1945 United Kingdom general election

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1945 United Kingdom general election
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
  1935 5 July 1945 1950  

All 640 seats in the House of Commons
321 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout72.8%, Increase2.svg1.7%
 First partySecond party
  Clement Attlee.jpg Sir Winston Churchill - 19086236948 (cropped2).jpg
Leader Clement Attlee Winston Churchill
Party Labour Conservative
Leader since 25 October 1935 9 October 1940
Leader's seat Limehouse Woodford
Last election154 seats, 38.0%386 seats, 47.8%
Seats won393197
Seat changeIncrease2.svg239Decrease2.svg189
Popular vote11,967,7468,716,211
Percentage47.7%36.2%
SwingIncrease2.svg9.7%Decrease2.svg11.6%

 Third partyFourth party
  The Air Ministry, 1939-1945. CH10270.jpg BrownErnest.jpg
Leader Sir Archibald Sinclair Ernest Brown
Party Liberal Liberal National
Leader since26 November 19351940
Leader's seat Caithness and Sutherland (defeated) Leith (defeated)
Last election21 seats, 6.7%33 seats, 3.7%
Seats won1211
Seat changeDecrease2.svg9Decrease2.svg22
Popular vote2,177,938686,652
Percentage9.0%2.9%
SwingIncrease2.svg2.3%Decrease2.svg0.8%

1945 UK general election map.svg
Colours denote the winning party—as shown in § Results

Prime Minister before election

Winston Churchill
Conservative

Appointed Prime Minister

Clement Attlee
Labour

The 1945 United Kingdom general election was held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks. [1] The results were counted and declared on 26 July, to allow time to transport the votes of those serving overseas.

Nelson and Colne (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1918-1983

Nelson and Colne was a constituency in Lancashire which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1918 until it was abolished for the 1983 general election.

Wakes week holiday in England and Scotland

The wakes week is a holiday period in parts of England and Scotland. Originally a religious celebration or feast, the tradition of the wakes week developed into a secular holiday, particularly in North West England during the Industrial Revolution. In Scotland each city has a "trades fortnight": two weeks in the summer when tradesmen take their holidays.

Contents

The result was an unexpected landslide victory for Clement Attlee's Labour Party over Winston Churchill's Conservatives. [2] It was the first time the Conservatives had lost the popular vote since the 1906 election; they would not win it again until 1955. Labour won its first majority government, and a mandate to implement its postwar reforms. The 10.7% national swing from the Conservative Party to the Labour Party remains the largest ever achieved in a British general election.

Clement Attlee former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee,, was a British statesman and Labour Party politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951.

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom that has been described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights.

Winston Churchill Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during most of World War II

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party.

Background

Held less than two months after VE Day, it was the first general election since 1935, as general elections had been suspended during the Second World War. Clement Attlee, Leader of the Labour Party, refused Winston Churchill's offer of continuing the wartime coalition until the Allied defeat of Japan. Parliament was dissolved on 15 June.

Victory in Europe Day public holiday

Victory in Europe Day, generally known as VE Day or V-E Day, is a day celebrating the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces on the 8 May 1945.

1935 United Kingdom general election

The 1935 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 14 November 1935 and resulted in a large, albeit reduced, majority for the National Government now led by Stanley Baldwin of the Conservative Party. The greatest number of members, as before, were Conservatives, while the National Liberal vote held steady. The National Labour vote also held steady, but the resurgence in the main Labour vote caused over a third of their MPs, including party leader Ramsay MacDonald, to lose their seats.

Military history of the United Kingdom during World War II facet of history

The United Kingdom, along with most of its Dominions and Crown colonies declared war on Nazi Germany in September 1939, after the German invasion of Poland. War with Japan began in December 1941, after it attacked British colonies in Asia. The Axis powers were defeated by the Allies in 1945.

Outcome

The caretaker government led by Churchill was heavily defeated; the Labour Party under Attlee's leadership won a landslide victory, gaining a majority of 145 seats.

Churchill caretaker ministry Government of the United Kingdom

The caretaker ministry of 1945 held office for two months from May to July in the United Kingdom, during the latter stages of the Second World War. The head of government was the Prime Minister since 1940, Winston Churchill of the Conservative Party.

