All 670 seats in the House of Commons
336 seats needed for a majority
Colours denote the winning party
The 1906 United Kingdom general election was held from 12 January to 8 February 1906.
The Liberals, led by Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman, won a landslide majority at the election. The Conservatives led by Arthur Balfour, who had been in government until the month before the election, lost more than half their seats, including party leader Balfour's own seat in Manchester East, leaving them with their lowest-ever number of seats. The election saw a 5.4% swing from the Conservative Party to the Liberal Party, the largest-ever seen at the time (however, if only looking at seats contested in both 1900 and 1906, the Conservative vote fell by 11.6%).This has resulted in the 1906 general election being dubbed the "Liberal landslide", and is now ranked alongside the 1931, 1945, 1983 and 1997 general elections as one of the largest landslide election victories.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and then won a landslide victory in the following year's general election.
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was a British statesman and Liberal Party politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1905 to 1908 and Leader of the Liberal Party from 1899 to 1908. He also served as Secretary of State for War twice, in the Cabinets of Gladstone and Rosebery. He was the first First Lord of the Treasury to be officially called "Prime Minister", the term only coming into official usage five days after he took office. He also remains the only person to date to hold the positions of Prime Minister and Father of the House at the same time.
A landslide victory is an electoral victory in a political system, when one candidate or party receives an overwhelming majority of the votes or seats in the elected body, thus all but utterly eliminating the opponents. The winning party has reached more voters than usual, and a landslide victory is often seen in hindsight as a turning point in people's views on political matters.
The Labour Representation Committee was far more successful than at the 1900 general election and after the election would be renamed the Labour Party with 29 MPs and Keir Hardie as leader. The Irish Parliamentary Party, led by John Redmond, achieved its seats with a relatively low number of votes, as 73 candidates stood unopposed.
The 1900 United Kingdom general election was held between 26 September and 24 October 1900, following the dissolution of Parliament on 25 September. Also referred to as the Khaki Election, it was held at a time when it was widely believed that the Second Boer War had effectively been won.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom that has been described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights.
James Keir Hardie was a Scottish trade unionist and politician. He was a founder of the Labour Party, and served as its first parliamentary leader from 1906 to 1908.
This election was a landslide defeat for the Conservative Party and their Liberal Unionist allies, with the primary reason given by historians as the party's weakness after its split over the issue of free trade (Joseph Chamberlain had resigned from government in September 1903 in order to campaign for Tariff Reform, which would allow "preferential tariffs"). Many working-class people at the time saw this as a threat to the price of food, hence the debate was nicknamed "Big Loaf, Little Loaf". The Liberals' landslide victory of 125 seats over all other parties led to the passing of social legislation known as the Liberal reforms.
The Liberal Unionist Party was a British political party that was formed in 1886 by a faction that broke away from the Liberal Party. Led by Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain, the party formed a political alliance with the Conservative Party in opposition to Irish Home Rule. The two parties formed the ten-year-long coalition Unionist Government 1895–1905 but kept separate political funds and their own party organisations until a complete merger between the Liberal Unionist and the Conservative parties was agreed to in May 1912.
Free trade is a trade policy that does not restrict imports or exports; it can also be understood as the free market idea applied to international trade. In government, free trade is predominantly advocated by political parties that hold liberal economic positions while economically left-wing and nationalist political parties generally support protectionism, the opposite of free trade.
Joseph Chamberlain was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives. He split both major British parties in the course of his career.
This was the last general election in which the Liberals won an absolute majority in the House of Commons, and the last general election in which they won the popular vote. It was also the last peacetime election held more than five years after the previous one prior to passage of the Parliament Act 1911, which limited the duration of Parliaments in peacetime to five years. The Conservative Party's seat total of 156 MPs remains its worst result ever in a general election.
The Parliament Act 1911 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It is constitutionally important and partly governs the relationship between the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which make up the two Houses of Parliament. The Parliament Act 1949 provides that the Parliament Act 1911 and the Parliament Act 1949 are to be construed together "as one" in their effects and that the two Acts may be cited together as the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949.
