City of London (UK Parliament constituency)

Last updated

City of London
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
CityofLondon1868.png
City of London in the Metropolis, 1868-85
1298–1885
Number of membersfour
18851950
Number of memberstwo
Replaced by Cities of London and Westminster (to form north-eastern part of)

The City of London was a United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency. It was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1950.

Contents

Boundaries and boundary changes

This borough constituency (or 'parliamentary borough/burgh') consisted of the City of London, which is at the very centre of Greater London. The only change by the Parliamentary Boundaries Act 1832 was to include The Temple. [1]

Bounded south by the Thames, the City adjoins Westminster westward, enfranchised in 1545. [2] In other directions a web of tiny liberties and parishes of diverse size adjoined from medieval times until the 20th century. Most of the population of Middlesex was beyond the city's boundaries. From the 17th century three of four new 'divisions' of Ossulstone Hundred adjoined the city reflecting their relative density – Holborn division and Finsbury division to the north and Tower division to the north-east and the east, all enfranchised in 1832.

London is first known to have been enfranchised and represented in Parliament in 1298. Because it was the most important city in England it received four seats in Parliament instead of the normal two for a constituency. Previous to 1298 from the middle of that century, the intermittent first parliaments, the area's households, officially, could turn to their Middlesex "two knights of the shire" – two members of the Commons – as to their interests in Parliament as the City formed part of the geographic county yet from early times wielded independent administration, its Corporation.

The City was represented by four MPs until 1885, when this was cut to two, and in 1950 the constituency was abolished.

The City of London was originally a densely populated area. Before the Reform Act 1832 the composition of the City electorate was not as democratic as that of some other borough constituencies, such as neighbouring Westminster. The right of election was held by members of the Livery Companies. However the size and wealth of the community meant that it had more voters than most other borough constituencies. Namier and Brooke estimated the size of the City electorate, in the latter part of the 18th century, at about 7,000. Only Westminster had a larger size of electorate.

During the 19th and 20th centuries the metropolitan area of London expanded greatly. The resident population of the City fell. People moved to the new definitively urban expansion and suburbs; businesses moved in. However the City authorities did not want to extend their jurisdiction beyond the traditional "square mile" so the constituency was left unchanged as its resident population fell. By 1900 almost all electors in the City qualified through Livery Company membership and lived outside of the City. The business voters were a type of plural voter which when abolished by the Representation of the People Act 1948 meant the City became immediately under-sized in electorate, akin to the least-worst examples of pre-1832 "rotten and pocket boroughs".

In 1950 the area was merged for Parliamentary purposes with the eldest parts of the neighbouring City of Westminster, to form the seat Cities of London and Westminster. The pre-1900 heavily-subdivided city became simplified for the period 1907 and 1965 into one civil parish, before in that year this level of local government complication was taken away. Statutory protection applied between 1986 and 2011 to prevent division of the City between seats:

There shall continue to be a constituency which shall include the whole of the City of London and the name of which shall refer to the City of London"

Parliamentary Constituencies Act 1986 Sch.2 Rule 3 (repealed, 2011) [3]

Members of Parliament 1707–1950

See City of London (elections to the Parliament of England) for citizens known to have represented the City in Parliament before 1707

Parliaments of Great Britain 1707–1800

FromToNameBornDied
17071715Sir William Withers (T)c. 165431 January 1721
17081710 John Ward (W)c. 165012 March 1726
17101715Sir Richard Hoare (T)8 September 16496 January 1719
17101714Sir George Newland (T)c. 164626 March 1714
17101715Sir John Cass (T)28 February 16615 July 1718
17151722 Robert Heysham (W)16 August 166325 February 1723
17151722Sir John Ward (W)c. 165012 March 1726
17151724 Peter Godfrey (T)166510 November 1724
17151722Sir Thomas Scawen (W)c. 165022 September 1730
17221727 Richard Lockwood (T)167630 August 1756
17221761 Sir John Barnard (W)c. 168529 August 1764
17221727 Francis Child (T)c. 168420 April 1740
17241727Sir Richard Hopkins ...2 January 1746
17271734 Sir John Eyles, Bt (W)168311 March 1745
17271741 Micajah Perry (W)...22 January 1753
17271741 Humphry Parsons (T)c. 167621 March 1741
17341741 Robert Willimot (T)...19 December 1746
17411747 George Heathcote (T)7 December 17007 June 1768
17411747Sir Daniel Lambert (T)7 September 168513 May 1750
17411742Sir Robert Godschall (T)c. 169226 June 1742
17421754Sir William Calvert (W)c. 17033 May 1761
17471758 Slingsby Bethell (W)16 March 16951 November 1758
17471754 Stephen Janssen (W)...1777
17541773Sir Robert Ladbroke c. 171331 October 1773
17541770 William Beckford 19 December 170921 June 1770
17581768 Sir Richard Glyn 13 June 17111 January 1773
17611774Hon. Thomas Harley 24 August 17301 December 1804
17681774 Barlow Trecothick c. 171828 May 1775
17701780 Richard Oliver 7 January 173516 April 1784
17731784 Frederick Bull c. 171410 January 1784
17741780 John Sawbridge 173221 February 1795
17741781 George Hayley ...30 August 1781
17801780 John Kirkman 174119 September 1780
17801790 Nathaniel Newnham c. 174126 December 1809
17801795 John Sawbridge 173221 February 1795
17811796Sir Watkin Lewes c. 174013 July 1821
17841793 Brook Watson 11 February 17352 October 1807
17901800 Sir William Curtis 25 January 175218 January 1829
17931800 Sir John Anderson, Bt c. 173521 May 1813
17951800 William Lushington 18 January 174711 September 1823
17961800 Harvey Christian Combe 17524 July 1818

