The Sun.

<i>Daily Mirror</i> British daily tabloid newspaper

The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper. Founded in 1903, it is owned by parent company Reach plc. From 1985 to 1987, and from 1997 to 2002, the title on its masthead was simply The Mirror. It had an average daily print circulation of 716,923 in December 2016, dropping to 587,803 the following year. Its Sunday sister paper is the Sunday Mirror. Unlike other major British tabloids such as The Sun and the Daily Mail, the Mirror has no separate Scottish edition; this function is performed by the Daily Record and the Sunday Mail, which incorporate certain stories from the Mirror that are of Scottish significance.

<i>Metro</i> (British newspaper) British tabloid newspaper

Metro is the United Kingdom's highest-circulation freesheet tabloid newspaper. It is published in tabloid format by DMG Media. The newspaper is distributed from Monday to Friday mornings on trains and buses, and at railway/Underground stations, airports and hospitals across selected urban areas of England, Wales and Scotland. Copies are also handed out to pedestrians.

<i>Daily Record</i> (Scotland) Scottish tabloid newspaper

The Daily Record is a Scottish national tabloid newspaper based in Glasgow. The newspaper is published Monday–Saturday and its website is updated on an hourly basis, seven days a week. The Record's sister title is the Sunday Mail. Both titles are owned by Reach plc and have a close kinship with the UK-wide Daily Mirror as a result.

The Sunday Tribune was an Irish Sunday broadsheet newspaper published by Tribune Newspapers plc. It was edited in its final years by Nóirín Hegarty, who changed both the tone and the physical format of the newspaper from broadsheet to tabloid. Previous editors were Conor Brady, Vincent Browne, Peter Murtagh, Matt Cooper and Paddy Murray. The Sunday Tribune was founded in 1980, closed in 1982, relaunched in 1983 and entered receivership in February 2011 after which it ceased to trade.

<i>The Australian</i> Daily newspaper in Australia

The Australian, with its Saturday edition The Weekend Australian, is a broadsheet newspaper published by News Corp Australia since 14 July 1964. As the only Australian daily newspaper distributed nationally, its readership as of September 2019 of both print and online editions was 2,394,000. Its editorial line has been self-described over time as centre-right.

<i>Sunday Herald</i> Scottish Sunday newspaper based in Glasgow

The Sunday Herald was a Scottish Sunday newspaper, published between 7 February 1999 and 2 September 2018. Originally a broadsheet, it was published in compact format from 20 November 2005. The paper was known for having combined a centre-left stance with support for Scottish devolution, and later Scottish independence. The last edition of the newspaper was published on 2 September 2018 and it was replaced with Sunday editions of The Herald and The National.

<i>The Jewish Chronicle</i> London-based Jewish weekly newspaper

The Jewish Chronicle is a London-based Jewish weekly newspaper. Founded in 1841, it is the oldest continuously published Jewish newspaper in the world. Its editor is Jake Wallis Simons.

<i>The Sunday Times</i> British newspaper, founded 1821

The Sunday Times is a British Sunday newspaper whose circulation makes it the largest in Britain's quality press market category. It was founded in 1821 as The New Observer. It is published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News UK, which is owned by News Corp. Times Newspapers also publishes The Times. The two papers, founded separately and independently, have been under the same ownership since 1966. They were bought by News International in 1981.

<i>Cambridge News</i> Daily newspaper published in Cambridge

The Cambridge News is a British daily newspaper. Published each weekday and on Saturdays, it is distributed from its Milton base. In the period December 2010 – June 2011 it had an average daily circulation of 20,987, but by December 2016 this had fallen to around 13,000. In 2018, the circulation of the newspaper fell to 8,005 and by June 2023 the preceding 6-month average was 2,597.

<i>Times of Malta</i> English-language newspaper in Malta

The Times of Malta is an English-language daily newspaper in Malta. Founded in 1935, by Lord and Lady Strickland and Lord Strickland's daughter Mabel, it is the oldest daily newspaper still in circulation in Malta. It has the widest circulation of any Maltese newspaper. The newspaper is published by Allied Newspapers Limited, which is owned by the Strickland Foundation, a charitable trust established by Mabel Strickland in 1979 to control the majority of the company.

