1935 United Kingdom general election

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1935 United Kingdom general election
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
  1931 14 November 1935 1945  

All 615 seats in the House of Commons
308 seats needed for a majority
Turnout71.1%, Decrease2.svg5.3%
 First partySecond partyThird party
  Stanley Baldwin ggbain.35233.jpg Person attlee2.jpg Herbert Samuel.jpg
Leader Stanley Baldwin Clement Attlee Herbert Samuel
Party National Labour Liberal
Alliance National Government
Parties
Leader since7 June 1935 25 October 1935 4 November 1931
Leader's seat Bewdley Limehouse Darwen (defeated)
Last election554 seats, 67.2%52 seats, 30.8%32 seats, 6.5%
Seats won42915421
Seat changeDecrease2.svg 125Increase2.svg102Decrease2.svg11
Popular vote11,183,9087,984,9881,414,010
Percentage51.8%38.0%6.7%
SwingDecrease2.svg 15.4%Increase2.svg7.4%Increase2.svg0.2%

1935 UK general election map.svg
Colours denote the winning party—as shown in § Results

37th UK House of Commons (1935-1945).svg
Composition of the House of Commons after the election

Prime Minister before election

Stanley Baldwin
National

Prime Minister after election

Stanley Baldwin
National

The 1935 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 14 November 1935 and resulted in a large, albeit reduced, majority for the National Government now led by Stanley Baldwin of the Conservative Party. The greatest number of members, as before, were Conservatives, while the National Liberal vote held steady. The much smaller National Labour vote also held steady but the resurgence in the main Labour vote caused over a third of their MPs, including National Labour leader Ramsay MacDonald, to lose their seats.

Contents

Labour, under what was then regarded internally as the caretaker leadership of Clement Attlee following the resignation of George Lansbury slightly over a month before, made large gains over their very poor showing at the 1931 general election, and saw their highest share of the vote yet. They made a net gain of over a hundred seats, thus reversing much of the ground lost in 1931. The Liberals continued a slow political decline, with their leader, Sir Herbert Samuel, losing his seat.

The Independent Labour Party stood entirely separately from Labour for the first time since 1895, having stood candidates unendorsed by Labour at the 1931 general election and having disaffiliated fully from Labour in 1932. The Scottish National Party contested their first general election, and the Communist Party gained the West Fife seat, their first in ten years. Major election issues were stubborn unemployment and the role of the League of Nations, particularly regarding the Empire of Japan. Parliament was dissolved on 25 October. [1]

No general elections were held during the Second World War until Allied victory was assured via acts of Parliament; hence the 1935 House sat until 1945. This parliament would see two leadership changes. Neville Chamberlain took over from Stanley Baldwin as Prime Minister and Tory Leader in 1937. He in turn resigned in 1940 in favour of Winston Churchill, who led the three main parties in Parliament in government for the war.

This was the last election to be held during the reign of George V, who would die two months after the election.

Results

38733811542111
ConservativeLNNLNLabourLibO
1935 UK parliament.svg
UK General Election 1935
CandidatesVotes
PartyLeaderStoodElectedGainedUnseatedNet % of total %No.Net %
National Government
  Conservative Stanley Baldwin 5153875888362.947.810,025,0837.2
  National Liberal John Simon 44335725.43.7784,6080.0
  National Labour Ramsay MacDonald 208 1 651.31.5321,0280.0
  National N/A411430.20.353,1890.2
National Government (total) Stanley Baldwin 5834291213912569.851.811,183,90815.4
Opposition
  Labour Clement Attlee 5521541053+10225.038.07,984,988+7.4
  Liberal Herbert Samuel 16121315123.46.71,414,0100.3
  Ind. Labour Party James Maxton 17440+40.70.7136,208N/A
  Nationalist Thomas J. Campbell 220000.30.250,7470.1
  Independent Republican N/A300000.00.246,715N/A
  Independent National N/A220000.30.233,527N/A
  SNP Alexander MacEwen 800000.00.229,5170.0
  Ind. Conservative N/A300000.00.129,475N/A
  Communist Harry Pollitt 2 1 1 000.20.127,1770.2
  Independent N/A52 1 000.30.1+0.1
  Independent Labour N/A 1 00000.00.114,8670.0
  Liverpool Protestant Harry Longbottom 1 00000.00.06,6770.0
  Independent Progressive N/A 1 00000.00.06,421N/A
  Social Credit John Hargrave 300000.00.010,376N/A
  Plaid Cymru Saunders Lewis 1 00000.00.02,5340.0
  Independent Liberal N/A 1 00000.00.02,5250.0
 AgriculturalistN/A 1 00000.00.01,771N/A
  Christian Socialist N/A 1 00000.00.01,480N/A

