Greater London

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Greater London

London region
Arms of the Greater London Council.svg
Coat of arms
Greater London administrative area in England.svg
Greater London county (red)
City of London (red & white stripes)
London region (both)
Coordinates: 51°30′N0°5′W / 51.500°N 0.083°W / 51.500; -0.083 Coordinates: 51°30′N0°5′W / 51.500°N 0.083°W / 51.500; -0.083
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Established1 April 1965
Established by London Government Act 1963
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of Parliament 73 MPs
Police City of London Police and Metropolitan Police
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Ken Olisa
High Sheriff John Garbutt [1] (2020–21)
Area1,569 km2 (606 sq mi)
  Ranked 25th of 48
Population (mid-2019 est.)8,899,375
  Ranked 1st of 48
Density5,671/km2 (14,690/sq mi)
Ethnicity59.8% White (of which 44.9% White British)
18.4% Asian
13.3% Black
5% mixed
3.4% other
Region
Government Greater London Authority
Mayor Sadiq Khan
London Assembly
Admin HQ Southwark
Area1,572 km2 (607 sq mi)
Population8,961,989 (mid-2019 estimate) [2]
Density5,701/km2 (14,770/sq mi)
ONS code H
GSS code E12000007
NUTS UKI
Website
London-counties.svg Counties of the London region
Counties
  1. City of London
  2. Greater London
Districts
London-boroughs.svg
Districts of Greater London
Districts

Greater London is a ceremonial county of England that makes up the majority of the London region. This region forms the administrative boundaries of London and is organised into 33 local government districts the 32 London boroughs and the City of London, which is located within the region but is separate from the county. The Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The City of London Corporation is the principal local authority for the City of London, with a similar role to that of the 32 London borough councils.

Contents

Greater London is also a region of England that can also be known as the London region. The London region can also be counted as part of South East region.

Administratively, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963. The area was re-established as a region in 1994. The Greater London Authority was formed in 2000. [3] [4] [5]

The region covers 1,572 km2 (607 sq mi) and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. [6] [7] [8] [9] The Greater London Built-up Area is used in some national statistics and is a measure of the continuous urban area and includes areas outside the administrative region.

History

The term Greater London has been and still is used to describe different areas in governance, statistics, history and common parlance.

In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London and the much wider Greater London. This arrangement has come about because as the area of London grew and absorbed neighbouring settlements, a series of administrative reforms did not amalgamate the City of London with the surrounding metropolitan area, and its unique political structure was retained. Outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965.

The term Greater London was used well before 1965, particularly to refer to the Metropolitan Police District (such as in the 1901 census), [10] the area of the Metropolitan Water Board (favoured by the London County Council for statistics), [11] the London Passenger Transport Area and the area defined by the Registrar General as the Greater London Conurbation. [12] The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916. [13] One of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles (4,810 km2) and included 9 million people. [11]

Proposals to expand the County of London

Although the London County Council (LCC) was created covering the County of London in 1889, the county did not cover all the built-up area, particularly West Ham and East Ham, and many of the LCC housing projects, including the vast Becontree Estates, were outside its boundaries. [14] The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan and City Police Districts there were 122 housing authorities. A Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue. [15] [16] The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties. [17] Protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor, Slough and Eton in the authority. [18] The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCC's scheme. Two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission. [19] Reform of local government in the County of London and its environs was next considered by the Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London, chaired by Sir Edwin Herbert, which issued the 'Herbert Report' after three years of work in 1960. The commission applied three tests to decide if a community should form part of Greater London: how strong is the area as an independent centre in its own right; how strong are its ties to London; and how strongly is it drawn outwards towards the country rather than inwards towards London.

Arms of the former Greater London Council Arms of the Greater London Council.svg
Arms of the former Greater London Council

Greater London is formally created

Greater London was formally created by the London Government Act 1963, which came into force on 1 April 1965, replacing the administrative counties of Middlesex and London, including the City of London, where the London County Council had limited powers, and absorbing parts of Essex, Hertfordshire, Kent and Surrey. Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council (GLC) sharing power with the City of London Corporation (governing the small City of London) and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. Its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. [20] Greater London formed the London region in 1994.