A coalition between the Conservative and Liberal Unionist parties had governed the United Kingdom since the general election of 1895. Arthur Balfour had served as Prime Minister from 1902 until 5 December 1905, when he chose to resign over growing unpopularity, instead of calling a general election. Balfour had hoped that under a Liberal government splits would reemerge, which would therefore help the Conservative Party achieve victory at the next election.
Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, was a British statesman and Conservative Party politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905. As Foreign Secretary under David Lloyd George, he issued the Balfour Declaration in November 1917 on behalf of the cabinet.
The incoming Liberal government chose to capitalise on the Conservative government's unpopularity and called an immediate general election one month later on 12 January 1906, which resulted in a crushing defeat for the Conservatives.
The Unionist government had become deeply divided over the issue of free trade, which soon became an electoral liability. This culminated in Joseph Chamberlain's resignation from the government in May 1903 to campaign for tariff reform in order to protect British industry from foreign competition. This division was in contrast to the Liberal Party's belief in free trade, which it argued would help keep costs of living down.
A coalition of the Conservative and Liberal Unionist parties took power in the United Kingdom following the 1895 general election. Conservative leader Lord Salisbury was appointed Prime Minister and his nephew, Arthur Balfour, became Leader of the House of Commons, but various major posts went to the Liberal Unionists, most notably the Leader of the House of Lords, the Liberal Unionist Duke of Devonshire, who was made Lord President, and his colleague in the Commons, Joseph Chamberlain, who became Colonial Secretary. It was this government which would conduct the Second Boer War from 1899-1902, which was exploited by the government to help win a landslide victory at the 1900 general election.
The issue of free trade became the feature of the Liberal campaign, under the slogan 'big loaf' under a Liberal government, 'little loaf' under a Conservative government. It also commissioned a variety of posters warning the electorate over rises in food prices under protectionist policies, including one which mentioned that "Balfour and Chamberlain are linked together against free trade ... Don't be deceived by Tory tricks".
The Boer War had also contributed to the unpopularity of the Conservative and Unionist government. The war had lasted over two and half years, much longer than had originally been expected, while details were revealed of the existence of 'concentration camps' where over 20,000 men, women and children were reported to have died because of poor sanitation.[ citation needed ]
The war had also unearthed the poor social state of the country in the early 1900s. This was after more than 40% of military recruits for the Boer War were declared unfit for military service, while in Manchester 8,000 of the 11,000 men who had been recruited had to be turned away for being in poor physical condition. This was after the 1902 Rowntree study of poverty in York showed that almost a third of the population lived below the 'poverty line', which helped to increase the calls for social reforms, something which had been neglected by the Conservative and Unionist government.
The Conservative and Unionist Prime Minister, Arthur Balfour, had been blamed over the issue of 'Chinese Slavery', which was the use of Chinese-indentured labour in South Africa. This became controversial among the Conservative Party's middle-class supporters, who saw it as unethical, while the working class also objected to the practice, as white emigration to South Africa could have created jobs for the unemployed in Britain.
Protestant Nonconformists were angered when Conservatives pushed through the Education Act 1902, which integrated denominational schools into the state system and provided for their support from taxes. The local school boards that they largely controlled were abolished and replaced by county governments that were usually controlled by Anglicans. Worst of all the hated Anglican schools would now receive funding from local taxes that everyone had to pay. One tactic was to refuse to pay local taxes.The education issue played a major role in the Liberal victory in 1906, as Dissenter (nonconformist) Conservatives punished their old party and voted Liberal. However the Liberals failed repeatedly to repeal or modify the 1902 law. Another issue which lost the Conservatives nonconformist votes was the Licensing Act 1904. Although the legislation aimed to reduce the number of public houses, it proposed to compensate brewers for the cancellation of their licence, leading many who adhered to temperance to denounce it as a "brewers' bill".