Votes summary

Popular vote
Conservative
47.76%
Labour
38.04%
Liberal
6.74%
Liberal National
3.74%
National Labour
1.53%
Others
2.20%
Popular vote (as National Gov't)
National Gov't
53.28%
Labour
38.04%
Liberal
6.74%
Others
1.95%

Seats summary

Parliamentary seats
Conservative
62.93%
Labour
25.04%
Liberal National
5.37%
Liberal
3.41%
National Labour
1.30%
Others
1.95%
Parliamentary seats (as National Gov't)
National Gov't
69.76%
Labour
25.04%
Liberal
3.41%
Others
1.79%

Transfers of seats

ToFromNo.Seats
Communist Conservative 1 Fife West
Ind. Labour Party 1 Camlachie
Labour Liberal 11 Edinburgh East, South Shields, Durham, Bethnal Green North-East†, Lambeth North†, Whitechapel and St Georges, Middlesbrough East, Dewsbury, Colne Valley, Wrexham, Carmarthen
National Labour 6 Ilkeston, Seaham, Forest of Dean, Finsbury, Tottenham South, Bassetlaw
National Liberal 7 Western Isles, Dunfermline Burghs, Bishop Auckland, Consett, Shoreditch, Barnsley, Burnley
National Independent2 Southwark Central, Burslem [lower-alpha 1]
Conservative 79 Aberdeen North, Stirling and Falkirk, Clackmannan and Eastern Stirlingshire, Stirlingshire West, Kirkcaldy Burghs, Maryhill, Motherwell, Bothwell, Coatbridge, Springburn, Tradeston, Ayrshire South, Linlithgow, Whitehaven, Derbyshire North East, Chesterfield, Blaydon, Houghton-le-Spring, Jarrow, Barnard Castle, Sedgefield, East Ham S, Leyton West, Romford, Upton†, Bristol South, Kingston upon Hull Central, Kingston upon Hull East, Ashton-under-Lyne, Farnworth, Ardwick, Clayton, Gorton, Platting, Rochdale, Everton, West Toxteth, Newton, St Helens, Brigg, Battersea North, Camberwell North, Deptford, Hackney Central , Hackney South, Hammersmith North†, Islington South, Islington West, Rotherhithe, Southwark South East, Mile End, Willesden West, Edmonton, Tottenham North, Morpeth, Nottingham West, Cannock, Hanley, Kingswinford, Leek, Stoke, Wednesbury†, West Bromwich, Nuneaton, Shipley, Wakefield†, Sheffield Park, Rotherham†, Bradford Central, Keighley, Pontefract, Hillsborough, Attercliffe, Brightside, Penistone, Leeds South, Doncaster, Batley and Morley, Nelson and Colne
Labour gains:105
Liberal Conservative 3 Cumberland North, Barnstaple, Berwick-upon-Tweed
National Labour Liberal 1 Leicester West
National Liberal 1 Walsall*
Conservative 2 Sunderland (one of two), Oldham (one of two)
National Liberal gains:3
National Independent Conservative 1 Brecon and Radnor
Conservative Liberal 4 Orkney and Shetland, Banff, Bodmin, Darwen
National Liberal 1 Flintshire [lower-alpha 2]
Conservative gains:5
  1. Sitting MP had defected to National Liberals.
  2. Sitting MP had defected to Liberals.

Constituency results

These are available on the Political Science Resources Elections Database, a link to which is given below.

See also

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References

  1. "Parliamentary Election Timetables" (PDF) (3rd ed.). House of Commons Library. 25 March 1997. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  2. Tetteh, Edmund (1 February 2008). "Election Statistics: UK 1918–2007". parliament.uk. Retrieved 5 May 2018.

Further reading

Manifestos