The result of the election came as a major shock to the Conservatives, [3] given the heroic status of Winston Churchill, but reflected the voters' belief that the Labour Party were better able to rebuild the country following the war than the Conservatives. [4] Ralph Ingersoll reported in late 1940 that "Everywhere I went in London people admired [Churchill's] energy, his courage, his singleness of purpose. People said they didn't know what Britain would do without him. He was obviously respected. But no one felt he would be Prime Minister after the war. He was simply the right man in the right job at the right time. The time being the time of a desperate war with Britain's enemies". [5] Henry Pelling, noting that polls showed a steady Labour lead after 1942, explained the long-term forces that caused the Labour landslide. He pointed to the usual swing against the party in power; the Conservative loss of initiative; wide fears of a return to the high unemployment of the 1930s; the theme that socialist planning would be more efficient in operating the economy; and the mistaken belief that Churchill would continue as Prime Minister regardless of the result. [6]

Ralph McAllister Ingersoll was an American writer, editor, and publisher. He is best known as founder and publisher of the short-lived 1940s New York City left-wing daily newspaper that refused to accept advertising PM.

Henry Mathison Pelling was a British historian best known for his works on the history of the British Labour Party, including:

Though voters respected and liked Churchill's wartime record, they were more distrustful of the Conservative Party's domestic and foreign policy record in the late 1930s. Labour had also been given, during the war, the opportunity to display to the electorate their domestic competence in government, under men such as Attlee as Deputy Prime Minister, Herbert Morrison at the Home Office and Ernest Bevin at the Ministry of Labour. [7] Churchill and the Conservatives are also generally considered to have run a poor campaign in comparison to Labour; Churchill's statement that Attlee's programme would require "some form of a Gestapo" to implement is considered to have been particularly poorly judged. [8]

Herbert Morrison British Labour politician

Herbert Stanley Morrison, Baron Morrison of Lambeth, was a British Labour politician who held a variety of senior positions in the Cabinet.

Ernest Bevin British labour leader, politician, and statesman

Ernest Bevin was a British statesman, trade union leader, and Labour politician. He co-founded and served as general secretary of the powerful Transport and General Workers' Union in the years 1922–40, and as Minister of Labour in the war-time coalition government. He succeeded in maximizing the British labour supply, for both the armed services and domestic industrial production, with a minimum of strikes and disruption. His most important role came as Foreign Secretary in the post-war Labour government, 1945–51. He gained American financial support, strongly opposed Communism, and aided in the creation of NATO. Bevin's tenure also saw the end of the Mandate of Palestine and the creation of the State of Israel. His biographer, Alan Bullock, said that Bevin "stands as the last of the line of foreign secretaries in the tradition created by Castlereagh, Canning and Palmerston in the first half of the 19th century", and that due to the reduction in British power he has no successors.

Gestapo official secret police of Nazi Germany

The Geheime Staatspolizei, abbreviated Gestapo, was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.

The Labour manifesto 'Let Us Face the Future' included promises of nationalisation, economic planning, full employment, a National Health Service, and a system of social security. The Conservative manifesto, 'Mr. Churchill's Declaration to the Voters', on the other hand, included progressive ideas on key social issues but was relatively vague on the idea of post-war economic control; [7] having been associated with high levels of unemployment in the 1930s, [9] they failed to convince voters that they could effectively deal with it in a post-war Britain. [10]

This was the first election in which Labour gained a majority of seats, and also the first time it won a plurality of votes. The election was a disaster for the Liberal Party; it lost all its urban seats, while its leader Archibald Sinclair lost his rural seat of Caithness and Sutherland. According to Baines, the defeat marked its transition from being a party of government to a party of the political fringe. [11] The National Liberal Party fared even worse, losing two-thirds of its seats and falling behind the Liberals in seat count for the first time since the parties split in 1931. This was the final election that the Liberal Nationals fought as an autonomous party, as they merged with the Conservative Party two years later, continuing to exist as a subsidiary party of the Conservatives until 1968.

Future prominent figures who entered Parliament included Harold Wilson, James Callaghan, Barbara Castle, Michael Foot and Hugh Gaitskell. Future Conservative Prime Minister Harold Macmillan lost his seat, returning to Parliament at a by-election later in the year.