|Party||Leader||Stood||Elected||Gained||Unseated||Net||% of total||%||No.||Net %|
|Conservative & Lib. Unionist||Arthur Balfour||557||156||5||251||−246||23.3||43.4||2,278,076||−6.8|
|Labour Repr. Cmte.||Keir Hardie||50||29||28||1||+27||4.3||4.8||254,202||+3.6|
|Irish Parliamentary||John Redmond||84||82||6||1||+5||12.2||0.6||33,231||−1.2|
|Social Democratic Federation||H. M. Hyndman||8||0||0||0||0||0.4||18,446|
|Scottish Workers||George Carson||5||0||0||0||0||0.3||14,877||+0.2|
|Free Trader||John Eldon Gorst||5||0||0||0||0||0.2||8,974|
|Ind. Liberal Unionist||N/A||1||0||0||0||0||0.0||153|
This is a list of MPs who lost their seat at the 1906 United Kingdom general election
|Party||Name||Constituency||Office held whilst in Parliament||Year elected||Defeated by||Party|
|Liberal Unionist||Archibald White Maconochie||East Aberdeenshire||1900||Thomas Buchanan||Liberal|
|H. O. Arnold-Forster||Belfast West||Secretary of State for War (1903-1905)||1892||Joseph Devlin||Irish Parliamentary|
|Saville Crossley||Halifax||Paymaster-General (1902-1905)||1900||James Parker||Labour|
|William Peel||Manchester South, contesting Harrow||1900||James Gibb||Liberal|
|Robert Finlay||Inverness Burghs||Attorney General of England and Wales (1900-1905)||1895||John Annan Bryce||Liberal|
|Charles Seely||Lincoln||1895||Charles Roberts||Liberal|
|Charles McArthur||Liverpool Exchange||1897||David MacIver||Liberal|
|George Renwick||Newcastle-under-Lyme||1900||Sir Alfred Seale Haslam||Liberal|
|James Parker Smith||Partick||1890||Robert Balfour||Liberal|
|Sir Walter Thorburn||Peebles and Selkirk||1886||Alexander Murray||Liberal|
|John Stroyan||West Perthshire||1900||David Charles Erskine||Liberal|
|Robert Purvis||Peterborough||1895||Granville Greenwood||Liberal|
|Herbert Jessel||St Pancras South||1896||Philip Whitwell Wilson||Liberal|
|Alexander Henderson||West Staffordshire||1898||Henry Duncan McLaren||Liberal|
|Sir Cuthbert Quilter, 1st Baronet||Sudbury||1885||William Heaton-Armstrong||Liberal|
|Frederick Leveson-Gower||Sutherland||1900||Alpheus Morton||Liberal|
|John Spear||Tavistock||1900||Hugh Luttrell||Liberal|
|Edwin Durning-Lawrence||Truro||1895||George Hay Morgan||Liberal|
|Alfred Lyttelton||Warwick and Leamington||Secretary of State for the Colonies (1903-1905)||1895||Thomas Berridge||Liberal|
|Conservative||Archie Loyd||Abingdon||1895||Edward Strauss||Liberal|
|Coningsby Disraeli||Altrincham||1892||William Crossley||Liberal|
|Herbert Huntington-Whiteley||Ashton-under-Lyne||1895||Alfred Scott||Liberal|
|Albert Brassey||Banbury||1895||Eustace Fiennes||Liberal|
|Sir Charles Cayzer, 1st Baronet||Barrow-in-Furness||1892||Charles Duncan||Labour|
|Frederick Milner||Bassetlaw||1890||Frank Newnes||Liberal|
|Sir Wyndham Murray||Bath||1892||Donald Maclean||Liberal|
|Charles Pym||Bedford||1895||Percy Barlow||Liberal|
|Harry Cust||Bermondsey||1890||George Cooper||Liberal|
|Sir Mancherjee Bhownaggree||Bethnal Green North East||1895||Edwin Andrew Cornwall||Liberal|
|Samuel Ridley||Bethnal Green South West||1900||Edward Pickersgill||Liberal|
|Sir Elliott Lees, 1st Baronet||Birkenhead||1894||Henry Vivian||Liberal|
|George Goschen||East Grinstead, contesting Bolton||1895||Alfred Henry Gill||Labour|
|William Garfit||Boston||1895||George Henry Faber||Liberal|
|Ernest Flower||Bradford West||1895||Fred Jowett||Labour|