The 1998 London referendum established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999. In 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary. The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone (L), who had been the final leader of the GLC. The 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson (C). The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan (L). London was covered by a single Parliamentary constituency in the European Parliament prior to the departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union.

Geography

Map of Greater London showing railway lines, primary roads, motorways, and suburban towns of the county Greater London map with suburban towns.png
Map of Greater London showing railway lines, primary roads, motorways, and suburban towns of the county
The London postal district in red in contrast to Greater London London Postal District.png
The London postal district in red in contrast to Greater London

Greater London includes the most closely associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers and includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a similar way to the city's parks. The closest and furthest boundaries[ clarification needed ] are with Essex to the northeast between Sewardstonebury next to Epping Forest and Chingford and with the Mar Dyke between Bulphan and North Ockendon. Greater London is also bounded by Hertfordshire to the north, Berkshire and Buckinghamshire to the west, Kent to the southeast and Surrey to the south and southwest. The highest point is Westerham Heights, in the North Downs and on the boundary with Kent, at 245 metres (804 ft). Central government has implemented small boundary changes. The greatest were the 1969 transfers of Farleigh to Surrey and Knockholt to Kent. [21] Others have included exchange of two Thames islands with Surrey and adjustments during the 1990s to parts of the boundaries of three boroughs near the M25. [22] The only part of Greater London outside the motorway is North Ockendon, the furthest land unit from its centre. The majority of Greater London forms the London low emission zone.

The London postal district does not cover all of Greater London. [23] [24] [25]

Governance

City hall London at dawn (cropped).jpg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
London
Clock Tower - Palace of Westminster, London - May 2007 icon.png   Londonportal
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The Greater London Authority is based in City Hall City.hall.london.arp.jpg
The Greater London Authority is based in City Hall

Mayor of London

The Mayor of London is a directly elected politician who, along with the London Assembly, is responsible for the strategic government of Greater London.

London Assembly

For elections to the London Assembly, London is divided into 14 constituencies, each formed from two or three boroughs. The City of London forms part of the City and East constituency.

UK Parliament

London is divided into 73 Parliamentary borough constituencies, formed from the combined area of several wards from one or more boroughs. Typically a borough is covered by two or three constituencies.

Status

The London region does not have city status granted by the Crown. The Cities of London and Westminster within it have received formal city status. [26] [note 1] Despite this, Greater London is commonly regarded as a city in the general senses of a conurbation and a municipality. A Lord Lieutenant of Greater London is appointed for its area, excluding the City of London. For the purposes of the Lieutenancies Act 1997, this area is defined as a county. [27]

The term "London" usually refers to region or to the conurbation, but not often to the ancient, tiny City of London. [3] [28] That small area is often referred to as "the City" or "the Square Mile" and it forms the main financial district. Archaically, the urbanised area of London was known as the Metropolis. In common usage, the terms "London" and "Greater London" are usually used interchangeably. [3] Greater London is officially divided for some purposes, with varying definitions, into Inner London and Outer London. For some strategic planning purposes it is divided into five sub-regions.

Logo of the Greater London Authority Greater London Authority original logo.png
Logo of the Greater London Authority

Strategic local government

Greater London is under the strategic local governance of the Greater London Authority (GLA). [29] It consists of an elected assembly, the London Assembly, and an executive head, the Mayor of London. [30]

The current Mayor (not to be confused with the Lord Mayor of London) is Sadiq Khan. He is scrutinised by the elected London Assembly, which may amend his annual budget (by two-thirds majority) but otherwise lacks the power to block his directives. The headquarters of the GLA is at City Hall in Southwark. The Mayor is responsible for Greater London's strategic planning and is required to produce or amend the London Plan each electoral cycle.