Note:-

Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801

MPs 1801–1885

ElectionMemberPartyMemberPartyMemberPartyMemberParty
1801 Sir William Curtis, Bt Tory [4] Sir John Anderson, Bt Tory [4] William Lushington Non-partisan Harvey Christian Combe Whig [4]
1802 Sir Charles Price Tory [4]
1806 Sir James Shaw, Bt Tory [4]
1812 John Atkins Tory [4]
1817 by-election Sir Matthew Wood, Bt Whig [4] [5]
1818 Thomas Wilson Tory [4] Robert Waithman Whig [4] [6] John Thomas Thorp Whig [4]
1820 Sir William Curtis, Bt Tory [4] George Bridges Tory [4]
1826 William Thompson Tory [4] Robert Waithman Whig, Liberal [4] [6] William Ward Tory [4]
1831 William Venables Whig [4] [7]
1832 George Grote Radical [4] [8] Sir John Key, Bt Whig [4] [9]
March 1833 by-election George Lyall Conservative [4] [10]
August 1833 by-election William Crawford Whig [4] [5] [8]
1835 James Pattison Whig [4] [5] [11]
1841 John Masterman Conservative [4] [10] George Lyall Conservative [4] [10] Lord John Russell Whig [4] [12]
1843 by-election James Pattison Whig [4] [11]
1847 Baron Lionel de Rothschild Whig [12]
1849 by-election Sir James Duke, Bt Whig [13]
1857 Robert Wigram Crawford Whig [14] [15]
1859 Liberal Liberal Liberal Liberal
1861 by-election Western Wood Liberal
1863 by-election George Goschen Liberal
1865 William Lawrence Liberal
1868 Charles Bell Conservative
1869 by-election Baron Lionel de Rothschild Liberal
1874 William Cotton Conservative Philip Twells Conservative John Hubbard Conservative
1880 Sir Robert Fowler, Bt Conservative William Lawrence Liberal
1885 reduced to two seats

MPs 1885–1950

ElectionMemberPartyMemberParty
1885 John Hubbard Conservative Sir Robert Fowler, Bt Conservative
1887 by-election Thomas Baring Conservative
Apr 1891 by-election Hucks Gibbs Conservative
Jun 1891 by-election Sir Reginald Hanson, Bt Conservative
1892 Alban Gibbs Conservative
1900 Sir Joseph Dimsdale (C) Conservative
1906 Sir Edward Clarke Conservative
Feb 1906 by-election Arthur Balfour Conservative
Jun 1906 by-election Sir Frederick Banbury, Bt Conservative
1918 Coalition Conservative Coalition Conservative
1922 by-election Edward Grenfell Conservative
1922 Conservative
1924 by-election Sir Vansittart Bowater, Bt Conservative
1935 by-election Sir Alan Anderson Conservative
1938 by-election Sir George Broadbridge, Bt Conservative
1940 by-election Sir Andrew Rae Duncan National
1945 by-election Ralph Assheton Conservative
1950 Constituency abolished

Elections

In multi-member elections the bloc voting system was used. Voters could cast a vote for one to four (or up to two in two-member elections 1885-1950) candidates, as they chose. The leading candidates with the largest number of votes were elected. In 1868 the limited vote was introduced, which restricted an individual elector to using one, two or three votes, in elections to fill four seats.

In by-elections, to fill a single-seat, the first past the post system applied.

After 1832, when registration of voters was introduced, a turnout figure is given for contested elections. In multi-member elections, when the exact number of participating voters is unknown, this is calculated by dividing the number of votes by four (to 1868), three (1868–1885) and two thereafter. To the extent that electors did not use all their votes this will be an underestimate of turnout.

Where a party had more than one candidate in one or both of a pair of successive elections change is calculated for each individual candidate, otherwise change is based on the party vote.

Candidates for whom no party has been identified are classified as non-partisan. The candidate might have been associated with a party or faction in Parliament or consider himself to belong to a particular political tradition. Political parties before the 19th century were not as cohesive or organised as they later became. Contemporary commentators (even the reputed leaders of parties or factions) in the 18th century did not necessarily agree who the party supporters were. The traditional parties, which had arisen in the late 17th century, became increasingly irrelevant to politics in the 18th century (particularly after 1760), although for some contests in some constituencies party labels were still used. It was only towards the end of the century that party labels began to acquire some meaning again, although this process was by no means complete for several more generations.