|James Bigwood||Brentford||1886||Vickerman Rutherford||Liberal|
|John Gordon||Elginshire & Nairnshire, contesting Brighton||1895||Aurelian Ridsdale||Liberal|
|John Eustace Jameson||West Clare, contesting Chatham||1895||John Jenkins||Labour|
|Charles Algernon Whitmore||Chelsea||1886||Emslie Horniman||Liberal|
|James Agg-Gardner||Cheltenham||1874||John Sears||Liberal|
|Lord Bingham||Chertsey||1904||Francis Marnham||Liberal|
|Robert Yerburgh||Chester||1886||Alfred Mond||Liberal|
|Raymond Greene||Chesterton||1895||Edwin Samuel Montagu||Liberal|
|Kenneth Balfour||Christchurch||1895||Arthur Acland Allen||Liberal|
|Benjamin Bathurst||Christchurch||1895||Walter Essex||Liberal|
|Sir John Randles||Cockermouth||1895||Sir Wilfrid Lawson, 2nd Baronet, of Brayton||Liberal|
|Sir William Hart Dyke, 7th Baronet||Dartford||Vice-President of the Committee of the Council on Education (1887-1892)||1865||James Rowlands||Liberal|
|George Thomas Kenyon||Denbigh Boroughs||1900||Clement Edwards||Liberal|
|Arthur Henry Aylmer Morton||Deptford||1897||C. W. Bowerman||Labour|
|John Gretton||South Derbyshire||1895||Herbert Raphael||Liberal|
|Frederick Fison||Doncaster||1895||Charles Norris Nicholson||Liberal|
|William Brymer||South Dorset||1891||Thomas Scarisbrick||Liberal|
|George Goschen||East Grinstead, contesting Bolton||1895||Alfred Henry Gill||Labour|
|Sir Lindsay Lindsay-Hogg, 1st Baronet||Eastbourne||1900||Hubert Beaumont||Liberal|
|Henry Bowles||Enfield||1889||James Branch||Liberal|
|Claude Lowther||Eskdale||1900||Geoffrey Howard||Liberal|
|Edgar Vincent||Exeter||1899||Sir George Kekewich||Liberal|
|John Howard||Faversham||1900||Thomas Napier||Liberal|
|Edward Goulding||Devizes, contesting Finsbury Central||1900||W. C. Steadman||Liberal|
|Hayes Fisher||Fulham||Financial Secretary to the Treasury (1902-1903)||1885||Timothy Davies||Liberal|
|Windham Wyndham-Quin||South Glamorganshire||1895||William Brace||Labour|
|Bonar Law||Glasgow Blackfriars and Hutchesontown||Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade (1902-1905)||1900||George Barnes||Labour|
|Charles Dickson||Glasgow Bridgeton||Lord Advocate (1903-1905)||1900||James William Cleland||Liberal|
|John George Alexander Baird||Glasgow Central||1886||Andrew Mitchell Torrance||Liberal|
|Sir John Stirling-Maxwell, 10th Baronet||Glasgow College||1895||Harry Watt||Liberal|
|John Wilson||Glasgow St. Rollox||1900||McKinnon Wood||Liberal|
|James Reid||Greenock||1900||Halley Stewart||Liberal|
|Lord Hugh Cecil||Greenwich||1895||Richard Jackson||Liberal|
|St John Brodrick||Guildford||Secretary of State for India (1903-1905)||1880||Henry Cowan||Liberal|
|Augustus Henry Eden Allhusen||Hackney Central||1897||Albert Spicer||Liberal|
|William Robert Bousfield||Hackney North||1892||Thomas Hart-Davies||Liberal|
|Thomas Herbert Robertson||Hackney South||1895||Horatio Bottomley||Liberal|
|Arthur Heath||Hanley||1900||Enoch Edwards||Liberal|
|Robert Hermon-Hodge||Henley||1895||Philip Morrell||Liberal|
|Edward Chapman||Hyde||1900||Duncan Swann||Liberal|
|Henry Blundell-Hollinshead-Blundell||Ince||1895||Stephen Walsh||Labour|
|Sir Charles Dalrymple, 1st Baronet||Ipswich||1868||Felix Cobbold||Liberal|
|Sir Benjamin Cohen, 1st Baronet||Islington East||1892||George Radford||Liberal|