Results

393197121127
LabourConservativeLibLNO
UK General Election 1945
CandidatesVotes
PartyLeaderStoodElectedGainedUnseatedNet% of total%No.Net %
  Labour Clement Attlee 6033932423+23961.447.711,967,746+9.7
  Conservative Winston Churchill 5591971420419030.836.28,716,21111.6
  Liberal Archibald Sinclair 3061251491.99.02,177,938+2.3
  Liberal National Ernest Brown 4911022221.72.9686,6520.8
  Independent N/A38860+61.30.6133,191+0.5
  National N/A10221+10.30.5130,513+0.2
  Common Wealth C. A. Smith 23 1 1 0+10.20.5110,634N/A
  Communist Harry Pollitt 212 1 0+10.30.497,945+0.3
  Nationalist James McSparran 320000.30.492,819+0.2
 National IndependentN/A1321100.30.365,171N/A
  Independent Labour N/A722000.30.363,135+0.2
  Ind. Conservative N/A6220+20.30.257,823+0.1
  Ind. Labour Party Bob Edwards 530 1 10.50.246,7690.5
  Independent Progressive N/A7 1 1 0+10.20.145,967+0.1
  Independent Liberal N/A3220+20.30.130,450+0.1
  SNP Douglas Young 80000N/A0.126,7070.1
  Plaid Cymru Abi Williams 70000N/A0.016,017N/A
  Commonwealth Labour Harry Midgley 1 0000N/A0.014,096N/A
  Independent Nationalist N/A40000N/A0.05,430N/A
  Liverpool Protestant H. D. Longbottom 1 0000N/A0.02,601N/A
 Christian PacifistN/A 1 0000N/A0.02,381N/A
  Democratic Norman Leith-Hay-Clark50000N/A0.01,809N/A
 AgriculturistN/A 1 0000N/A0.01,068N/A
  Socialist (GB) N/A 1 0000N/A0.0472N/A
  United Socialist Guy Aldred 1 0000N/A0.0300N/A

Votes summary

Popular vote
Labour
47.7%
Conservative
36.2%
Liberal
9.0%
Liberal National
2.9%
Others
4.2%

Seats summary

Parliamentary seats
Labour
61.4%
Conservative
30.8%
Liberal
1.9%
Liberal National
1.2%
Others
4.7%