Sources: The results are based on the History of Parliament Trust's volumes on the House of Commons in various periods from 1715–1820, Stooks Smith from 1820 until 1832 and Craig from 1832. Where Stooks Smith gives additional information this is indicated in a note. See references below for further details of these sources.

Dates of general and by-elections from 1660-1715 (excluding general elections at which no new MP was returned)

  • 27 Mar 1660
  • 19 Mar 1661
  • 10 Feb 1663
  • 17 Feb 1679
  • 15 May 1685
  • 9 Jan 1689
  • 14 May 1689
  • 11 Mar 1690
  • 2 Mar 1693
  • 25 Oct 1695
  • 30 Jul 1698
  • 1 Feb 1701
  • 20 Mar 1701
  • 24 Nov 1701
  • 18 Aug 1702
  • 17 May 1705
  • 16 Dec 1707
  • 14 May 1708
  • 16 Nov 1710

Parliament of Great Britain election results 1713–1800

1710s

1720s1730s1740s1750s1760s1770s1780s1790s

Elections in the 1710s

General election 1713: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory Richard Hoare 3,84212.84N/A
Tory George Newland 3,82612.78N/A
Tory John Cass 3,80212.70N/A
Tory William Withers 3,76312.57N/A
Whig John Ward 3,73012.46N/A
Whig Robert Heysham 3,68812.32N/A
Whig Peter Godfrey 3,65712.22N/A
Whig Thomas Scawen 3,62512.11N/A
General election 29 January 1715: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Robert Heysham 3,49913.86N/A
Whig John Ward 3,47513.76N/A
Tory Peter Godfrey 3,47113.75N/A
Whig Thomas Scawen 3,43913.62N/A
Tory John Cass 2,88411.42N/A
Tory William Withers 2,87911.40N/A
Tory William Stewart 2,82811.20N/A
Tory George Mertinns 2,77410.99N/A

Elections in the 1720s

General election 9 May 1722: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory Richard Lockwood 4,23518.40+18.40
Whig John Barnard 3,98017.29+17.29
Tory Peter Godfrey 3,85216.74+2.99
Tory Francis Child 3,78416.44+16.44
Tory Humphrey Parsons 3,59315.61+15.61
Whig Robert Heysham 3,57315.52+1.66
By-Election 11 December 1724: City of London
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Richard Hopkins 3,33253.37+53.37
Non Partisan Charles Goodfellow 2,91146.63+46.63
Majority4216.74N/A
Non Partisan gain from Tory Swing N/A
General election 24 November 1727: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig John Eyles 3,64313.71+13.71
Whig John Barnard 3,62013.62-3.67
Whig Micajah Perry 3,49413.15+13.15
Tory Humphry Parsons 3,37012.68-2.93
Non Partisan John Thompson 3,34012.57+12.57
Tory Richard Lockwood 3,08611.61-6.79
Non Partisan John Williams 3,01711.35+11.35
Non Partisan Richard Hopkins 3,01011.32+11.32

Elections in the 1730s

General election 10 May 1734: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory Humphrey Parsons 3,93221.92+9.24
Whig John Barnard 3,84121.41+7.79
Whig Micajah Perry 3,72520.76+7.61
Tory Robert Willimot 2,98416.63+16.63
Tory John Barber 2,38113.27+13.27
Tory Robert Godschall 1,0786.01+6.01

Elections in the 1740s

General election 13 May 1741: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig John Barnard 3,76921.35-0.06
Tory George Heathcote 3,32218.82+18.82
Tory Daniel Lambert 3,21718.23+18.23
Tory Robert Godschall 3,14317.81+11.80
Whig Micajah Perry 1,7139.71-11.05
Non Partisan Edward Bellamy 1,3127.43+7.43
Non Partisan Edward Vernon 1,1756.66+6.66
By-Election 13 July 1742: City of London
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig William Calvert UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig gain from Tory Swing N/A
General election 10 July 1747: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig William Calvert 3,80620.85+20.85
Whig John Barnard 3,78120.71-0.64
Whig Slingsby Bethell 3,14617.23+17.23
Whig Stephen Janssen 3,00816.48+16.48
Tory Daniel Lambert 2,53013.86-4.37
Tory Robert Ladbroke 1,98610.88+10.88

Elections in the 1750s

General election 7 May 1754: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan John Barnard 3,55318.96-1.75
Non Partisan Slingsby Bethell 3,54718.93+1.70
Non Partisan Robert Ladbroke 3,39018.09+7.21
Non Partisan William Beckford 2,94115.70+15.70
Non Partisan Richard Glyn 2,65514.17+14.17
Non Partisan William Calvert 2,65014.14-6.71
By-Election 30 November 1758: City of London
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Richard Glyn UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1760s

