Greater London

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Ceremonial counties of the London Region
Greater London
London Region
Greater London administrative area in England.svg
Greater London ceremonial county (red)
City of London (red & white stripes)
Greater London administrative area (London Region) (both)
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Established1 April 1965
Established by London Government Act 1963
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of Parliament 73 MPs
Police City of London Police and Metropolitan Police
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Ken Olisa
High Sheriff Heather Phillips (2022–23)
Area1,569 km2 (606 sq mi)
  Ranked 25th of 48
Population (2021)8,899,375
  Ranked 1st of 48
Density5,671/km2 (14,690/sq mi)
Ethnicity53.8% White (of which 36.8% White British)
20.8% Asian
13.5% Black
5.7% mixed
6.3% other
Counties
  1. City of London
  2. Greater London

Greater London Authority

Greater London is under the strategic local governance of the Greater London Authority (GLA). [34] It consists of an elected assembly, the London Assembly, and an executive head, the Mayor of London. [35]

The current Mayor (not to be confused with the Lord Mayor of London) is Sadiq Khan. He is scrutinised by the elected London Assembly, which may amend his annual budget (by two-thirds majority) but otherwise lacks the power to block his directives. The headquarters of the GLA, previously at City Hall in Southwark, moved to The Crystal in Newham in January 2022. [36] The Mayor is responsible for Greater London's strategic planning and is required to produce or amend the London Plan each electoral cycle.

Mayor of London

The Mayor of London is a directly elected politician who, along with the London Assembly, is responsible for the strategic government of Greater London.

London Assembly

For elections to the London Assembly, London is divided into 14 constituencies, each formed from two or three boroughs. The City of London forms part of the City and East constituency.

UK Parliament

London is divided into 73 Parliamentary borough constituencies, formed from the combined area of several wards from one or more boroughs. Typically a borough is covered by two or three constituencies.

Status

The London Region does not have city status granted by the Crown. The Cities of London and Westminster within it have received formal city status. [37] [note 1] Despite this, Greater London is commonly regarded as a city in the general senses of a conurbation and a municipality. A Lord Lieutenant of Greater London is appointed for its area, excluding the City of London. For the purposes of the Lieutenancies Act 1997, this area is defined as a county. [38]

The term "London" usually refers to region or to the conurbation, but not often to the ancient, tiny City of London. [6] [39] That small area is often referred to as "the City" or "the Square Mile" and it forms the main financial district. Archaically, the urbanised area of London was known as the Metropolis. In common usage, the terms "London" and "Greater London" are usually used interchangeably. [6] Greater London is officially divided for some purposes, with varying definitions, into Inner London and Outer London. For some strategic planning purposes, it is divided into five sub-regions.

Local government

Greater London is divided into 32 London Boroughs, each governed by a London Borough council. The City of London has a unique government dating back to the 12th century and is separate from the county of Greater London, although is still part of the region served by the Greater London Authority. [6]

All London Borough councils belong to the London Councils association. Three London Boroughs carry the honorific title of Royal Borough : Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston, and Greenwich. Within the City of London are the liberties of Middle Temple and Inner Temple.

Demography

2011 United Kingdom Census [40]
Country of birthPopulation
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom5,175,677
Flag of India.svg India 262,247
Flag of Poland.svg Poland 158,300
Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland 129,807
Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria 114,718
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan 112,457
Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh 109,948
Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica 87,467
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka 84,542
Flag of France.svg France 66,654
Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia 65,333
Flag of Kenya.svg Kenya 64,212
Flag of the United States.svg United States 63,920
Flag of Ghana.svg Ghana 62,896
Flag of Italy.svg Italy 62,050
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 59,596
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa 57,765
Flag of Germany.svg Germany 55,476
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia 53,959
Flag of Romania.svg Romania 44,848
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines 44,199
Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus 43,428
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal 41,041
Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania 39,817
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 39,452
Flag of the Taliban.svg Afghanistan 37,680
Flag of Iran.svg Iran 37,339
Flag of Spain.svg Spain 35,880
Flag of Uganda.svg Uganda 32,136
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil 31,357
Tolworth tower gigapixel panorama.jpg
High resolution view from the top of Tolworth Tower in South West London over the sprawling suburban housing that is typical in some areas of Greater London

With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was the most populated city in the world until overtaken by New York in 1925. Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939. There were an estimated 7,753,600 official residents[ clarification needed ] in mid-2009. [41] [ failed verification ]

London's wider metropolitan area has a population of between 12 and 13 million depending on the definition of that area. According to Eurostat, London has been the most populous city and metropolitan area of the European Union.

The region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres. The population density is 4,761 people per square kilometre, more than ten times that of any other British region. In terms of population, London is the 25th largest city and the 17th largest metropolitan region in the world.[ when? ] It is ranked 4th in the world in the number of US dollar billionaires residing in the city. It ranks as one of the most expensive cities in the world, alongside Tokyo and Moscow.