MPs who lost their seats

PartyNameConstituencyOffice held whilst in powerYear electedDefeated byParty
Conservative Henry Adam Procter Accrington 1931 Walter Scott-Elliot Labour
Henry Longhurst Acton 1943 Joseph Sparks
Sir Jonah Walker-Smith Barrow and Furness 1931 Walter Monslow
Sir Richard Wells, 1st Baronet Bedford 1922 Thomas Skeffington-Lodge
John McEwen Berwick and Haddington 1931 John Robertson
John Sandeman Allen Birkenhead West (contested South Norfolk) 1931 Percy Collick
Redvers Prior Birmingham Aston (contested Stratford West Ham) 1943 Woodrow Wyatt
Sir Oliver Simmonds Birmingham Duddeston 1931 Edith Wills
John Cecil-Wright Birmingham Erdington 1936 Julius Silverman
Basil Arthur John Peto Birmingham King's Norton 1941 Raymond Blackburn
The Right Honourable
Geoffrey Lloyd
Birmingham Ladywood Minister for Information 1931 Victor Yates
The Right Honourable
Leo Amery
Birmingham Sparkbrook Secretary of State for India and Burma 1911 Percy Shurmer
Walter Higgs Birmingham West 1937 Charles Simmons
Sir Edward William Salt Birmingham Yardley 1931 Wesley Perrins
Sir Cyril Entwistle Bolton 1931 John Lewis
Eric Errington Bootle 1935 John Kinley
Violet Bathurst, Lady Apsley Bristol Central 1943 Stan Awbery
The Honourable
Lionel Berry
Buckingham 1943 Aidan Crawley
Nigel Colman Brixton 1927 Marcus Lipton
The Honourable
John Gretton
Burton 1943 Arthur William Lyne
Albert Braithwaite Buckrose 1926 George Wadsworth Liberal
The Honourable
Oscar Guest
Cambridge 1934 Tudor Watkins Labour
Richard Tufnell Camberwell North West (contested Breconshire and Radnorshire) 1935 Arthur Symonds
The Right Honourable
Sir Percy James Grigg
Cardiff East Secretary of State for War 1942 Hilary Marquand
Arthur Evans Cardiff South 1931 James Callaghan
Sir Edward Spears Carlisle 1931 Edgar Grierson
Leonard Plugge Chatham 1935 Arthur Bottomley
Robert Tatton Bower Cleveland 1931 George Willey
Oswald Lewis Colchester 1929 George Delacourt-Smith
The Right Honourable
Sir Donald Somervell
Crewe Home Secretary 1931 Scholefield Allen
Herbert Williams Croydon South 1932 David Rees-Williams
Charles Peat Darlington Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Pensions 1931 David Hardman
Paul Emrys-Evans South Derbyshire Under-Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs 1931 Arthur Champion
Bracewell Smith Dulwich 1932 Wilfrid Vernon
The Right Honourable
Florence Horsbrugh
Dundee Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Health 1931 Thomas Fotheringham-Cook
Sir John Mayhew East Ham North 1931 Percy Daines
Robert Cary Eccles Lord of the Treasury 1935 William Proctor
Frank Watt Edinburgh Central 1941 Andrew Gilzean
Alexander Erskine-Hill Edinburgh North 1935 George Willis
Thomas Levy Elland 1931 Frederick Arthur Cobb
Bartle Brennen Bull Enfield 1935 Enfield Davies
Roy Wise Smethwick (contested Epping) 1931 Leah Manning
Mavis Tate Frome 1931 Walter Farthing
The Honourable
William Astor
Fulham East 1931 Michael Stewart
Walter Elliot Glasgow Kelvingrove 1924 John Lloyd-Williams
Leslie Boyce Gloucester 1929 Moss Turner-Samuels
Sir Irving Albery Gravesend 1924 Garry Allighan
Sir Walter Womersley, 1st Baronet Great Grimsby Minister of Pensions 1924 The Honourable
Kenneth Younger
Sir Austin Hudson, 1st Baronet Hackney North Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Fuel, Light and Power 1924 Henry Edwin Goodrich
Gilbert Gledhill Halifax 1931 Dryden Brook
Douglas Cooke Hammersmith South 1931 William Thomas Adams
Ronald Tree Harborough 1933 Humphrey Attewell
Thomas George Greenwell The Hartlepools 1943 David Thomas Jones
James Wootton-Davies Heywood and Radcliffe 1940 John Edmondson Whittaker
The Honourable
Seymour Berry
Hitchin 1941 Philip Asterley Jones