Local government

Greater London is divided into 32 London Boroughs, each governed by a London Borough council. The City of London has a unique government dating back to the 12th century and is separate from the county of Greater London, although is still part of the region served by the Greater London Authority. [3]

All London Borough councils belong to the London Councils association. Three London Boroughs carry the honorific title of Royal Borough : Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston, and Greenwich. Within the City of London are the liberties of Middle Temple and Inner Temple.

Demography

2011 United Kingdom Census [31]
Country of birthPopulation
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom5,175,677
Flag of India.svg India 262,247
Flag of Poland.svg Poland 158,300
Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland 129,807
Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria 114,718
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan 112,457
Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh 109,948
Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 87,467
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka 84,542
Flag of France.svg France 66,654
Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia 65,333
Flag of Kenya.svg Kenya 64,212
Flag of the United States.svg United States 63,920
Flag of Ghana.svg Ghana 62,896
Flag of Italy.svg Italy 62,050
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 59,596
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa 57,765
Flag of Germany.svg Germany 55,476
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia 53,959
Flag of Romania.svg Romania 44,848
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines 44,199
Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus 43,428
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal 41,041
Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania 39,817
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 39,452
Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan 37,680
Flag of Iran.svg Iran 37,339
Flag of Spain.svg Spain 35,880
Flag of Uganda.svg Uganda 32,136
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil 31,357
Tolworth tower gigapixel panorama.jpg
High resolution view from the top of Tolworth Tower in South West London over the sprawling suburban housing that is typical in some areas of Greater London

With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was the most populated city in the world until overtaken by New York in 1925. Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939. There were an estimated 7,753,600 official residents[ clarification needed ] in mid-2009. [32] [ failed verification ]

London's wider metropolitan area has a population of between 12 and 14 million depending on the definition of that area. According to Eurostat, London has been the most populous city and metropolitan area of the European Union.

The region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres. The population density is 4,761 people per square kilometre, more than ten times that of any other British region. In terms of population, London is the 25th largest city and the 17th largest metropolitan region in the world.[ when? ] It is ranked 4th in the world in the number of US dollar billionaires residing in the city. It ranks as one of the most expensive cities in the world, alongside Tokyo and Moscow.

Ethnic groups

In the 2001 UK Census, 71.15% of the population classed their ethnic group as White, including White British (59.79%), White Irish (3.07%) or "Other White" (8.29%, mostly Greek-Cypriot, Italian, Polish and Portuguese). 12.09% classed themselves as British Asian, including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan, Arab and other Southern Asian ethnicities). 10.91% classed themselves as Black British (around 6% as Black African, 4% as Black Caribbean, 0.84% as "Other Black"). 3.15% were of mixed race; 1.12% as Chinese; and 1.58% as other (mostly Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other "British Orientals"). 21.8% of inhabitants were born outside the European Union. Irish people, from both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, number about 200,000, as do the Scots and Welsh combined.

In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken and more than 50 non-indigenous communities with a population of more than 10,000. Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that in 2006 London's foreign-born population was 2,288,000 (31%), up from 1,630,000 in 1997. The 2001 UK Census showed that 27.1% of the population were born outside the UK, and a slightly higher proportion were classed as Non-White.

In the 2011 UK Census, 59.79% of the population classed their ethnic group as White, including White British (44.89%), White Irish (2.15%) or "Other White" (12.65%, mostly Greek-Cypriot, Italian, Polish, Spanish, Colombians and Portuguese). 18.49% classed themselves as British Asian, including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan, Arab and other Southern Asian ethnicities). 13.32% classed themselves as Black British (7% as Black African, 4.22% as Black Caribbean, 2.08% as "Other Black"). 4.96% were of mixed race; and 3.44% as other (mostly Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other "British Orientals").