Ethnic groups

In the 2001 UK Census, 71.15% of the population classed their ethnic group as White, including White British (59.79%), White Irish (3.07%) or "Other White" (8.29%, mostly Greek-Cypriot, Italian, Polish and Portuguese). 12.09% classed themselves as British Asian, including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan, Arab and other Southern Asian ethnicities). 10.91% classed themselves as Black British (around 6% as Black African, 4% as Black Caribbean, 0.84% as "Other Black"). 3.15% were of mixed race; 1.12% as Chinese; and 1.58% as other (mostly Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other "British Orientals"). 21.8% of inhabitants were born outside the European Union. Irish people, from both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, number about 200,000, as do the Scots and Welsh combined.

In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken and more than 50 non-indigenous communities with a population of more than 10,000. Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that in 2006 London's foreign-born population was 2,288,000 (31%), up from 1,630,000 in 1997. The 2001 UK Census showed that 27.1% of the population were born outside the UK, and a slightly higher proportion were classed as Non-White.

In the 2011 UK Census, 59.79% of the population classed their ethnic group as White, including White British (44.89%), White Irish (2.15%) or "Other White" (12.65%, mostly Greek-Cypriot, Italian, Polish, Spanish, Colombians and Portuguese). 18.49% classed themselves as British Asian, including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan, Arab and other Southern Asian ethnicities). 13.32% classed themselves as Black British (7% as Black African, 4.22% as Black Caribbean, 2.08% as "Other Black"). 4.96% were of mixed race; and 3.44% as other (mostly Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other "British Orientals").

The table shows the top 21 countries of birth of residents in 2011, the date of the last UK Census. [42] These figures do not give a fair indication of the total population of the specific ethnic groups associated with each country. For example, Londoners of Greek origin (from both Greece and Cyprus) number 300,000, since an organised Greek community has been established for nearly two centuries. The same can be said for Italian and French Londoners whose communities have been here for centuries (the French Embassy estimates there are between 300,000 and 400,000 French citizens living in the UK, with "a huge majority of them living in London"). [43] Though a Polish community has existed in London since the late-Middle Ages, it was not significant in the 2001 Census but has grown significantly since 2004, when Poland joined the European Union and by June 2010; London had 122,000 Polish residents. [44] The German-born population figure may be misleading, however, because it includes British nationals born to parents serving in the British armed forces in Germany.

London has been a focus for immigration for centuries, whether as a place of safety or for economic reasons. Huguenots, Eastern European Jews, Cypriots and East African Asians are examples of the former; Irish, Bangladeshis and West Indians came for new lives. The East End district around Spitalfields has been first home for several ethnic groups, which have subsequently moved elsewhere in London as they gained prosperity.

Ethnic group2001 [45] 2011 [46]
Number %Number %
White: British4,287,86159.79%3,669,28444.89%
White: Irish220,4883.07%175,9742.15%
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller [Note 1] 8,1960.10%
White: Other594,8548.29%1,033,98112.65%
White: subtotal5,103,20371.15%4,887,43559.79%
Asian or Asian British: Indian436,9936.09%542,8576.64%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani142,7491.99%223,7972.74%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi153,8932.15%222,1272.72%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese [Note 2] 80,2011.12%124,2501.52%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian133,0581.86%398,5154.88%
Asian or Asian British: subtotal946,89413.20%1,511,54618.49%
Black or Black British: African378,9335.28%573,9317.02%
Black or Black British: Caribbean343,5674.79%344,5974.22%
Black or Black British: Other Black60,3490.84%170,1122.08%
Black or Black British: subtotal782,84910.92%1,088,64013.32%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean70,9280.99%119,4251.46%
Mixed: White and Black African34,1820.48%65,4790.80%
Mixed: White and Asian59,9440.84%101,5001.24%
Mixed: Other Mixed61,0570.85%118,8751.45%
Mixed: subtotal226,1113.15%405,2794.96%
Other: Arab [Note 1] 106,0201.30%
Other: Any other ethnic group113,0341.58%175,0212.14%
Other: subtotal113,0341.58%281,0413.44%
Total7,172,091100.00%8,173,941100.00%
  1. 1 2 New category created for the 2011 census.
  2. In 2001, listed under the 'Other ethnic group' heading.

Population

Greater London population from 1880 to 2016 Greater London population.png
Greater London population from 1880 to 2016

The population of the current area of Greater London rose from about 1.1 million in 1801 (when only about 850,000 people were in the urban area, while 250,000 were living in villages and towns not yet part of London) to an estimated 8.6 million in 1939, but declined to 6.7 million in 1988, before starting to rebound in the 1990s.

By 2006, the population had recovered to the level of 1970 (and the level of population in the 1920s). It has now surpassed the previous 1939 peak, and is over 9 million.

Figures here are for Greater London in its 2001 boundaries. Figures before 1971 have been reconstructed by the Office for National Statistics based on past censuses to fit the 2001 boundaries. Figures from 1981 onward are mid-year estimates (revised in August 2007), which are more accurate than the censuses, known to underestimate the population of London.