<i>Irish Daily Mail</i> Newspaper published in Ireland and Northern Ireland

The Irish Daily Mail is a newspaper published in Ireland and Northern Ireland by DMG Media. The paper launched in February 2006 with a launch strategy that included giving away free copies on the first day of circulation and low pricing subsequently. The 2009 price was one euro. The strategy aimed to attract readers away from the Irish Independent.

The Mail on Sunday is a British conservative newspaper, published in a tabloid format. It is the biggest-selling Sunday newspaper in the UK and was founded in 1982 by Lord Rothermere. Its sister paper, the Daily Mail, was first published in 1896.

Bernard Shrimsley was a British journalist and newspaper editor.

<i>The Guardian</i> British national daily newspaper

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, before it changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers, The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust Limited. The trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of The Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of The Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in its journalism rather than distributed to owners or shareholders. It is considered a newspaper of record in the UK.

<i>The Daily Telegraph</i> British daily broadsheet newspaper

The Daily Telegraph, known online and elsewhere as The Telegraph, is a British daily conservative broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed in the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as The Daily Telegraph & Courier. Considered a newspaper of record, The Telegraph has been described as being "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, and will be", was included in its emblem which was used for over a century starting in 1858.

<i>The Sun</i> (United Kingdom) British tabloid newspaper

The Sun is a British Tabloid newspaper, published by the News Group Newspapers division of News UK, itself a wholly owned subsidiary of Lachlan Murdoch's News Corp. It was founded as a broadsheet in 1964 as a successor to the Daily Herald, and became a tabloid in 1969 after it was purchased by its current owner. The Sun had the largest daily newspaper circulation in the United Kingdom, but was overtaken by freesheet rival Metro in March 2018.

<i>i</i> (newspaper) British daily newspaper

The i is a British national newspaper published in London by Daily Mail and General Trust and distributed across the United Kingdom. It is aimed at "readers and lapsed readers" of all ages and commuters with limited time, and was originally launched in 2010 as a sister paper to The Independent. It was later acquired by Johnston Press in 2016 after The Independent shifted to a digital-only model. The i came under the control of JPIMedia a day after Johnston Press filed for administration on 16 November 2018. The paper and its website were bought by the Daily Mail and General Trust (DMGT) on 29 November 2019, for £49.6 million. On 6 December 2019 the Competition and Markets Authority served an initial enforcement order on DMGT and DMG Media Limited, requiring the paper to be run separately pending investigation.


