Elections to the municipal and county councils of England and Wales were held in 1889. Elections to the various county councils were held in January 1889. Progressive candidates won a majority on London County Council, although at this point party labels were relatively unimportant, with municipal and county politics in Victorian Britain being somewhat detached from national politics, and national political divisions.Liberal candidates would do particularly well in Wales however, winning clear majorities in 11 of Wales' 13 counties. The Liberals only failed to take Brecknockshire and Radnorshire, which had hung councils. In the English counties the Liberals took only Cumberland, Holland, London, and the West Riding, with most councils being run on a non-party basis.
The elections were the first following the Local Government Act 1888, which had established county councils and county borough councils in England and Wales. Prior to the act there had been no elected body at the county level, with counties being governed by justices of the peace in Quarter Sessions.
A similar act - the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 - would later establish county councils in Scotland. Irish local governance would remain unreformed until 1898, and the passing of the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898.
|Isle of Ely||Independent||Details|
|Nottinghamshire||No overall control||Details|
|Brecknockshire||No overall control||Details|
|Radnorshire||No overall control||Details|
The United Kingdom is a unitary state with devolution that is governed within the framework of a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, is the head of state while the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, currently Boris Johnson, is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the British government, on behalf of and by the consent of the monarch, and the devolved governments of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the House of Commons and the House of Lords, as well as in the Scottish and Welsh parliaments and the Northern Ireland Assembly. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The highest court is the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
The politics of Scotland operate within the constitution of the United Kingdom, of which Scotland is a home nation. Scotland is a democracy, being represented in both the Scottish Parliament and the Parliament of the United Kingdom since the Scotland Act 1998. Most executive power is exercised by the Scottish Government, led by the First Minister of Scotland, the head of government in a multi-party system. The judiciary of Scotland, dealing with Scots law, is independent of the legislature and the executive. Scots law is primarily determined by the Scottish Parliament. The Scottish Government shares some executive powers with the Government of the United Kingdom's Scotland Office, a British government department led by the Secretary of State for Scotland.
An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law. The term may be titular, denoting a high-ranking member of a borough or county council, a council member chosen by the elected members themselves rather than by popular vote, or a council member elected by voters.
The Unionist Party was the main centre-right political party in Scotland between 1912 and 1965.
Politics of England forms the major part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with England being more populous than all the other countries of the United Kingdom put together. As England is also by far the largest in terms of area and GDP, its relationship to the UK is somewhat different from that of Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. The English capital London is also the capital of the UK, and English is the dominant language of the UK. Dicey and Morris (p26) list the separate states in the British Islands. "England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark.... is a separate country in the sense of the conflict of laws, though not one of them is a State known to public international law." But this may be varied by statute.
The Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that established a system of local government in Ireland similar to that already created for England, Wales and Scotland by legislation in 1888 and 1889. The Act effectively ended landlord control of local government in Ireland.
Referendums in the United Kingdom are occasionally held at a national, regional or local level. National referendums can be permitted by an Act of Parliament but by tradition are extremely rare due to the ancient principle of parliamentary sovereignty meaning that they cannot be constitutionally binding on either the Government or Parliament, although they usually have a persuasive political effect. Referendums are regulated through the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 whilst in Scotland referendums on devolved matters can be held under the Referendums (Scotland) Act 2020.
A police authority in the United Kingdom is a public authority that is responsible for overseeing the operations of a police force. The nature and composition of police authorities has varied over time, and there are now just four dedicated "police authorities" in the United Kingdom, although the term can refer to various similar successor bodies.
A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries.
Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland from 1840 to 2002. Broadly similar structures existed in Scotland from 1833 to 1975 with the reform of royal burghs and creation of police burghs.
Unionism in Scotland is a political movement which favours the continuation of the political union between Scotland and the other countries of the United Kingdom, and hence is opposed to Scottish independence. Scotland is one of four countries of the United Kingdom which has its own devolved government and Scottish Parliament, as well as representation in the UK Parliament. There are many strands of political Unionism in Scotland, some of which have ties to Unionism and Loyalism in Northern Ireland. The three main political parties in the UK—the Conservatives, Labour and Liberal Democrats—all support Scotland remaining part of the UK.
The 2005 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 5 May 2005, to elect 646 members to the House of Commons. The Labour Party, led by Tony Blair, won its third consecutive victory, with Blair becoming the only Labour leader besides Harold Wilson to form three majority governments. However, its majority fell to 66 seats compared to the 167-seat majority it had won four years before. This was the first time the Labour Party had won a third consecutive election, and remains the party's most recent general election victory.
The 2007 UK local government elections were held on 3 May 2007. These elections took place in most of England and all of Scotland. There were no local government elections in Wales though the Welsh Assembly had a general election on the same day. There were no local government elections in Northern Ireland. Just over half of English councils and almost all the Scottish councils began the counts on Friday, rather than Thursday night, because of more complex arrangements regarding postal votes.
Elections in England and Wales, 1949 held during the week of 4–9 April for County Council positions, resulted in sweeping Conservative gains and correspondingly heavy Labour losses. A remarkable feature of the elections was the "dead heat" in the London County Council between Labour and the Conservatives, who each won 64 seats, with the Liberals retaining one seat, that of Sir Percy Harris in Bethnal Green. Outside London, Labour lost its former control of Middlesex, Essex, Northumberland, and the West Riding of Yorkshire; retained control of Derbyshire, Durham, Glamorgan, Monmouthshire, and Nottinghamshire, but won Carmarthenshire, the only county gained by Labour.
There are five types of elections in the United Kingdom: elections to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, elections to devolved parliaments and assemblies, local elections, mayoral elections and Police and Crime Commissioner elections. Within each of those categories, there may also be by-elections. Elections are held on Election Day, which is conventionally a Thursday. Since the passing of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 for general elections, all five types of elections are held after fixed periods, though early elections to parliament and the devolved assemblies and parliaments can occur in certain situations. The five electoral systems used are: the single member plurality system (first-past-the-post), the multi-member plurality system, the single transferable vote, the additional member system and the supplementary vote.
In the United Kingdom, devolution is the Parliament of the United Kingdom's statutory granting of a greater level of self-government to the Scottish Parliament, the Senedd, the Northern Ireland Assembly and the London Assembly and to their associated executive bodies the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government, the Northern Ireland Executive and in England, the Greater London Authority and combined authorities.
The 1892 United Kingdom local elections took place throughout 1892. The elections were the second following the Local Government Act 1888 and Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889, which had established county councils and county borough councils in England, Wales, and Scotland. The election saw elections of members to these various new county councils.
Local elections in England and Wales were held on 6 May 2021 for more than 145 English local councils for around 5,000 seats, thirteen directly elected mayors in England, and 39 police and crime commissioners in England and Wales. There were also elections to the Scottish Parliament, Senedd and London Assembly, the last in conjunction with the London mayoral election.
The 1896 United Kingdom local elections took place in late 1896 for municipal councils, as well as Rural districts. Municipal elections were held across England and Wales on Monday 2 November, with Scotland holding municipal elections the following day. Municipal elections in Ireland took place later that month, on Wednesday 25 November.
Federalism in the United Kingdom refers to the distribution of power between countries and regions of the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom, despite being composed of four countries has traditionally been a unitary state governed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in Westminster. Instead of adopting a federal model, such as that of the United States, the United Kingdom employs a system of devolution, in which political power is gradually decentralised. Devolution differs from federalism in that devolved regions are not states and thus have no constitutional precedence. As such, an Act of Parliament could undo devolution, whereas the federal United States government cannot revoke a state's statehood. Devolution has only been extended to Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Greater London, with London being the only English region to have significantly devolved power.