|George Trout Bartley||Islington North||1885||David Waterlow||Liberal|
|Albert Rollit||Islington South||1886||Thomas Wiles||Liberal|
|Josceline Bagot||Kendal||1892||Dudley Stewart-Smith||Liberal|
|Sir Frederick Cook, 2nd Baronet||Kennington||1895||Stephen Collins||Liberal|
|Thomas Gibson Bowles||King's Lynn||1892||Carlyon Bellairs||Liberal|
|Mark MacTaggart-Stewart||Kirkcudbrightshire||1885||Gilbert McMicking||Liberal|
|Alan Egerton||Knutsford||1883||Alfred John King||Liberal|
|Frederick William Horner||Lambeth North||1900||Horatio Myer||Liberal|
|Gerald Balfour||Leeds Central||President of the Local Government Board (1905)||1885||Robert Armitage||Liberal|
|Henry Cautley||Leeds East||1900||James O'Grady||Labour|
|Charles Bill||Leek||1892||Robert Pearce||Liberal|
|John Rolleston||Leicester||1900||Ramsay MacDonald||Labour|
|Sir James Rankin, 1st Baronet||Leominster||1886||Edmund Lamb||Liberal|
|Harry Samuel||Limehouse||1895||William Pearce||Liberal|
|William Lawrence||Liverpool Abercromby||1885||J. E. B. Seely||Liberal|
|Francis Lucas||Lowestoft||1900||Edward Beauchamp||Liberal|
|Sir William Bromley-Davenport||Macclesfield||Financial Secretary to the War Office (1902-1905)||1886||William Brocklehurst||Liberal|
|Charles Hedley Strutt||Maldon||1895||Thomas Bethell||Liberal|
|Arthur Balfour||Manchester East||Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1902-1905)||1874||Thomas Gardner Horridge||Liberal|
|Sir James Fergusson, 6th Baronet||Manchester North East||Postmaster General (1891-1892)||1885||J. R. Clynes||Labour|
|William Johnson Galloway||Manchester South West||1895||George Davy Kelley||Labour|
|Samuel Sadler||Middlesbrough||1900||Havelock Wilson||Liberal|
|Harry Levy-Lewson||Mile End||1900||Bertram Straus||Liberal|
|Edward Pryce-Jones||Montgomery||1900||John Rees||Liberal|
|Henry Francis Compton||New Forest||1905||Sir Robert Hobart||Liberal|
|William Mount||Newbury||1900||Frederick Coleridge Mackarness||Liberal|
|Walter Richard Plummer||Newcastle-upon-Tyne||1900||Walter Hudson||Labour|
|George Renwick||Newcastle-upon-Tyne||1900||Thomas Cairns||Liberal|
|Richard Pilkington||Newton||1899||James Seddon||Labour|
|Sir Thomas Leigh Hare||South West Norfolk||1892||Richard Winfrey||Liberal|
|Sackville Stopford-Sackville||Northamptonshire North||1900||George Nicholls||Liberal|
|Edward FitzRoy||Northamptonshire South||1900||Archibald Grove||Liberal|
|Edward Bond||Nottingham East||1895||Sir Henry Cotton||Liberal|
|Lord Henry Cavendish-Bentinck||Nottingham South||1895||Arthur Richardson||Liberal|
|Francis Newdegate||Nuneaton||1892||William Johnson||Liberal|
|Sir Frederick Banbury||Peckham||1892||Charles Clarke||Liberal|
|Henry Duke||Plymouth||1900||Charles Mallet||Liberal|
|John Kerr||Preston||1903||John Thomas Macpherson||Labour|
|Sir William Tomlinson, 1st Baronet||Preston||1882||Harold Cox||Liberal|
|Ailwyn Fellowes||Ramsey||President of the Board of Agriculture (1905)||1887||Alexander Boulton||Liberal|
|Sir Hugh Shaw Stewart, 8th Baronet||East Renfrewshire||1886||Robert Laidlaw||Liberal|
|John Lloyd Wharton||Ripon||1886||H. F. B. Lynch||Liberal|
|Clement Royds||Rochdale||1895||Gordon Harvey||Liberal|
|Charles Tuff||Rochester||1903||Ernest Lamb||Liberal|
|Louis Sinclair||Romford||1897||John Bethell||Liberal|
|John Macdona||Rotherhithe||1892||Hubert Carr-Gomm||Liberal|