  1. . "The Times", 11 December 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  2. 1 2 Tobitt, Charlotte; Majid, Aisha (25 January 2023). "National press ABCs: December distribution dive for freesheets Standard and City AM". Press Gazette . Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  3. "Full History of the Times Newspaper". 13 November 2019.
  4. Christina Schaeffner, ed. (2009). Political Discourse, Media and Translation. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 35. ISBN   9781443817936. With regard to political affiliation The Daily Telegraph is a right-wing paper, The Times centre-right, The Financial Times centre-right and liberal, and The Guardian centre-left.
  5. "London Times: "Caster Semenya and the middle sex" | OII Australia – Intersex Australia". 20 November 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  6. "London Times posts digital subs rise". AdNews. 4 July 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  7. "Times' editorial page calls for intervention to save Winehouse | Toronto Star". 26 January 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  8. "The UK's 'other paper of record'". BBC News . 19 January 2004.
  9. "The Times & The Sunday Times surpass 300,000 digital-only subscribers". News UK. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  10. Pfanner, Eric (27 May 2006). "Times of London to Print Daily U.S. Edition". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 November 2008.
  11. "The Times Digital Archive". Gale Cengage Learning. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  12. Bingham, Adrian. "The Times Digital Archive, 1785–2006 (Gale Cengage)," English Historical Review (2013) 128#533 pp: 1037–1040. doi : 10.1093/ehr/cet144
  13. 1 2 "The Times". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  14. 1 2 Lewis, Leo (16 July 2011). "The Times Editors". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
  15. Simkin, John (September 1997). "John Walter". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Walter, John"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  17. "Times, The – Extracts from – Epsom & Ewell History Explorer". Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  18. Sloan, W. David; Parcell, Lisa Mullikin (2002). American Journalism: History, Principles, Practices: An Historical Reader for Students and Professionals . McFarland & Co. ISBN   0-7864-1371-9. Koenig had plans to develop a double-feeding printing machine that would increase production, and the publisher of The Times in London ordered two of the double- feeder machines to be built.
  19. Briggs, Asa; Burke, Peter (2009). A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity. p. 106. ISBN   978-0-7456-4495-0.
  20. Bruckner, D. J. R. (20 November 1995). "How the Earlier Media Achieved Critical Mass". The New York Times. the circulation of The Times rose from 5,000 in 1815 to 50,000 in the 1850s.
  21. Lomas, Claire. "The Steam Driven Rotary Press, The Times and the Empire Archived 17 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine "
  22. Knightley, Phillip (5 October 2004). The First Casualty: The War Correspondent as Hero and Myth-Maker from the Crimea to Iraq. JHU Press. ISBN   978-0-8018-8030-8.
  23. "War Correspondents". The Edinburgh Review. 183 (375): 129. January 1896.
  24. "Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, Viscount Northcliffe | British publisher". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  25. Ferguson, Niall (1999). The Pity of War London: Basic Books. p. 217. ISBN   978-0-465-05711-5
  26. Friedländer, Saul (1997). Nazi Germany and the Jews. New York: HarperCollins. p. 95. ISBN   978-0-06-019042-2
  27. "The Graves family in Ireland". Ballylickey Manor House. 1 July 2010. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  28. Gordon Martel, ed. The Times and Appeasement: The Journals of A L Kennedy, 1932–1939 (2000).
  29. Frank McDonough, "The Times, Norman Ebbut and the Nazis, 1927–37." Journal of Contemporary History 27.3 (1992): 407–424.
  30. Cave Brown, Anthony (1995). Treason in the blood: H. St. John Philby, Kim Philby, and the spy case of the century. London: Robert Hale. ISBN   978-0-7090-5582-2.
  31. Beloff, Max. "The Dangers of Prophecy" pages 8–10 from History Today, Volume 42, Issue # 9, September 1992 page 9
  32. Davies, Robert William. "Edward Hallett Carr, 1892–1982" pages 473–511 from Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 69, 1983 page 489
  33. Haslam, Jonathan. "We Need a Faith: E.H. Carr, 1892–1982" pages 36–39 from History Today, Volume 33, August 1983 page 37
  34. Hasler, Charles (1980). The Royal Arms — Its Graphic And Decorative Development. Jupiter Books. p.  302. ISBN   978-0904041200.
  35. 1 2 Stewart 2005, p. 63.
  36. "Company history | Thomson Reuters". Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  37. "BBC ON THIS DAY – 13 – 1979: Times returns after year-long dispute". 13 November 1979.