The table shows the top 21 countries of birth of residents in 2011, the date of the last UK Census. [33] These figures do not give a fair indication of the total population of the specific ethnic groups associated with each country. For example, Londoners of Greek origin (from both Greece and Cyprus) number 300,000, since an organised Greek community has been established for nearly two centuries. The same can be said for Italian and French Londoners whose communities have been here for centuries (the French Embassy estimates there are between 300,000 and 400,000 French citizens living in the UK, with "a huge majority of them living in London"). [34] Though a Polish community has existed in London since the late-Middle Ages, it was not significant in the 2001 Census but has grown significantly since 2004, when Poland joined the European Union and by June 2010; London had 122,000 Polish residents. [35] The German-born population figure may be misleading, however, because it includes British nationals born to parents serving in the British armed forces in Germany.

London has been a focus for immigration for centuries, whether as a place of safety or for economic reasons. Huguenots, Eastern European Jews, Cypriots and East African Asians are examples of the former; Irish, Bangladeshis and West Indians came for new lives. The East End district around Spitalfields has been first home for several ethnic groups, which have subsequently moved elsewhere in London as they gained prosperity.

Ethnic group2001 [36] 2011 [37]
Number%Number%
White: British4,287,86159.79%3,669,28444.89%
White: Irish220,4883.07%175,9742.15%
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller [Note 1] N/A8,1960.10%
White: Other594,8548.29%1,033,98112.65%
White: subtotal5,103,20371.15%4,887,43559.79%
Asian or Asian British: Indian436,9936.09%542,8576.64%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani142,7491.99%223,7972.74%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi153,8932.15%222,1272.72%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese [Note 2] 80,2011.12%124,2501.52%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian133,0581.86%398,5154.88%
Asian or Asian British: subtotal946,89413.20%1,511,54618.49%
Black or Black British: African378,9335.28%573,9317.02%
Black or Black British: Caribbean343,5674.79%344,5974.22%
Black or Black British: Other Black60,3490.84%170,1122.08%
Black or Black British: subtotal782,84910.92%1,088,64013.32%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean70,9280.99%119,4251.46%
Mixed: White and Black African34,1820.48%65,4790.80%
Mixed: White and Asian59,9440.84%101,5001.24%
Mixed: Other Mixed61,0570.85%118,8751.45%
Mixed: subtotal226,1113.15%405,2794.96%
Other: Arab [Note 1] N/A106,0201.30%
Other: Any other ethnic group113,0341.58%175,0212.14%
Other: subtotal113,0341.58%281,0413.44%
Total7,172,091100.00%8,173,941100.00%
  1. 1 2 New category created for the 2011 census.
  2. In 2001, listed under the 'Other ethnic group' heading.

Population

Greater London population from 1880 to 2016. Greater London population.png
Greater London population from 1880 to 2016.

The population of the current area of Greater London rose from about 1.1 million in 1801 (when only about 850,000 people were in the urban area, while 250,000 were living in villages and towns not yet part of London) to an estimated 8.6 million in 1939, but declined to 6.7 million in 1988, before starting to rebound in the 1990s.

By 2006, the population had recovered to the level of 1970 (and the level of population in the 1920s). It is now approaching the 1939 peak.

Figures here are for Greater London in its 2001 boundaries. Figures before 1971 have been reconstructed by the Office for National Statistics based on past censuses to fit the 2001 boundaries. Figures from 1981 onward are mid-year estimates (revised in August 2007), which are more accurate than the censuses, known to underestimate the population of London.