General election 4 April 1761: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Robert Ladbroke 4,30623.36+5.27
Non Partisan Thomas Harley 3,98321.61+21.61
Non Partisan William Beckford 3,66319.87+4.17
Non Partisan Richard Glyn 3,28517.83+3.66
Non Partisan Samuel Fludyer 3,19317.32+17.32
General election 25 March 1768: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Pro-Government Thomas Harley 3,72919.02-2.59
Independent Opposition Robert Ladbroke 3,67818.76-4.60
Non Partisan William Beckford 3,40217.35-2.52
Rockingham Whigs Barlow Trecothick 2,95715.08+15.08
Non Partisan Richard Glyn 2,82314.40-3.43
Non Partisan John Paterson 1,7699.02+9.02
Radical John Wilkes 1,2476.36+6.36

Elections in the 1770s

By-Election 11 July 1770: City of London
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical Richard Oliver UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
By-Election 23 December 1773: City of London
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical Frederick Bull 2,69552.07+52.07
Non Partisan John Roberts 2,48147.93+47.93
Majority2144.13N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General election 18 October 1774: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical John Sawbridge 3,45617.81+17.81
Radical George Hayley 3,39017.47+17.47
Independent Radical/Opposition Richard Oliver 3,35417.28+17.28
Radical Frederick Bull 3,09615.95+15.95
Non Partisan William Baker 2,80214.44+14.44
Non Partisan Brass Crosby 1,9139.86+9.86
Non Partisan John Roberts 1,3987.20+7.20

Elections in the 1780s

General election 19 September 1780: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan George Hayley 4,06221.63+4.16
Non Partisan John Kirkman 3,80420.26+20.26
Non Partisan Frederick Bull 3,15016.77+0.83
Non Partisan Nathaniel Newnham 3,03616.17+16.17
Non Partisan John Sawbridge 2,95715.75-2.06
Non Partisan Richard Clarke 1,7719.43+9.43
By-Election 28 November 1780: City of London
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan John Sawbridge UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
By-Election 2 October 1781: City of London
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Watkin Lewes 2,68553.05+53.05
Non Partisan Richard Clarke 2,38746.95+37.52
Majority3096.11N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
By-Election 26 January 1784: City of London
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Brook Watson 2,09766.78+66.78
Non Partisan Brass Crosby 1,04333.22+33.22
Majority1,05433.57N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General election 7 May 1784: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Brook Watson 4,77624.19+24.19
Non Partisan Watkin Lewes 4,54123.00+23.00
Non Partisan Nathaniel Newnham 4,46722.63+6.46
Non Partisan John Sawbridge 2,81214.24-1.51
Non Partisan Richard Atkinson 2,80314.20+14.20
Non Partisan Samuel Smith 2861.45+1.45
Non Partisan William Pitt 560.28+0.28

Elections in the 1790s

General election 26 June 1790: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan William Curtis 4,34622.16+22.16
Non Partisan Brook Watson 4,10120.91-3.28
Non Partisan Watkin Lewes 3,74719.10-3.90
Non Partisan John Sawbridge 3,68618.79+4.55
Non Partisan Nathaniel Newnham 2,67013.61-9.02
Non Partisan William Pickett 1,0645.42+5.42
By-Election 6 March 1793: City of London
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan John Anderson UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
By-Election 12 March 1795: City of London
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan William Lushington 2,33459.94+59.94
Non Partisan Harvey Christian Combe 1,56040.06+40.06
Majority77419.88N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General election 2 June 1796: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan William Lushington 4,37920.97+20.97
Non Partisan William Curtis 4,31320.66-1.50
Non Partisan Harvey Christian Combe 3,86518.51+18.51
Non Partisan John Anderson 3,17015.18+15.18
Non Partisan William Pickett 2,79513.39+7.97
Non Partisan Watkin Lewes 2,35611.28-7.82

Parliament of the United Kingdom election results (4 seats) 1801–1885

1800s

1810s1820s1830s1840s1850s1860s1870s1880s

Elections in the 1800s

General election 6 July 1802: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Harvey Christian Combe 3,37723.91+5.40
Tory Charles Price 3,23622.91+22.91
Tory William Curtis 2,98921.16+0.50
Tory John Anderson 2,38716.90+1.72
Whig Benjamin Travers 1,3719.71+9.71
Non Partisan Watkin Lewes 6524.62-6.66
Non Partisan William Lushington 1130.80-20.17
General election 31 October 1806: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Harvey Christian Combe 2,29424.11+0.20
Tory James Shaw 2,27523.91+23.91
Tory Charles Price 2,25423.69+0.78
Tory William Curtis 2,21323.26+2.10
Tory John Atkins 3143.30+3.30
Whig John Hankey 1641.72+1.72
General election 1807: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory Charles Price 3,11726.30+2.61
Tory William Curtis 3,05925.81+2.55
Tory James Shaw 2,86324.15+0.24
Whig Harvey Christian Combe 2,58821.83-2.28
Whig John Hankey 2261.91+0.19