Sir Lambert Ward, 1st Baronet Hull North West 1918 Kim Mackay
The Right Honourable
Richard Law
Hull South West Minister of Education 1931 Sydney Smith
Geoffrey Hutchinson Ilford (contested Ilford North) 1937 Mabel Ridealgh
Thelma Cazalet-Keir Islington East 1931 Eric Fletcher
James Duncan Kensington North 1931 George Rogers
John Profumo, 5th Baron Profumo Kettering Baby of the House 1940 Gilbert Mitchinson
Sir John Wardlaw-Milne Kidderminster 1922 Louis Tolley
Alec Douglas-Home Lanark Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1931 Tom Steele
William Anstruther-Gray North Lanarkshire Assistant Postmaster-General 1931 Margaret Herbison
John Craik-Henderson Leeds North East 1940 Alice Bacon
Vyvyan Adams Leeds West 1931 Thomas William Stamford
Abraham Montagu Lyons Leicester East 1931 Terence Donovan
The Right Honourable
Charles Waterhouse
Leicester South Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade 1924 Herbert Bowden
Sir Assheton Pownall Lewisham East 1918 Herbert Morrison
Henry Brooke Lewisham West 1938 Arthur Skeffington
Sir Walter Liddall Lincoln 1931 George Deer
Sir John Joseph Shute Liverpool Exchange 1933 Bessie Braddock
Sir Edmund Brocklebank Liverpool Fairfield 1931 Arthur Moody
Reginald Purbrick Liverpool Walton 1929 James Haworth
Cyril Lakin Llandaff and Barry 1942 Lynn Ungoed-Thomas
Lawrence Kimball Loughborough 1935 Mont Follick
Pierse Loftus Lowestoft 1934 Edward Evans
John Lees-Jones Manchester Blackley 1931 John Diamond
Thomas Hewlett Manchester Exchange 1940 Harold Lever
William Duckworth Manchester Moss Side 1935 William Griffiths
Frederick Cundiff Manchester Rusholme 1944 Lester Hutchinson
The Right Honourable
Sir Malcolm Robertson
Mitcham 1940 Tom Braddock
Alfred Denville Newcastle upon Tyne Central 1931 Lyall Wilkes
William Nunn Newcastle upon Tyne West 1940 Ernest Popplewell
Ronald Bell Newport 1945 Peter Freeman
Sir Thomas Cook North Norfolk 1931 Edwin Gooch
Somerset de Chair South West Norfolk 1935 Sidney Dye
The Right Honourable
Spencer Summers
Northampton Secretary for Overseas Trade 1940 Reginald Paget
Henry Strauss Norwich Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Town and Country Planning 1935 Lucy Noel-Buxton, Baroness Noel-Buxton
The Right Honourable
Duncan Sandys
Norwood First Commissioner of Works 1935 Ronald Chamberlain
The Right Honourable
Sir Frederick Sykes
Nottingham Central 1940 Geoffrey de Freitas
Louis Gluckstein Nottingham East 1931 James Harrison
Hamilton Kerr Oldham 1931 Frank Fairhurst
The Right Honourable
Brendan Bracken
Paddington North First Lord of the Admiralty 1929 Sir Noel Mason-MacFarlane
Maurice Petherick Penryn and Falmouth Financial Secretary to the War Office 1931 Evelyn King
John Hely-Hutchinson, Viscount Suirdale Peterborough 1943 Stanley Tiffany
Ralph Beaumont Portsmouth Central 1931 Julian Snow
Randolph Churchill Preston 1940 Samuel Segal
Edward Cobb Preston (contested Eton and Slough) 1936 Benn Levy
Henry Scrymgeour-Wedderburn West Renfrewshire 1931 Thomas Scollan
The Right Honourable
Sir Ronald Cross, 1st Baronet
Rossendale High Commissioner to Australia 1931 George Henry Walker
The Right Honourable
Ralph Assheton
Rushcliffe Chairman of the Conservative Party 1934 Florence Paton
Allen Chapman Rutherglen Under-Secretary of State for Scotland 1935 Gilbert McAllister
The Honourable
John Grimston
St Albans 1943 Cyril Dumpleton
Robert Grant-Ferris St Pancras North 1937 George House
Sir Alfred Beit, 2nd Baronet St Pancras South East 1931 Santo Jeger
Sir James Frederick Emery Salford West 1935 Charles Royle
William Craven-Ellis Southampton 1931 Ralph Morley
Malcolm McCorquodale Sowerby 1931 John Belcher
Peter Thorneycroft Stafford 1938 Stephen Swingler