|Thomas Dewar||St George, Tower Hamlets||1900||William Wedgwood Benn||Liberal|
|Henry Seton-Karr||St Helens||1885||Thomas Glover||Labour|
|Edward Robert Pacy Moon||St Pancras North||1892||Willoughby Dickinson||Liberal|
|Harry Robert Graham||St Pancras West||1892||William Collins||Liberal|
|Frederick Platt-Higgins||Salford North||1895||William Pollard Byles||Liberal|
|James Grimble Groves||Salford South||1900||Hilaire Belloc||Liberal|
|Lees Knowles||Salford West||1886||George Wiliam Agnew||Liberal|
|James Hope||Sheffield Brightside||1900||Tudor Walters||Liberal|
|Henry Chaplin||Sleaford||President of the Local Government Board (1895-1900)||1868||Arnold Lupton||Liberal|
|Tankerville Chamberlayne||Southampton||1900||Sir Ivor Philips||Liberal|
|Sir James Heath, 1st Baronet||North West Staffordshire||1892||Alfred Billson||Liberal|
|Douglas Coghill||Stoke-upon-Trent||1895||John Ward||Liberal|
|Philip Foster||Stratford-on-Avon||1901||Thomas Kincaid-Smith||Liberal|
|Charles Cripps||Stretford||1901||Harry Nuttall||Liberal|
|John Stapylton Grey Pemberton||Sunderland||1900||Thomas Summerbell||Liberal|
|Charles Colston||Thornbury||1892||Athelstan Rendall||Liberal|
|Arthur Griffith-Boscawen||Tunbridge||1892||Alfred Paget Hedges||Liberal|
|Leverton Harris||Tynemouth||1900||Herbert James Craig||Liberal|
|James Bailey||Walworth||1895||Charles James O'Donnell||Liberal|
|Robert Pierpoint||Warrington||1892||Arthur Crosfield||Liberal|
|Frederick Halsey||Watford||1874||Nathaniel Micklem||Liberal|
|Robert Edmund Dickinson||Wells||1899||Thomas Ball Silcock||Liberal|
|Ernest Gray||West Ham North||1895||Charles Masterman||Liberal|
|The Lord Stanley||Westhoughton||Postmaster General (1903-1905)||1892||William Wilson||Labour|
|James Morrison||Wilton||1900||Levi Lapper Morse||Liberal|
|Joseph Hoult||Wirral||1900||William Lever||Liberal|
|Sir Alfred Hickman, 1st Baronet||Wolverhampton West||1892||Thomas Frederick Richards||Liberal|
|E. G. Pretyman||Woodbridge||Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty (1903-1905)||1895||Robert Lacey Everett||Liberal|
|George Herbert Morrell||Woodstock||1895||Ernest Bennett||Liberal|
|John Butcher||York||1892||Hamar Greenwood||Liberal|
|Liberal||Joseph Andrews||Barkston Ash||1905||George Lane-Fox||Conservative|
|Joseph Dobbie||Ayr Burghs||1904||George Younger||Conservative|
|Freeman Freeman-Thomas||Hastings||1900||Harvey du Cros||Conservative|
|Michael Foster||London University||1900||Philip Magnus||Conservative|
|Sir Francis Evans, 1st Baronet||Maidstone||1901||Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart||Conservative|
|Allan Heywood Bright||Oswestry||1904||William Clive Bridgeman||Conservative|
|Charles Frederick Hutchinson||Rye||1903||George Courthope||Conservative|
|John Bamford Slack||St Albans||1904||Hildred Carlile||Conservative|
|Edward Charles Ellice||St Andrews Burghs||1903||William Anstruther-Gray||Liberal Unionist|
|Noel Buxton||Whitby||1905||Gervase Beckett||Conservative|
|Free Trader||Arthur Elliot||City of Durham||Financial Secretary to the Treasury (1903)||1898||John Waller Hills||Liberal Unionist|
According to historian Lawrence Goldman:
The election of 1906 led eventually to old-age pensions, the Trade Boards Act of 1909 which applied minimum wages to the 'sweated trades', the redistributive 1909 'people's budget', the introduction of labour exchanges, the National Insurance Act of 1911, and the Parliament Act of that year which removed the House of Lords' veto on legislation from the Commons ... Though the eventual achievements of the parliament elected in 1906 were remarkable, the election was something of a fluke; the scale of the Liberal victory was in direct proportion to the scale of preceding Tory blunders but it exaggerated the degree of dependable Liberal support in the country. The subsequent elections in January and December 1910, during the crisis over the people's budget, saw the number of Liberal MPs reduced to 275 and 272 respectively, while Conservative support recovered and the party, together with their Liberal Unionist allies, took 273 and then 272 seats.
The landslide Liberal victory led to many Conservative and Unionist MPs losing what had previously been regarded as safe seats. This resulted in prominent Conservative ministers being unseated from their constituencies, including former Prime Minister Arthur Balfour. Only three of the Conservative cabinet which had served until December 1905 (one month before the election) held onto their seats, former Chancellor Austen Chamberlain, former Home Secretary Aretas Akers-Douglas, and former Secretary of State for War Hugh Arnold-Forster.
Arthur Balfour, who entered the general election as the Conservative Party leader and had until the month before been Prime Minister, unexpectedly lost his seat in the Manchester East constituency, a seat which he had represented since 1885. The result in Manchester East saw a large 22.4% swing to the Liberal candidate Thomas Gardner Horridge, much larger than the national 5.4% swing to the Liberals.
The Liberal candidate in Manchester East had been helped by a pact with the local Labour Party. Horridge said of his victory that "East Manchester is essentially a Labour constituency and the great Labour party has supported my candidacy very thoroughly and very loyally". He also said that "[Manchester East constituents] have returned me, I take it, first to uphold free trade, next to deal with Chinese labour, and after that to support legislation on the lines laid down in the programme of the Labour party, with which I am heartily in accord".
Balfour's unseating became symbolic of the Conservative Party's landslide defeat. The result has since been called one of the biggest upsets in British political history and remains the only instance of a former Prime Minister and Leader of the Opposition losing their seat in a general election.
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The Unionist Party was the main centre-right political party in Scotland between 1912 and 1965.
The 1950 United Kingdom general election was the first general election ever to be held after a full term of Labour government. The election was held on Thursday 23 February 1950. Despite polling over 700,000 votes more than the Conservatives, and receiving more votes than they had during the 1945 general election, Labour obtained a slim majority of just five seats—a stark contrast to 1945, when they had achieved a comfortable 146-seat majority. There was a national swing towards the Conservatives, who gained 90 seats. Labour called another general election in 1951.