18915–6 April5,572,012
190131 March – 1 April6,506,954
19112–3 April7,160,525
192119–20 June7,386,848
193126–27 April8,110,480
1939Mid-year estimate8,615,245
19518–9 April8,196,978
196123–24 April7,992,616
1965 Greater London formally created
197125–26 April7,452,520
1981Mid-year estimate6,805,000 [40]
1988Mid-year estimate6,729,300 [41]
1991Mid-year estimate6,829,300 [42]
2001Mid-year estimate7,322,400 [43]
2002Mid-year estimate7,361,600 [44]
2003Mid-year estimate7,364,100 [45]
2004Mid-year estimate7,389,100 [46]
2005Mid-year estimate7,456,100 [47]
2006Mid-year estimate7,512,400 [7]
2009Mid-year estimate7,753,600 [7]
2013Mid-year estimate8,416,535 [48]
2014Mid-year estimate8,546,761 [49]
2016Mid-year estimate8,798,957 [39]

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of Inner London at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YearRegional Gross Value Added [50] Agriculture [51] Industry [52] Services [53]
199564,61678,14756,461
200092,330610,09482,229
2003112,0901210,154101,924

Eurostat data shows the GDP of Inner London to be 232 billion euros in 2009 [54] and per capita GDP of 78,000 euros.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Outer London at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YearRegional Gross Value Added [50] Agriculture [51] Industry [52] Services [53]
199544,1605110,80133,307
200060,3044312,52947,732
200369,4206913,08154,462

Eurostat data shows the GDP of Outer London to be 103 billion euros in 2009 [54] and per capita GDP of 21,460 euros.

Religion

Westminster Abbey. A World Heritage Site and location of the coronation of British monarchs. Westminster abbey west.jpg
Westminster Abbey. A World Heritage Site and location of the coronation of British monarchs.

The largest religious groupings are Christian (48.4%), Muslim (12.4%), Hindu (5.1%), Jewish (1.8%), and Sikh (1.5%), alongside those of no religion (20.7%). The United Kingdom has traditionally been Christian, and London has a large number of churches, particularly in the City. St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres, while the clerical head of the Church of England and the worldwide Anglican Communion, the Archbishop of Canterbury, has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth.

Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey. The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster Cathedral, the largest Roman Catholic cathedral in England and Wales. Religious practice in London is lower than in any other part of the UK or Western Europe and is around seven times lower than American averages. Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, weekly observance is low within that denomination, although in recent years church attendance, particularly at evangelical Anglican churches in London, has started to increase.

London is home to sizeable Hindu, Sikh, Muslim and Jewish communities. Many Muslims live in Tower Hamlets and Newham; the most important Muslim buildings are the East London Mosque in Whitechapel and the London Central Mosque on the edge of Regent's Park. London's large Hindu community is in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter containing one of Europe's largest Hindu temples, BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir London.

Sikh communities are in East and West London, particularly Southall in the western borough of Ealing, which is also home to the largest Sikh temple in the capital. The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant communities in Stamford Hill (the most Orthodox Jewish area outside New York City and Israel) and St. John's Wood, Golders Green, and Edgware in North London.

Education

University College London, a founding constituent of the University of London. UCL Portico Building.jpg
University College London, a founding constituent of the University of London.
King's College London, a founding constituent of the University of London. KCL Guys Campus1.jpg
King's College London, a founding constituent of the University of London.

Publicly funded education has been administered through 33 LEAs, which correspond to the City of London and the 32 London boroughs, since the 1990 enactment of the Education Reform Act 1988. [55] From 1965 to 1990, 12 Inner London boroughs and the City of London were served by the Inner London Education Authority. [55]

The introduction of comprehensive schools, directed by Circular 10/65 in 1965, was mostly followed in Greater London; however, 19 grammar schools have been retained in some Outer London boroughs, [56] with Sutton having the most with five, followed by Bexley with four and others in five other boroughs. In these boroughs the state schools outperform the (relatively few) independent schools. In inner London, private schools always get the best results and are larger in number. At GCSE and A level, Outer London boroughs have broadly better results than Inner London boroughs. [57]

At GCSE, the best borough is Kingston upon Thames, closely followed by Sutton. Both boroughs have selective schools, and get the top two average GCSE results in England for LEAs. Next is Kensington and Chelsea, the third best in England, then Redbridge, Hammersmith and Fulham, Bromley, Barnet and Harrow. Only ten boroughs have GCSE results under the England average, and some inner-London boroughs have surprisingly good results considering where they lie on the scale of deprivation, e.g. Lambeth. Overall at GCSE in 2009, Greater London had the best results for regions of England. Greater London is generally a prosperous region, and prosperous areas generally have good GCSE results. The City of London has no state schools, just two independent schools. Haringey and Kensington and Chelsea have the most people that pass no GCSEs.