Horace Trevor-Cox Stalybridge and Hyde 1937 Gordon Lang
The Right Honourable
Harold Macmillan
Stockton-on-Tees Secretary of State for Air 1931 George Chetwynd
Sir George Jones Stoke Newington 1924 David Weitzman
Robert Morgan Stourbridge 1931 Arthur Moyle
Ralph Etherton Stretford 1939 Herschel Austin
Sir Walter Perkins Stroud 1931 Ben Parkin
Henry Burton Sudbury 1924 Roland Hamilton
Samuel Storey Sunderland 1931 Richard Ewart
Edward Wickham Taunton 1935 Victor Collins
Sir Derrick Gunston, 1st Baronet Thornbury 1924 Joseph Alpass
Sir Alexander Russell Tynemouth 1922 Grace Colman
The Right Honourable
John Jestyn Llewellin
Uxbridge Minister of Food 1929 Frank Beswick
Irene Ward Wallsend 1931 John McKay
Donald Scott Wansbeck Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries 1940 Alfred Robens
Noel Goldie Warrington 1931 Edward Porter
William Helmore Watford 1943 John Freeman
Sir Archibald James Welingborough 1931 George Lindgren
Sir Richard Pilkington Widnes Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 1935 Maurice Orbach
Samuel Hammersley Willesden East 1938 Christopher Nyholm Shawcross
Gerald Parmer Winchester 1935 George Jeger
William Ernest Gibbons Bilston 1944 Will Nally
Francis Beech Woolwich West 1943 Henry Berry
Arthur Colegate The Wrekin 1941 Ivor Owen Thomas
Charles Wood, Lord Irwin City of York 1937 John Corlett
Liberal National Percy Jewson Great Yarmouth 1941 Ernest Kinghorn
The Right Honourable
William Mabane
Huddersfield Minister of State for Foreign Affairs 1931 Joseph Mallalieu
The Right Honourable
Ernest Brown
Leith Leader of the Liberal National Party and Minister of Aircraft Production 1927 James Hoy
The Right Honourable
Sir Geoffrey Shakespeare, 1st Baronet
Norwich 1929 James Paton
John Samuel Dodd Oldham 1935 Leslie Hale
The Right Honourable
Leslie Hore-Belisha
Plymouth Devonport 1923 Michael Foot
William Stanley Russell Thomas Southampton 1940 Tommy Lewis
William Woolley Spen Valley 1940 Granville Maynard Sharp
Stephen Furness Sunderland 1935 Frederick Willey
Sir George Schuster Walsall 1938 William Wells
Liberal Sir William Beveridge Berwick-upon-Tweed 1944 Robert Thorp Conservative
The Right Honourable
Sir Percy Harris, 1st Baronet
Bethnal Green South West Liberal Chief Whip 1922 Percy Holman Labour
The Right Honourable
Sir Archibald Sinclair, 4th Baronet
Caithness and Sutherland Leader of the Liberal Party and Secretary of State for Air 1922 Eric Gandar Dower Conservative
The Right Honourable
Henry Graham White
Birkenhead East 1929 Frank Soskice Labour
Seaborne Davies Caernarfon 1945 David Price-White Conservative
Goronwy Owen Caernarvonshire 1923 Goronwy Roberts Labour
Dingle Foot Dundee Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Economic Warfare 1931 John Strachey
Thomas Magnay Gateshead 1931 Konni Zilliacus
James Armand de Rothschild Isle of Ely 1929 Harry Legge-Bourke Conservative
The Honourable
Henry Guest
Plymouth Drake 1937 Hubert Medland Labour
Sir Geoffrey Mander Wolverhampton East 1929 John Baird
Labour Moelwyn Hughes Carmarthen 1941 Rhys Hopkin Morris Liberal
John Eric Loverseed Eddisbury 1943 Sir John Barlow, 2nd Baronet Liberal National
Daniel Frankel Mile End 1935 Phil Piratin Communist
National Labour Harold Nicolson Leicester West 1935 Barnett Janner Labour
Frank Markham Nottingham South 1935 Norman Smith
Stephen King-Hall Ormskirk 1939 Harold Wilson
Independent Labour Andrew MacLaren Burslem 1935 Albert Edward Davies
George Leonard Reakes Wallasey 1942 Ernest Marples
Thomas Groves Stratford West Ham 1922 Henry Nicholls Conservative
Ind. Conservative Alec Cunningham-Reid St Marylebone 1932 Wavell Wakefield
SNP Robert McIntyre Motherwell 1945 Alexander Anderson Labour