The 1931 United Kingdom general election was held on Tuesday 27 October 1931 and saw a landslide election victory for the National Government which had been formed two months previously after the collapse of the second Labour government. Collectively, the parties forming the National Government won 67% of the votes and 554 seats out of 615. The bulk of the National Government's support came from the Conservative Party, and the Conservatives won 470 seats. The Labour Party suffered its greatest defeat, losing four out of five seats compared with the previous election. The Liberal Party, split into three factions, continued to shrink and the Liberal National faction never reunited. Ivor Bulmer-Thomas said the results "were the most astonishing in the history of the British party system". It is the most recent election where one party received an absolute majority of the votes cast and the last UK general election not to take place on a Thursday, and would be the last election until 1997 in which a party won over 400 seats in the House of Commons.
The 1924 United Kingdom general election was held on Wednesday 29 October 1924, as a result of the defeat of the Labour minority government, led by Ramsay MacDonald, in the House of Commons on a motion of no confidence. It was the third general election to be held in less than two years.
The January 1910 United Kingdom general election was held from 15 January to 10 February 1910. The government called the election in the midst of a constitutional crisis caused by the rejection of the People's Budget by the Conservative-dominated House of Lords, in order to get a mandate to pass the budget.
The Conservative Party is the oldest political party in the United Kingdom and arguably the world. The current party was first organized in the 1830s and the name "Conservative" was officially adopted, but the party is still often referred to as the Tory party. The Tories had been a coalition that more often than not formed the government from 1760 until the Reform Act 1832. Modernizing reformers said the traditionalistic party of "Throne, Altar and Cottage" was obsolete, but in the face of an expanding electorate 1830s–1860s it held its strength among royalists, devout Anglicans and landlords and their tenants.
The Tariff Reform League (TRL) was a protectionist British pressure group formed in 1903 to protest against what they considered to be unfair foreign imports and to advocate Imperial Preference to protect British industry from foreign competition. It was well funded and included politicians, intellectuals and businessmen, and was popular with the grassroots of the Conservative Party. It was internally opposed by the Unionist Free Food League but that had virtually disappeared as a viable force by 1910. By 1914 the Tariff Reform League had approximately 250,000 members. It is associated with the national campaign of Joseph Chamberlain, the most outspoken and charismatic supporter of Tariff Reform. The historian Bruce Murray has claimed that the TRL "possessed fewer prejudices against large-scale government expenditure than any other political group in Edwardian Britain".
Philip Milner Oliver CBE was a radical British Liberal Party politician in the United Kingdom who served for two short terms as Member of Parliament (MP) for Manchester Blackley.
The Bolton by-election, 1912 was a parliamentary by-election held for the British House of Commons constituency of Bolton in Lancashire on 23 November 1912. Bolton returned two Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post voting system.
The City of London by-election, February 1906 was a parliamentary by-election held on 27 February 1906 for the British House of Commons constituency of City of London, which covered the "Square Mile" which was the United Kingdom's traditional financial district.
The Bury by-election, 1902 was a by-election held in England on 10 May 1902 for the House of Commons constituency of Bury in Lancashire.
The Cambridge University by-election was a Parliamentary by-election. It returned two Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post voting system.
The New Forest by-election was a Parliamentary by-election. It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post voting system. It was the last by-election of the 27th Parliament to take place before the 1906 general election.
The Unionist Free Food League was a British pressure group formed on 13 July 1903 by Conservative and Liberal Unionist MPs who believed in free trade in order to campaign against Joseph Chamberlain's proposals for Tariff Reform, which would involve an import tax on food. About 40 Conservative and 20 Liberal Unionist MPs attended the initial meeting. Former Unionist Chancellor of the Exchequer Sir Michael Hicks Beach became president of the group, replaced in October 1903 by the Liberal Unionist party leader Duke of Devonshire.