At A-level, the average results for LEAs are disappointing compared to their good GCSE results. Although Kingston upon Thames gets the best GCSE results in England, at A-level it is not even above average. Sutton gets the best A-level results in London and in England. Three of the schools in the top four at A-level in London are in Sutton. It has only one independent school. The few other boroughs with above-average A-level results are Havering, Barnet, Bexley, Redbridge, and Ealing. The poor A-level results in many London boroughs is explained by the quantity of independent schools getting good A-level results. The state school system is often bypassed at age 16 by the more able pupils. Some London boroughs need more good sixth form colleges.

The region's 34 further education colleges are funded through the Skills Funding Agency and the Young People's Learning Agency. Large colleges include Kingston College, Havering College of Further and Higher Education, and Croydon College.

Universities

The University of London has 20 federated colleges and schools. The two main constituents of the University of London are (in order of total funding) University College London (UCL) and King's College London (KCL). Imperial College was part of the University of London until 2007, and is now an independent university. UCL, KCL and Imperial have very large research grants – some of the largest in England after Cambridge and Oxford, UCL and Imperial receive around £600 million each which is more than twice as much as any other in the region. The next largest institution by funding is Queen Mary University of London, followed by City, University of London. London is also home to the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), one of the few solely social science institutions in the world. Together with UCL and Imperial, they make up the London vertex of the Golden Triangle universities, the other institutions being Oxford and Cambridge. The region has many medical schools although these are part of other institutions such as UCL, KCL and Imperial. The Royal Veterinary College is based in Camden (with another site in North Mymms in Hertfordshire).

50% of students come from the region, and around 30% from other regions. Most students from other regions come from South East England, the East of England, and, to a lesser degree, South West England; the vast majority are from the south of England. Over 50% students native to the region stay in the region, with 15% going to South East England, 30% to either Scotland, Wales or the North East and around 5% go elsewhere. London is a draw for UK graduates from all over the UK.

Over 70% of UK students to graduate from the University of London remain in London; just under 15% go to the South-East, and just over 5% go to the East of England and 10% elsewhere.

Twin cities

The GLA has twin and sister city agreements with the following cities. [58]

Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China Shanghai Shanghai Municipality 2009 [59]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China Beijing Beijing Municipality 2006 [60]
Flag of France.svg France Paris Île-de-France
Flag of Germany.svg Germany Berlin Berlin2000
Flag of Russia.svg Russia Moscow Russian federal city
Flag of the United States.svg United States New York City New York 2001 [61]
Flag of Japan.svg Japan Tokyo Tokyo2005

For Borough twinning, see List of twin towns and sister cities in England#London.

See also

Geographical
Political
Historical
Others

Notes

  1. Croydon and Southwark have made several failed applications for city status.

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The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level administrative division of England. There are six metropolitan counties, which each cover large urban areas, with populations between 1 and 3 million. They were created in 1974 and are each divided into several metropolitan districts or boroughs.

County of London County of England between 1889 and 1965

The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government Act 1888. The Act created an administrative County of London, which included within its territory the City of London. However, the City of London and the County of London formed separate ceremonial counties for "non-administrative" purposes. The local authority for the county was the London County Council (LCC), which initially performed only a limited range of functions, but gained further powers during its 76-year existence. The LCC provided very few services within the City of London, where the ancient Corporation monopolised local governance. In 1900 the lower-tier civil parishes and district boards were replaced with 28 new metropolitan boroughs. The territory of the county was 74,903 acres (303.12 km2) in 1961. During its existence there was a long-term decline in population as more residents moved into the outer suburbs; there were periodic reviews of the local government structures in the greater London area and several failed attempts to expand the boundaries of the county. In 1965, the London Government Act 1963 replaced the county with the much larger Greater London administrative area.