  38. "About us". The Times & The Sunday Times. 26 April 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  39. McIlwraith, John. Holmes à Court, Michael Robert (1937–1990). National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 11 October 2021.{{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  40. 1 2 Stewart, Graham (2005). The History of the Times: The Murdoch years, 1981–2002. HarperCollins. p. 45. ISBN   0-00-718438-7.
  41. 1 2 "Murdoch wins preliminary backing to merge his Times titles". BBC News Online . 11 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  42. 1 2 Stewart, p. 51
  43. Hamilton, Alan. "The Times bids farewell to old technology". The Times, 1 May 1982, p. 2, col. C.
  44. Evans, Harold (1984). Good Times, Bad Times. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 182. ISBN   978-0-297-78295-7.
  45. Fisk, Robert (2005). The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East. London: Fourth Estate. pp. 329–334. ISBN   1-84115-007-X.
  46. "Viewpoint: UK war reporter Robert Fisk". BBC News. 3 December 2005. Archived from the original on 8 December 2005.
  47. Robert Fisk, Why I had to leave The Times, The Independent, 11 July 2011.
  48. Block, Mervin (1997). Writing Broadcast News: Shorter, Sharper, Stronger. Bonus Books, Inc. ISBN   978-1-56625-084-9.
  49. Glover, Stephen (29 November 2003). "The Times has gone tabloid: where will the broadsheet revolution end?". The Spectator. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  50. Snoddy, Raymond (1 November 2004). "Why the Times had to change" . The Independent. Archived from the original on 20 June 2022. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  51. "From our own correspondents". The Times. 6 June 2005. ISSN   0140-0460 . Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  52. "Minute of the meeting with Mr Rupert Murdoch, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, News Corporation". Inquiry into Media Ownership and the News. House of Commons Select Committee on Communications. 17 September 2007. p. 10. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007.
  53. Tryhorn, Chris (8 October 2004). "Fortress Wapping to Waltham Cross as News International moves its presses". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  54. Rawlinson, Kevin (30 March 2016). "The Times drops online rolling news for four editions a day". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  55. Szadmin (30 March 2016). "The Times and The Sunday Times launch new website and apps". News UK. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  56. 1 2 "Ruling".
  57. Wright, Jeremy. "Media Matters:Written statement – HCWS1677". Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  58. "08527-19 O'Nion v The Times". IPSO.
  59. "08417-19 Cooney et al. v The Times". IPSO. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  60. "04817-19 Wilson v Sunday Times". IPSO.
  61. Charlotte, Tobitt (12 December 2019). "Times apologises and pays libel damages to imam who appeared on BBC debate". Press Gazette. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  62. (2020, July 30). The Times publishes apology to Sultan Choudhury OBE. InPublishing.
  63. Sabin, Lamiat (4 December 2020). "The Times pays £30k damages over article defaming Muslim activists". Morning Star. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  64. "Times pays damages to advocacy group falsely linked to Reading killer". The Guardian. 4 December 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  65. Mark Sweney (14 April 2016). "The Times increases cover price by 20p, the first rise in two years". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  66. McCafferty, Bridgit; Hartsell-Gundy, Arianne (2 September 2015). Literary Research and British Postmodernism: Strategies and Sources. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 117. ISBN   978-1-4422-5417-6.
  67. Guldberg, Helene (7 May 2009). Reclaming Childhood: Freedom and Play in an Age of Fear. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN   978-1-135-22626-8.
  68. Brook, Stephen (17 February 2010). "Times set to axe Times2 supplement as staff await news of job cuts". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  69. Ponsford, Dominic (3 March 2010). "Times2 is axed five years after launch". New Statesman. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  70. 1 2 Plunkett, John (11 October 2010). "Times revives Times2 supplement". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  71. "BBC – Young Musician of the Year – Competition". Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  72. "The Game – The Times | News UK – The Bridge". Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  73. "Full History of the Times Newspaper". Historic Newspapers. 13 November 2019. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  74. Carpenter, Louise (14 November 2015). "What Nadiya did next". The Times. ISSN   0140-0460 . Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  75. "Times and Sunday Times websites to charge from June". BBC News . 26 March 2010.