Elections in the 1810s

General election 5 October 1812: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Harvey Christian Combe 5,12522.85+1.02
Tory William Curtis 4,57720.40-5.41
Tory James Shaw 4,08218.20-5.95
Tory John Atkins 3,64516.25+16.25
Whig Robert Waithman 2,62211.69+11.69
Whig Matthew Wood 2,37310.58+10.58
Non Partisan Claudius Hunter 80.04+0.04
By-Election 10 June 1817: City of London
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Matthew Wood UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General election 16 June 1818: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Matthew Wood 5,70022.38+11.80
Tory Thomas Wilson 4,82918.96+18.96
Whig Robert Waithman 4,69318.43+6.74
Whig John Thorp 4,33517.02+17.02
Tory William Curtis 4,22416.58-3.82
Tory John Atkins 1,6886.63-9.62

Elections in the 1820s

General election 7 March 1820: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Matthew Wood 5,37019.22-3.16
Tory Thomas Wilson 5,35819.18+0.22
Tory William Curtis 4,90817.57+0.99
Tory George Bridges 4,25915.25+15.25
Whig Robert Waithman 4,11914.74-3.69
Whig John Thorp 3,92114.04-2.98
General election 9 June 1826: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory William Thompson 6,48324.71+24.71
Whig Robert Waithman 5,04219.21+4.47
Tory William Ward 4,99119.02+19.02
Whig Matthew Wood 4,88018.60-0.62
Whig William Venables 4,51417.20+17.20
Whig Alderman Garrett 3301.26+1.26

Elections in the 1830s

General election 1830: City of London (4 seats) [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory William Thompson Unopposed
Whig Robert Waithman Unopposed
Tory William Ward Unopposed
Whig Matthew Wood Unopposed
Tory hold
Whig hold
Tory hold
Whig hold
General election 29 April 1831: City of London (4 seats) [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory William Thompson Unopposed
Whig Robert Waithman Unopposed
Whig Matthew Wood Unopposed
Whig William Venables Unopposed
Tory hold
Whig hold
Whig hold
Whig gain from Tory
General election 12 December 1832: City of London (4 seats) [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical George Grote 8,41223.9N/A
Whig Matthew Wood 7,48821.3N/A
Whig Robert Waithman 7,45221.2N/A
Whig John Key 6,13617.4N/A
Tory George Lyall 5,11214.5N/A
Radical Michael Scales 5691.6N/A
Turnout 11,50061.9N/A
Registered electors 18,584
Majority9242.6N/A
Radical gain from Tory Swing N/A
Majority1,0242.9N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
By-election, 27 February 1833: City of London [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory George Lyall 5,56955.2+40.7
Whig William Venables 4,52744.815.1
Majority1,04210.3N/A
Turnout 10,09654.37.6
Registered electors 18,584
Tory gain from Whig Swing +27.9
By-election, 12 August 1833: City of London [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig William Crawford 4,04166.8+6.9
Tory Francis Kemble 2,00433.2+18.7
Majority2,03733.7+30.8
Turnout 6,04532.529.4
Registered electors 18,584
Whig hold Swing 5.9
General election 5 January 1835: City of London (4 seats) [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Matthew Wood 6,41816.94.4
Whig James Pattison 6,05015.95.3
Whig William Crawford 5,96115.71.7
Radical George Grote 5,95515.68.3
Conservative George Lyall 4,59912.1+7.3
Conservative William Ward 4,56012.0+7.2
Conservative Thomas Wilson 4,51411.9+7.1
Turnout 11,45662.60.7
Registered electors 18,288
Majority60.02.9
Whig hold Swing 4.9
Whig hold Swing 5.4
Whig hold Swing 3.6
Majority1,3563.6+1.0
Radical hold Swing 6.9
General election 1837: City of London (4 seats) [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Matthew Wood 6,51721.4+4.5
Whig William Crawford 6,07120.0+4.3
Whig James Pattison 6,07020.0+4.1
Radical George Grote 5,87919.3+3.7
Conservative John Hinde Palmer 5,87319.316.7
Turnout 11,93260.62.0
Registered electors 19,678
Majority1910.6+0.6
Whig hold Swing +4.3
Whig hold Swing +4.2
Whig hold Swing +4.1
Majority60.03.6
Radical hold Swing +3.9