Ceremonial counties of England Collective name for areas, in England, to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed

The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lords-lieutenant are appointed. Legally, the areas in England, as well as in Wales and Scotland, are defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997 as "counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies in Great Britain", in contrast to the areas used for local government. They are also informally known as "geographic counties", to distinguish them from other types of counties of England.

Inner London Place in England

Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the interior part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. With its origins in the bills of mortality, it became fixed as an area for statistics in 1847 and was used as an area of local government from 1855 to 1965 principally as the County of London or earlier as the Metropolitan Board of Works Area (metropolis). It now has two common definitions. The first is the statutory definition delineated in the London Government Act 1963, coming into force on 1 April 1965, comprising twelve Inner London boroughs and almost identical to the County of London that was abolished at the same time. The second is the current definition used by the Office for National Statistics comprising eleven of the statutory Inner London boroughs and two of the statutory Outer London boroughs, and the City of London.

Borough of Halton Borough and Unitary authority in England

Halton is a local government district in the ceremonial county of Cheshire in North West England, with borough status and administered by a unitary authority. It was created in 1974 as a district of the non-metropolitan county of Cheshire, and became a unitary authority area on 1 April 1998 under Halton Borough Council. Since 2014 it has been a member of the Liverpool City Region Combined Authority. The borough consists of the towns of Runcorn and Widnes and the civil parishes of Hale, Daresbury, Moore, Preston Brook, Halebank and Sandymoor. The district borders Merseyside, Warrington and Cheshire West and Chester. The borough straddles the River Mersey – the area to the north is historically part of Lancashire, that to the south part of Cheshire.

Central London Innermost part of London, England

Central London is the innermost part of London, in England, spanning several boroughs. Over time, a number of definitions have been used to define the scope of Central London for statistics, urban planning and local government. Its characteristics are understood to include a high density built environment, high land values, an elevated daytime population and a concentration of regionally, nationally and internationally significant organisations and facilities.

Metropolitan Borough of Walsall Metropolitan borough in England

The Metropolitan Borough of Walsall is a metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. It is named after its largest settlement, Walsall, but covers a larger area which also includes Aldridge, Bloxwich, Brownhills, Darlaston, Pelsall and Willenhall. It also serves as the post town for nearby Cannock Chase District and Lichfield District respectively.

Borough of Harrogate Borough in England

The Borough of Harrogate is a local government district and borough of North Yorkshire, England. Its population at the census of 2011 was 157,869. Its council is based in the town of Harrogate, but it also includes surrounding towns and villages. Including the cathedral city of Ripon and almost all of the Nidderdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The most populous district of North Yorkshire, it is the county's fourth largest district, as well the seventh largest non-metropolitan district in England. The district is part of the Leeds City Region. It borders seven other areas; the Craven, Richmondshire, Hambleton and Selby districts in North Yorkshire, the York unitary authority, and the Districts of Leeds and Bradford in West Yorkshire.

City of Salford Metropolitan borough and city in England

The City of Salford is a city and metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England, named after its main settlement Salford. The borough extends west from Salford to include the towns of Eccles, Worsley, Swinton, Walkden, Little Hulton, and Irlam. The city has a population of 245,600, and is administered from the Salford Civic Centre in Swinton.

Borough of Burnley Borough in England

The Borough of Burnley is a local government district of Lancashire, England, with the status of a non-metropolitan district and borough. It has an area of 42.7 square miles (110.7 km2) and a population of 88,920 (mid-2019 est.), and is named after its largest town, Burnley. The borough is bounded by Hyndburn, Ribble Valley, Pendle, Rossendale – all in Lancashire – and the borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire. It is governed by Burnley Borough Council, which is currently under no overall control following the 2019 local elections.