  76. "Times and Sunday Times readership falls after paywall". BBC News . 2 November 2010. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
  77. Hindle, Debbie (6 April 2009). "Times Online travel editor insight". BGB. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  78. "Digital subscribers to The Times and The Sunday Times continue to grow" (Press release). News International. 14 October 2011. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  79. Nic Newman (2021). "United Kingdom". Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism .
  80. "Walter, John". Academic American Encyclopedia. Vol. 20. Grolier. 1985. p. 19. ISBN   978-0-7172-2008-3.
  81. Marjoribanks, Timothy (2000). News Corporation, Technology and the Workplace: Global Strategies, Local Change . Cambridge University Press. pp.  102. ISBN   978-0-521-77535-9.
  82. Ponsford, Dominic (30 September 2013). "Times and Sunday Times merger ruled out as directors finally approve appointments of Witherow and Ivens". Press Gazette. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  83. The History of the Times. The Tradition Established 1841–1884. 1951. p 303.
  84. A M Simon-Vandenbergen. The Grammar of the Headlines in The Times, 1870-1970. AWLSK. 1981. p 67.
  85. Martin Walker. Powers of the Press. Adama Books. 1983. p 37.
  86. J Lee Thompson. Politicians, the Press, & Propaganda. The Kent State University Press. 1999. p 14.
  87. 1 2 Steve Peak and Paul Fisher (eds). The Media Guide 2001. (The Guardian Media Guide 2001). Ninth Annual Edition. Mathew Clayton. 2000. ISBN 1841154237. p 58.
  88. "National daily newspaper circulation November 2005". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  89. "Print ABCs: Seven UK national newspapers losing print sales at more than 10 per cent year on year". Press Gazette. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  90. "The Daily Telegraph – readership data". News Works. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  91. "The Sun – readership data". News Works. Archived from the original on 24 January 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  92. "Daily Mail – readership data". News Works. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  93. 1 2 "National newspaper ABCs". Press Gazette . 14 February 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  94. An analysis of The Times reader demographic (based on NMA figures, news agenda and advertising in the paper) can be seen in this study Archived 20 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine .
  95. "It was never called Times Old Roman". Ultrasparky. 19 August 2011.
  96. Morison (1953). A Tally of Types. Cambridge University Press. p. 15.
  97. Loxley, Simon (2006). Type: the secret history of letters. I. B. Tauris. pp. 130–131. ISBN   1-84511-028-5.
  98. Carter, H. G. (2004). "Morison, Stanley Arthur (1889–1967)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography . rev. David McKitterick. Oxford University Press.
  99. "TYPOlis: Times New Roman". 3 October 1932. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  100. Dawson, Peter (17 December 2019). The Essential Type Directory: A Sourcebook of Over 1,800 Typefaces and Their Histories. Running Press. p. 345. ISBN   978-0-7624-6851-5.
  101. 1 2 3 Driver, David (20 November 2006). "After 221 years, the world's leading newspaper shows off a fresh face" . The Times. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  102. "Typography of News Bigger, faster, better". Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  103. "Times® Font Family Typeface Story". Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  104. "Neville Brody's Research Studios Creates New Font and Design Changes for The Times as Compact Format Continues to Attract Loyal Readership". London: PR Newswire. 15 November 2006. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  105. Allan Nevins, "American Journalism and Its Historical Treatment", Journalism Quarterly (1959) 36#4 pp 411–22
  106. R. B. McCallum and Alison Readman, The British General Election of 1945, Oxford University Press, 1947, p. 181–2.
  107. David Butler and Dennis Kavanagh, "The British General Election of 1997", Macmillan, London, 1997, p. 156.
  108. Lancaster, Dave (1 October 2009). "Which political parties do the newspapers support?". Supanet. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  109. "Voting intention by newspaper readership". Ipsos MORI. 9 March 2005. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  110. 1 2 Stoddard, Katy (4 May 2010). "Newspaper support in UK general elections". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  111. Smith, Matthew (7 March 2017). "How left or right-wing are the UK's newspapers? | YouGov". YouGov . Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  112. "America Decides". The Times. London. 1 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 July 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  113. "The Times view on the next prime minister: Boris Johnson at No 10". The Times. 6 July 2019. ISSN   0140-0460 . Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  114. "The Times's endorsement for the general election: Back to the Future". The Times. 11 December 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  115. Waterson, Jim (28 September 2022). "Tony Gallagher confirmed as new editor of the Times". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 August 2023.