Elections in the 1840s

General election 28 June 1841: City of London (4 seats) [4] [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative John Masterman 6,33912.8+8.0
Whig Matthew Wood 6,31512.88.6
Conservative George Lyall 6,29012.7+7.9
Whig John Russell 6,22112.6N/A
Conservative Matthias Wolverley Attwood 6,21212.5+7.7
Whig James Pattison 6,07012.37.7
Whig William Crawford 6,06512.27.8
Conservative John Pirie 6,01712.1+7.3
Turnout 12,383 (est)64.9 (est)+4.3
Registered electors 19,068
Majority240.0N/A
Conservative gain from Radical Swing N/A
Majority250.00.6
Whig hold Swing 8.2
Majority690.1N/A
Conservative gain from Whig Swing +8.0
Majority90.00.6
Whig hold Swing N/A
By-election, 20 October 1843: City of London [4] [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig James Pattison 6,53250.6+0.7
Conservative Thomas Baring 6,36749.40.7
Majority1651.3+1.3
Turnout 12,89964.40.5
Registered electors 20,030
Whig hold Swing +0.7
By-election, 8 July 1846: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig John Russell Unopposed
Whig hold
General election 28 July 1847: City of London (4 seats) [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig John Russell 7,13714.3+1.7
Whig James Pattison 7,03014.1+1.8
Whig Lionel de Rothschild 6,79213.6+0.8
Conservative John Masterman 6,72213.5+0.7
Whig George Larpent [16] 6,71913.5+1.3
Conservative Robert Cooper Lee Bevan [17] 5,26810.52.2
Conservative John Johnson 5,06910.12.4
Conservative James William Freshfield 4,7049.42.7
Radical William Payne [18] 5131.0N/A
Turnout 13,43767.0+2.1
Registered electors 20,057
Majority700.1+0.1
Whig hold Swing +1.7
Whig hold Swing +1.7
Whig gain from Conservative Swing +1.2
Majority30.0
Conservative hold Swing 0.4
By-election, 4 July 1849: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Lionel de Rothschild 6,01768.1+12.6
Conservative John Manners 2,81431.911.6
Majority3,20336.3+36.2
Turnout 8,83141.525.5
Registered electors 21,270
Whig hold Swing +12.1
By-election, 27 July 1849: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig James Duke Unopposed
Whig hold

Elections in the 1850s

General election 1852: City of London (4 seats) [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative John Masterman 6,19524.319.2
Whig John Russell 5,53721.7+7.4
Whig James Duke 5,27020.7+6.6
Whig Lionel de Rothschild 4,74818.6+5.0
Whig Robert Wigram Crawford 3,76514.8+1.3
Majority6582.6+2.6
Turnout 11,025 (est)53.2 (est)13.8
Registered electors 20,728
Conservative hold Swing 19.8
Whig hold Swing +6.1
Whig hold Swing +5.7
Whig hold Swing +4.9
By-Election 3 January 1853: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig John Russell Unopposed
Whig hold
By-Election 14 June 1854: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig John Russell Unopposed
Whig hold
By-Election 3 March 1855: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig John Russell Unopposed
Whig hold
General election 27 March 1857: City of London (4 seats) [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig James Duke 6,66422.4+1.7
Whig Lionel de Rothschild 6,39821.5+2.9
Whig John Russell 6,30821.20.5
Whig Robert Wigram Crawford 5,80819.6+4.8
Whig Raikes Currie 4,51915.2N/A
Majority1,2894.3N/A
Turnout 7,424 (est)38.8 (est)14.4
Registered electors 19,115
Whig hold Swing N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
Whig gain from Conservative Swing N/A
By-Election 28 July 1857: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Lionel de Rothschild Unopposed
Whig hold
General election 1859: City of London (4 seats) [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal James Duke Unopposed
Liberal Lionel de Rothschild Unopposed
Liberal John Russell Unopposed
Liberal Robert Wigram Crawford Unopposed
Registered electors 19,026
Liberal hold
Liberal hold
Liberal hold
Liberal hold
By-Election 27 June 1859: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal John Russell Unopposed
Liberal hold

Elections in the 1860s

By-election, 29 July 1861: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Western Wood 5,74752.3N/A
Conservative William Cubitt 5,24147.7N/A
Majority5064.6N/A
Turnout 10,98859.2N/A
Registered electors 18,562
Liberal hold Swing N/A
By-election, 2 June 1863: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal George Goschen Unopposed
Liberal hold
General election 10 July 1865: City of London (4 seats) [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal George Goschen 7,10219.9N/A
Liberal Robert Wigram Crawford 7,08619.9N/A
Liberal William Lawrence 6,63718.6N/A
Liberal Lionel de Rothschild 6,52518.3N/A
Conservative George Lyall 4,19711.8N/A
Conservative Robert Fowler 4,08611.5N/A
Majority2,3286.5N/A
Turnout 10,529 (est)67.8 (est)N/A
Registered electors 15,534
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
By-election, 26 February 1866: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal George Goschen Unopposed
Liberal hold
General election 16 November 1868: City of London (4 seats) [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal George Goschen 6,52015.14.8
Liberal Robert Wigram Crawford 6,25814.55.4
Liberal William Lawrence 6,21514.44.2
Conservative Charles Bell 6,13014.2+2.4
Conservative Philip Twells 6,09914.1+2.6
Conservative Sills John Gibbons 6,01313.9N/A
Liberal Lionel de Rothschild 5,99513.94.4
Turnout 12,328 (est)61.1 (est)6.7
Registered electors 20,185
Majority850.26.3
Liberal hold Swing 3.7
Liberal hold Swing 4.0
Liberal hold Swing 4.6
Majority1350.3N/A
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +2.5
By-election, 21 December 1868: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal George Goschen Unopposed
Liberal hold
By-election, 22 February 1869: City of London [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Lionel de Rothschild Unopposed
Liberal gain from Conservative