Greater Glasgow Human settlement in United Kingdom

Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area. It does not relate to municipal government boundaries and its territorial extent is defined by the General Register Office for Scotland, which determines settlements in Scotland for census and statistical purposes. Greater Glasgow had a population of 1,199,629 at the time of the 2001 UK Census making it the largest urban area in Scotland and the fifth-largest in the United Kingdom. However, the population estimate for the Greater Glasgow 'settlement' in mid-2016 was 985,290 – the reduced figure explained by the removal of the Motherwell & Wishaw (124,790), Coatbridge & Airdrie (91,020) and Hamilton (83,730) settlement areas east of the city due to small gaps between the populated postcodes. The 'new towns' of Cumbernauld and East Kilbride (75,120) were never included in these figures despite their close ties to Glasgow due to having a clear geographical separation from the city.

South Hampshire

South Hampshire is a term used mainly to refer to the conurbation formed by the city of Portsmouth, city of Southampton and the boroughs of Gosport, Fareham, Havant and Eastleigh in southern Hampshire, South East England. The area was estimated to have a population of over 1.5 million in 2013. It is the most populated part of South East England, excluding London. The area is sometimes referred to as Solent City particularly in relation to local devolution but the term is controversial.

Metropolitan Police District police area in Police area

The Metropolitan Police District (MPD) is the police area which is policed by the Metropolitan Police Service in London. It currently consists of the Greater London region, excluding the City of London. The Metropolitan Police District was created by the Metropolitan Police Act 1829 as an ad hoc area of administration because the built-up area of London spread at the time into many parishes and counties without an established boundary. The district expanded as the built up area grew and stretched some distance into rural land. When county police forces were set up in England, those of Essex, Hertfordshire, Kent and Surrey did not cover the parts of the counties within the MPD, while Middlesex did not have a county force. Similarly, boroughs in the MPD that elsewhere would have been entitled to their own police force did not have them.

Demography of London Overview of the demography of London

The demography of London is analysed by the Office for National Statistics and data is produced for each of the Greater London wards, the City of London and the 32 London boroughs, the Inner London and Outer London statistical sub-regions, each of the Parliamentary constituencies in London, and for all of Greater London as a whole. Additionally, data is produced for the Greater London Urban Area. Statistical information is produced about the size and geographical breakdown of the population, the number of people entering and leaving country and the number of people in each demographic subgroup.

Demography of Greater Manchester Overview of the demography of Greater Manchester

The demography of Greater Manchester is analysed by the Office for National Statistics and data is produced for each of its ten metropolitan boroughs, each of the Greater Manchester electoral wards, the NUTS3 statistical sub-regions, each of the Parliamentary constituencies in Greater Manchester, the 15 civil parishes in Greater Manchester, and for all of Greater Manchester as a whole; the latter of which had a population of 2,682,500 at the 2011 UK census. Additionally, data is produced for the Greater Manchester Urban Area. Statistical information is produced about the size and geographical breakdown of the population, the number of people entering and leaving country and the number of people in each demographic subgroup.

Regions of England Highest tier of sub-national division in England

The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England. Between 1994 and 2011, nine regions had officially devolved functions within government. While they no longer fulfill this role, they continue to be used for statistical and some administrative purposes. While the UK was a member of the European Union, they defined areas (constituencies) for the purposes of elections to the European Parliament. Eurostat also used them to demarcate first level Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) regions within the European Union. The regions generally follow the boundaries of the former standard regions, established in the 1940s for statistical purposes.

City of Leeds City and Metropolitan borough in England

The City of Leeds is a local government district of West Yorkshire, England, governed by Leeds City Council, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough. The metropolitan district includes the administrative centre Leeds and the ten towns of Farsley, Garforth, Guiseley, Horsforth, Morley, Otley, Pudsey, Rothwell, Wetherby and Yeadon. It has a population of 793,139 (mid-2019 est.), making it technically the second largest city in England by population behind Birmingham.

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