Transfers of seats

ToFromNo.Seats
Communist Labour 1 Mile End
Labour Independent Labour 1 Gorbals*
National Labour 8 Kilmarnock, Derby (one of two)†, Ormskirk, Leicester West, Nottingham South, Lichfield†, Leeds Central, Cardiff C
Liberal 9 Dundee (one of two), Paisley, Birkenhead East, Bristol North 6, Bethnal Green South-West, Drake, Wolverhampton East, Middlesbrough West, Bradford South, Carnarvonshire
Independent 1 Mossley
National 1 Brecon and Radnor
Conservative 182 Dundee (one of two), Kelvingrove, Dunbartonshire†, Lanark, Lanarkshire N, Renfrewshire W, Rutherglen, Edinburgh North, Edinburgh Central, Midlothian S & Peebles, Berwick & Haddington, Bedford, Reading, Buckingham, Wycombe, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Birkenhead West, Crewe, Stalybridge and Hyde, Penryn and Falmouth, Carlisle, Derby (one of two), Belper, Derbyshire South, Derbyshire West 2, Sutton, Darlington, Stockton-on-Tees, Sunderland (one of two), The Hartlepools, Leyton East, Colchester, East Ham N, Epping, Essex SE, Ilford N (from Ilford), Maldon 5, Walthamstow E, Bristol Central, Gloucester, Stroud, Thornbury, Portsmouth Central, Portsmouth North, Southampton (one of two), Winchester, Dudley, Kidderminster, Stourbridge, Hitchin, St Albans, Watford, Hull North West, Hull South West, Chatham, Chislehurst, Dartford†, Dover, Faversham, Gillingham, Gravesend, Accrington, Barrow-in-Furness, Blackburn (both seats), Chorley, Clitheroe, Preston (both seats), Rossendale, Bolton (both seats), Eccles, Heywood and Radcliffe, Blackley, Manchester Exchange, Hulme, Moss Side, Rusholme, Oldham (one of two), Salford North, Salford South, Salford West, Stretford, Bootle, Edge Hill, Liverpool Exchange, Fairfield, Kirkdale, Walton, Warrington, Widnes, Harborough, Leicester East, Leicester South, Loughborough, Grimsby, Lincoln, Balham and Tooting, Battersea South, Brixton, Camberwell North-West, Clapham, Dulwich, Fulham East, Greenwich, Hackney North, Hammersmith South, Islington East, Kensington North, Lewisham East, Lewisham West, Norwood, Paddington North, Fulham West†, Islington North†, Kennington†, Peckham†, St Pancras North, St Pancras South East, St Pancras South West, Stoke Newington, Wandsworth Central†, Woolwich West, King's Lynn, Norfolk North, Norfolk South, Norfolk South West, Norwich (one of two), Kettering, Northampton, Peterborough, Wellingborough, Newcastle upon Tyne Central, Newcastle upon Tyne West, Tynemouth, Wallsend, Wansbeck, Nottingham Central, Nottingham East, Rushcliffe, The Wrekin, Frome, Taunton, Burton, Smethwick, Stafford, Bilston, Wolverhampton West, Ipswich†, Lowestoft, Sudbury, Croydon South, Mitcham, Wimbledon, Duddeston, Coventry East (replaced Coventry), Aston, Deritend, Erdington, King's Norton, Ladywood, Yardley, Sparkbrook, Birmingham West, Swindon, York, Cleveland, Leeds North East, Sheffield Central, Bradford North, Sowerby, Elland, Leeds West, Halifax, Bradford East, Newport, Llandaff & Barry, Cardiff E 8, Cardiff S
Liberal National 17 Greenock†, Leith, Luton, Devonport 4, Gateshead, Sunderland (one of two), Southampton (one of two), Oldham (one of two), Bosworth, Southwark North†, Great Yarmouth, Norwich (one of two), Newcastle upon Tyne East, Walsall, Huddersfield, Spen Valley, Swansea West
NEW SEAT10 Eton and Slough, Ilford South, Barking, Dagenham, Hornchurch, Thurrock, Barnet, Bexley, Acock's Green, Coventry West
Independent Labour Labour 1 Hammersmith North*
UUP 1 Belfast West
Common Wealth Conservative 1 Chelmsford*
Liberal Labour 1 Carmarthen
Conservative 2 Dorset North, Buckrose
Liberal National 2 Eye*, Montgomeryshire*
Independent Progressive Conservative 1 Bridgwater
Independent 3 Grantham†, City of London (one of two)†, Rugby
National Independent 1 Cheltenham 7
Conservative Liberal 5 Caithness and Sutherland, Isle of Ely, Barnstaple 3, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Carnarvon
Speaker 1 Daventry
NEW SEAT8 Bucklow, Woodford, Orpington, Blackpool North, Carshalton, Sutton and Cheam, Worthing, Solihull
Ind. Conservative Conservative 1 Galloway*
Independent Liberal Liberal National 1 Ross and Cromarty 1
Independent Unionist UUP 1 Down (one of two)*
Speaker Conservative 1 Hexham*
1 Seat had been won by National Labour in a by-election
2 Seat had been won by Independent Labour candidate in a by-election, who fought and won the 1945 election as a Labour candidate
3 Candidate had defected to the Common Wealth party
4 Candidate had moved to 'National' label
5 Seat had been won by Independent candidate in a by-election, who fought and won the 1945 election as a Labour candidate
6 Candidate had defected to National Liberal party
7 Seat had been won by Independent Conservative candidate in a by-election, who fought and won the 1945 election as a National Independent candidate
8 Seat had been won by Independent candidate in a by-election

Reasons for Labour victory

Attlee meeting King George VI after Labour's 1945 election victory Attlee with GeorgeVI HU 59486.jpg
Attlee meeting King George VI after Labour's 1945 election victory

With the Second World War coming to an end in Europe, the Labour Party decided to pull out of the wartime national coalition government, precipitating an election which took place in July 1945. King George VI dissolved Parliament, which had been sitting for ten years without an election. What followed was perhaps one of the greatest swings of public confidence of the twentieth century. In May 1945, the month in which the war in Europe ended, Churchill's approval ratings stood at 83%, although the Labour Party held an 18% lead as of February 1945. [9] Labour won overwhelming support while Churchill "was both surprised and stunned" by the crushing defeat suffered by the Conservatives.[ citation needed ]

The greatest factor in Labour's dramatic win appeared to be the policy of social reform. In one opinion poll, 41% of respondents considered housing to be the most important issue that faced the country, 15% stated the Labour policy of full employment, 7% mentioned social security, 6% nationalisation and just 5% international security, which was emphasised by the Conservatives. The Beveridge Report, published in 1942, proposed the creation of a welfare state. It called for a dramatic turn in British social policy, with provision for nationalised healthcare, expansion of state-funded education, National Insurance and a new housing policy. The report was extremely popular, and copies of its findings were widely purchased, turning it into a best-seller. The Labour Party adopted the report eagerly. [3] The Conservatives accepted many of the principles of the report (Churchill did not regard the reforms as socialist), but claimed that they were not affordable. [13] Labour offered a new comprehensive welfare policy, reflecting a consensus that social changes were needed. [4] The Conservatives were not willing to make the same concessions that Labour proposed, and hence appeared out of step with public opinion.