Elections in the 1870s

General election 10 February 1874: City of London (4 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Cotton 8,39718.7+4.5
Conservative Philip Twells 8,33018.6+4.5
Conservative John Hubbard 8,21018.3+4.4
Liberal George Goschen 6,78715.1+0.0
Liberal William Lawrence 6,65414.8+0.4
Liberal Lionel de Rothschild 6,49014.5+0.6
Majority1,4233.2+2.9
Turnout 14,956 (est)66.1 (est)+5.0
Registered electors 22,626
Conservative hold Swing +2.1
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +2.1
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +2.0
Liberal hold Swing 2.2

Elections in the 1880s

General election 3 April 1880: City of London (4 seats) [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Cotton 10,32621.3+2.6
Conservative Robert Fowler 10,27421.2+2.6
Conservative John Hubbard 10,25621.2+2.9
Liberal William Lawrence 5,95012.32.5
Liberal Richard Martin 5,83712.13.0
Liberal Walter Morrison 5,74311.92.6
Majority4,3068.9+5.7
Turnout 16,129 (est)67.1 (est)+1.0
Registered electors 24,042
Conservative hold Swing +2.6
Conservative hold Swing +2.8
Conservative hold Swing +2.8
Liberal hold Swing 2.6

Parliament of the United Kingdom election results (2 seats) 1885–1950

1880s

1890s1900s1910s1920s1930s1940s

Elections in the 1880s

Fowler Robert Nicholas Fowler, 1st Bt, by Frank Holl.jpg
Fowler
General election 1885: City of London (2 seats) [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Robert Fowler 12,827 38.8 +17.6
Conservative John Hubbard 8,802 26.7 +5.5
Liberal Stephen Low 5,81717.6+5.3
Ind. Conservative William Cotton 5,56316.94.4
Turnout 68.6+1.5 (est)
Registered electors 29,152
Conservative hold Swing +7.5
Conservative hold Swing +1.4
General election 1886: City of London (2 seats) [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Robert Fowler Unopposed
Conservative John Hubbard Unopposed
Conservative hold

Fowler was elevated to the peerage, becoming Lord Addington, requiring a by-election.

By-Election 27 July 1887: City of London [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Thomas Baring Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1890s

Baring's death caused a by-election.

By-Election 18 April 1891: City of London [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Hucks Gibbs Unopposed
Conservative hold

Fowler's death caused a by-election.

By-Election 3 June 1891: City of London [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Reginald Hanson Unopposed
Conservative hold
General election 1892: City of London (2 seats) [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Reginald Hanson 10,556 44.0 N/A
Conservative Alban Gibbs 9,258 38.5 N/A
Ind. Conservative James Ritchie 4,20717.5N/A
Majority5,05121.0N/A
Turnout 13,490 (est)41.3N/A
Registered electors 32,664
Conservative hold
Conservative hold
General election 1895: City of London (2 seats) [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Alban Gibbs Unopposed
Conservative Reginald Hanson Unopposed
Conservative hold
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1900s

General election 1900: City of London (2 seats) [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Alban Gibbs Unopposed
Conservative Joseph Dimsdale Unopposed
Conservative hold
Conservative hold
1904 City of London by-election [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Alban Gibbs Unopposed
Conservative hold
Clarke Sir Edward Clarke.jpg
Clarke
Schuster Felix Schuster.jpg
Schuster
Ridgeway West Ridgeway.jpg
Ridgeway
General election 1906: City of London (2 seats) [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Edward Clarke 16,019 38.0 N/A
Conservative Alban Gibbs 15,619 37.2 N/A
Liberal Felix Schuster 5,31312.7N/A
Liberal Joseph West Ridgeway 5,06412.1N/A
Majority10,30624.5N/A
Turnout 68.7N/A
Registered electors 31,030
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Balfour Arthur Balfour, photo portrait facing left.jpg
Balfour
February 1906 City of London by-election [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Arthur Balfour 15,474 78.9 +3.7
Free Trader Thomas Gibson Bowles 4,13421.1N/A
Majority11,34057.8+33.3
Turnout 19,60863.25.5
Registered electors 31,030
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Banbury Frederick Banbury.jpg
Banbury
June 1906 City of London by-election [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Frederick Banbury Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1910s

General election January 1910: City of London (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Arthur Balfour 17,907 45.0 +7.0
Conservative Frederick Banbury 17,302 43.4 +6.2
Liberal Hugh Bell 4,62311.613.2
Turnout 74.7+6.0
Registered electors 30,010
Majority12,67931.8+7.3
Conservative hold
Conservative hold
General election December 1910: City of London (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Arthur Balfour Unopposed
Conservative Frederick Banbury Unopposed
Conservative hold
Conservative hold
General election 1918: City of London (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
C Unionist Arthur Balfour Unopposed
C Unionist Frederick Banbury Unopposed
Unionist hold
Unionist hold
Cindicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920s