  116. Smith, Neil (17 September 2003). "Female stars lead London festival". BBC News. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  117. "The Times and The Sunday Times Cheltenham Literature Festival". Cheltenham Festivals. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  118. "Power or Influence: Can educational journalists make a difference". 1997. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  119. "Irish edition of The Times launched". 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  120. "WATCH: Gavan Reilly gives us an overall update from Midday – #GE16". Today FM. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
  121. "The Ireland edition of The Times available in print". 24 May 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  122. Horgan-Jones, Jack; Slattery, Laura (21 May 2019). "Times Ireland to make most editorial staff redundant". The Irish Times.
  123. "The ultimate review of reviews". London Evening Standard. 6 November 2001. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  124. "Contact us". TLS. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  125. Ramsay, Fiona (2 October 2009). "The Times launches science magazine Eureka". Campaign. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  126. Turvill, William (1 October 2012). "News International confirms closure of Times science magazine Eureka". Press Gazette. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  127. Coman, Sources of Business Information, Revised Ed, 1970, p 54
  128. "Shorter Notices" (1947) 152 The Economist 239 (8 February 1947)
  129. Union List of Serials in New Zealand Libraries, 3rd Ed, 1969, vol 6, pp 1357 & 1373
  130. MULS, 1981, vol 11, pp 7624 & 7705
  131. New Serial Titles, 1966, vol 2, p 2661
  132. Carter and Roy, British Economic Statistics, 1954, p 169. Cairncross, Austin Robinson: The Life of an Economic Adviser, p 125.
  133. "The Times Books – our heritage". Collins. Archived from the original on 29 December 2019. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  134. Case, Jennifer M.; Huisman, Jeroen (14 October 2015). Researching Higher Education: International perspectives on theory, policy and practice. Routledge. ISBN   978-1-317-38206-5.
  135. R P Farley. "Authorities" in "A Political and Social Survey of the Period from 1815-1914". Chapter 2. John Richard Green. A Short History of the English People. Green's Short History of the English People: with Introduction and Notes by L Cecil Jane and a Survey of the Period 1815-1914 by R P Farley. (Everyman's Library). J M Dent & Sons. London and Toronto. E P Dutton & Co. New York. October 1915. Reprinted December 1915. Volume 2. Page 804.
  136. J J Bagley. "Historical Interpretation 2: Sources of English History: 1540 to the Present Day". Historical Interpretation. St Martin's Press. New York. 1973. [Date of authorship is 1972.] Volume 2. Page 275. (The value of The Times (and other newspapers) for the study of Nineteenth Century history is discussed further on pages 273 to 276 and 281.)
  137. Bagley. Historical Interpretation 2. Penguin Books. 1971. Hardback Edition. David & Charles. Newton Abbey. 1972. p 282.
  138. Richard Krzys. "Library Historiography". Miriam A Drake (ed). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. Marcel Dekker. 2003. p 1621 at p 1628.
  139. Denise Bates. "The Times". Historical Research Using British Newspapers. Pen & Sword History. 2016.
  140. James Oldham, The Law of Contracts as Reported in The Times, 1785-1820". Ibbetson, Jones anr Ramsay (eds). English Legal History and its Sources. Cambridge University Press. 2019. pp 54 & 55.
  141. Roy Johnston with Declan Plummer. The Musical Life of Nineteenth-Century Belfast. Ashgate Publishing. 2015. Routledge, an imprint of Taylor and Francis. 2016. p 18
  142. Shippey, Tom (2016). "Variations on Newspeak: The Open Question of Nineteen Eighty-Four". Hard Reading: Learning from Science Fiction. Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies. Liverpool University Press. p. 233. ISBN   9781781384398.
  143. Lynskey, Dorian (4 June 2019). The Ministry of Truth: The Biography of George Orwell's 1984. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 78. ISBN   978-0-385-54406-1.
  144. Stout, Rex (12 May 2010). Murder by the Book. Random House Publishing Group. pp. vi. ISBN   978-0-307-75606-0.
  145. Stout, Rex (28 April 2010). Triple Jeopardy. Random House Publishing Group. p. 119. ISBN   978-0-307-75630-5.
  146. Mullan, John (28 December 2002). "Licence to sell". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 July 2012.

Further reading