As Churchill's personal popularity remained high, the Conservatives were confident of victory and based much of their election campaign on this, rather than proposing new programmes. However, people distinguished between Churchill and his party—a contrast which Labour repeatedly emphasised throughout the campaign. Voters also harboured doubts over Churchill's ability to lead the country on the domestic front. [4]

In addition to the poor Conservative general election strategy, Churchill went so far as to accuse Attlee of seeking to behave as a dictator, in spite of Attlee's service as part of Churchill's war cabinet. In the most famous incident of the campaign, Churchill's first election broadcast on 4 June backfired dramatically and memorably. Denouncing his former coalition partners, he declared that Labour "would have to fall back on some form of a Gestapo" to impose socialism on Britain. Attlee responded the next night by ironically thanking the Prime Minister for demonstrating to people the difference between Churchill the great wartime leader and Churchill the peacetime politician, and argued the case for public control of industry.

Another blow to the Conservative campaign was the memory of the 1930s policy of appeasement, which had been conducted by Churchill's Conservative predecessors, Neville Chamberlain and Stanley Baldwin, and was at this stage widely discredited for allowing Adolf Hitler's Germany to become too powerful. [4] Labour had strongly advocated appeasement until 1938, but the inter-war period had been dominated by Conservatives. With the exception of two brief minority Labour governments in 1924 and 1929–1931, the Conservatives had been in power for its entirety. As a result, the Conservatives were generally blamed for the era's mistakes, not merely for appeasement but for the inflation and unemployment of the Great Depression. [4] Many voters felt that while the war of 1914–1918 had been won, the peace that followed had been lost. Labour played to the concept of "winning the peace" that would follow the Second World War.

Possibly for this reason, there was especially strong support for Labour in the armed services, who feared the unemployment and homelessness to which the soldiers of the First World War had returned. It has been claimed that the pro-left-wing bias of teachers in the armed services was a contributing factor, but this argument has generally not carried much weight, and the failure of the Conservative governments in the 1920s to deliver a "land fit for heroes" was likely more important. [4] The role of propaganda films produced during the war, which were shown to both military and civilian audiences, is also seen as a contributory factor due to their general optimism about the future, which meshed with the Labour Party's campaigning in 1945 better than with that of the Conservatives. [14] Writer and soldier Anthony Burgess remarked that Churchill—who often wore a colonel's uniform at this time—himself was not nearly as popular with soldiers at the front as with officers and civilians: he noted that Churchill often smoked cigars in front of soldiers who had not had a decent cigarette in days. [15]

The differing strategies of the two parties during wartime also gave Labour an advantage. Labour continued to attack pre-war Conservative governments for their inactivity in tackling Hitler, reviving the economy, and re-arming Britain, [16] while Churchill was less interested in furthering his party, much to the chagrin of many of its members and MPs. [9]

See also

Notes

  1. All parties shown. Conservative total includes Ulster Unionists. The 8 seats won by National Labour in 1935 were not defended.

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References

  1. General Election (Polling Date): 31 May 1945: House of Commons debates, They Work For You
  2. Rowe 2004, p. 37.
  3. 1 2 1945: Churchill loses general election, BBC, retrieved 22 February 2009
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lynch 2008, p. 4.
  5. Ingersoll 1940, p. 127.
  6. Pelling 1980, pp. 399–414.
  7. 1 2 Thomas & Willis 2016, pp. 154–155.
  8. Marr 2008, pp. 5–6.
  9. 1 2 3 Addison, Paul (29 April 2005), Why Churchill Lost in 1945, BBC, retrieved 22 February 2009
  10. Bogdador, Vernon (23 September 2014), The General Election, 1945 (Lecture), Museum of London, retrieved 26 May 2018
  11. Baines 1995.
  12. Voter turnout at UK general elections 1945–2015, UK Political Info
  13. Lynch 2008, p. 10.
  14. Spurr, Sean, "1945 General Election", HistoryEmpire.com, retrieved 4 April 2012
  15. Burgess 1987, p. 305.
  16. Lynch 2008, pp. 1–4.

Sources

Further reading

Manifestos