Bowater Bowater 4586276615 645365ed26 o.jpg
Bowater
1922 City of London by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Edward Grenfell 10,114 62.08 n/a
Ind. Conservative Vansittart Bowater 6,17837.92n/a
Majority3,93624.16n/a
Turnout 44,08336.96n/a
Unionist hold Swing n/a
General election 1922: City of London (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Frederick Banbury Unopposed n/a n/a
Unionist Edward Grenfell Unopposed n/a n/a
General election 1923: City of London (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Frederick Banbury Unopposed n/a n/a
Unionist Edward Grenfell Unopposed n/a n/a
Unionist hold Swing n/a
1924 City of London by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Vansittart Bowater 12,962 70.11 n/a
Liberal Henry Bell 5,52529.89n/a
Majority7,43740.23n/a
Turnout 44,13041.89n/a
Unionist hold Swing n/a
General election 1924: City of London (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Vansittart Bowater Unopposed n/a n/a
Unionist Edward Grenfell Unopposed n/a n/a
Jacobsen Thomas Owen Jacobsen.jpg
Jacobsen
General election 1929: City of London (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Vansittart Bowater 16,149 43.9 n/a
Unionist Edward Grenfell 16,092 43.7 n/a
Liberal Thomas Owen Jacobsen 4,57912.4n/a
Majority11,51331.3n/a
Turnout 46,46945.2n/a
Unionist hold Swing n/a

Elections in the 1930s

General election 1931: City of London (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Vansittart Bowater Unopposed n/a n/a
Conservative Edward Grenfell Unopposed n/a n/a
By-Election 26 June 1935: City of London
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Alan Anderson Unopposed n/a n/a
Conservative hold Swing n/a
General election 1935: City of London (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Alan Anderson Unopposed n/a n/a
Conservative Vansittart Bowater Unopposed n/a n/a
1938 United Kingdom by-elections
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative George Broadbridge Unopposed n/a n/a
Conservative hold Swing n/a

Elections in the 1940s

1940 City of London by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±
National Andrew Rae Duncan Unopposed n/a n/a
National gain from Conservative Swing n/a
General election 1945: City of London (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
National Andrew Rae Duncan 5,332 39.48 n/a
Conservative George Broadbridge 5,309 39.31 n/a
Liberal Andrew McFadyean 1,48711.01n/a
Independent S. W. Alexander 1,37910.21n/a
Turnout 10,85163.9n/a
1945 City of London by-election [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Ralph Assheton 4,506 74.99 +74.99
Liberal Arthur Comyns Carr 1,50325.01+14.00
Majority3,00349.98n/a
Turnout 11,65051.58-12.3
Conservative hold Swing n/a

See also

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References

  1. "2 & 3 Will. 4 c. 64 Schedule O 22". The Statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 2 & 3 William IV. London: His Majesty's Statute and Law Printers. 1832. p. 351. Retrieved 2 August 2019.; Commissioners on Proposed Division of Counties and Boundaries of Boroughs (20 January 1832). "City of London". Parliamentary Representation: Further Return to an Address to His Majesty, Dated 12 December, 1831; for Copies of Instructions Given by the Secretary of State for the Home Department with Reference to Parliamentary Representation; Likewise Copies of Letters of Reports Received by the Secretary of State for the Home Department in Answer to Such Instructions. Reports from Commissioners on Proposed Division of Counties and Boundaries of Boroughs. Volume II Part I. Parliamentary Papers. 1831–32 HC 39 (141) 1. p. 117. Retrieved 2 August 2019.; also Metropolitan Boroughs Map included with the report.
  2. [The House of Commons 1509–1558, by S.T. Bindoff (Secker & Warburg 1982)]
  3. Parliamentary Constituencies Act 1986 Sch.2 (as enacted) See instead substituted Sch.2 (16.2.2011) by Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011 (c. 1), ss. 11(1), 19(1) (with s. 13(5))
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  5. 1 2 3 "Dublin Evening Packet and Correspondent" . 27 July 1837. p. 2. Retrieved 21 October 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  6. 1 2 Fisher, David R. (2009). "London". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  7. Beaven, Alfred P. (1908). The Aldermen of the City of London Temp. Henry III - 1912. London: British History Online. pp. 261–297. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  8. 1 2 Churton, Edward (1838). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838 . Retrieved 21 October 2018 via Google Books.
  9. "Sir John Key, Bart". The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser. 10 May 1834. p. 3. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885(e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN   978-1-349-02349-3.
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  20. https://web.archive.org/web/20120206224812/http://by-elections.co.uk/45.html
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Tamworth
Constituency represented by the Prime Minister
1846–1852
Vacant
until 1855
Title next held by
Tiverton