18915–6 April5,572,012
190131 March – 1 April6,506,954
19112–3 April7,160,525
192119–20 June7,386,848
193126–27 April8,110,480
1939Mid-year estimate8,615,245
19518–9 April8,196,978
196123–24 April7,992,616
1965 Greater London formally created
197125–26 April7,452,520
1981Mid-year estimate6,805,000 [49]
1988Mid-year estimate6,729,300 [50]
1991Mid-year estimate6,829,300 [51]
2001Mid-year estimate7,322,400 [52]
2002Mid-year estimate7,361,600 [53]
2003Mid-year estimate7,364,100 [54]
2004Mid-year estimate7,389,100 [55]
2005Mid-year estimate7,456,100 [56]
2006Mid-year estimate7,512,400 [11]
2009Mid-year estimate7,753,600 [11]
2013Mid-year estimate8,416,535 [57]
2014Mid-year estimate8,546,761 [58]
2016Mid-year estimate8,798,957 [48]

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of Inner London at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling.

YearRegional Gross Value Added [59] Agriculture [60] Industry [61] Services [62]
199564,61678,14756,461
200092,330610,09482,229
2003112,0901210,154101,924

Eurostat data shows the GDP of Inner London to be 232 billion euros in 2009 [63] and per capita GDP of 78,000 euros.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Outer London at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling.

YearRegional Gross Value Added [59] Agriculture [60] Industry [61] Services [62]
199544,1605110,80133,307
200060,3044312,52947,732
200369,4206913,08154,462

Eurostat data shows the GDP of Outer London to be 103 billion euros in 2009 [63] and per capita GDP of 21,460 euros.

Religion

Westminster Abbey. A World Heritage Site and location of the coronation of British monarchs. Westminster abbey west.jpg
Westminster Abbey. A World Heritage Site and location of the coronation of British monarchs.

The largest religious groupings are Christian (48.4%), Muslim (8.4%), Hindu (8.0%), Jewish (1.8%), and Sikh (1.5%), alongside those of no religion (21.7%). The United Kingdom has traditionally been Christian, and London has a large number of churches, particularly in the City. St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres, while the clerical head of the Church of England and the worldwide Anglican Communion, the Archbishop of Canterbury, has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth.

Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey. The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster Cathedral, the largest Roman Catholic cathedral in England and Wales. Religious practice in London is lower than in any other part of the UK or Western Europe and is around seven times lower than American averages. Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, weekly observance is low within that denomination, although in recent years church attendance, particularly at evangelical Anglican churches in London, has started to increase.

London is home to sizeable Hindu, Sikh, Muslim and Jewish communities. Many Muslims live in Tower Hamlets and Newham; the most important Muslim buildings are the East London Mosque in Whitechapel and the London Central Mosque on the edge of Regent's Park. London's large Hindu community is in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter containing one of Europe's largest Hindu temples, BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir London.

Sikh communities are in East and West London, particularly Southall in the western borough of Ealing, which is also home to the largest Sikh temple in the capital. The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant communities in Stamford Hill (the most Orthodox Jewish area outside New York City and Israel) and St. John's Wood, Golders Green, and Edgware in North London.

Education

University College London, a founding constituent of the University of London UCL Portico Building.jpg
University College London, a founding constituent of the University of London
King's College London, a founding constituent of the University of London KCL Guys Campus1.jpg
King's College London, a founding constituent of the University of London

Publicly funded education has been administered through 33 LEAs, which correspond to the City of London and the 32 London boroughs, since the 1990 enactment of the Education Reform Act 1988. [64] From 1965 to 1990, 12 Inner London boroughs and the City of London were served by the Inner London Education Authority. [64]

The introduction of comprehensive schools, directed by Circular 10/65 in 1965, was mostly followed in Greater London; however, 19 grammar schools have been retained in some Outer London boroughs, [65] with Sutton having the most with five, followed by Bexley with four and others in five other boroughs. In these boroughs the state schools outperform the (relatively few) independent schools. In inner London, private schools always get the best results and are larger in number. At GCSE and A level, Outer London boroughs have broadly better results than Inner London boroughs. [66]

At GCSE, the best borough is Kingston upon Thames, closely followed by Sutton. Both boroughs have selective schools, and get the top two average GCSE results in England for LEAs. Next is Kensington and Chelsea, the third best in England, then Redbridge, Hammersmith and Fulham, Bromley, Barnet and Harrow. Only ten boroughs have GCSE results under the England average, and some inner-London boroughs have surprisingly good results considering where they lie on the scale of deprivation, e.g. Lambeth. Overall at GCSE in 2009, Greater London had the best results for regions of England. Greater London is generally a prosperous region, and prosperous areas generally have good GCSE results. The City of London has no state schools, just two independent schools. Haringey and Kensington and Chelsea have the most people that pass no GCSEs.[ citation needed ]

At A-level, the average results for LEAs are disappointing compared to their good GCSE results. Although Kingston upon Thames gets the best GCSE results in England, at A-level it is not even above average. Sutton gets the best A-level results in London and in England. Three of the schools in the top four at A-level in London are in Sutton. It has only one independent school. The few other boroughs with above-average A-level results are Havering, Barnet, Bexley, Redbridge, and Ealing. The poor A-level results in many London boroughs is explained by the quantity of independent schools getting good A-level results. The state school system is often bypassed at age 16 by the more able pupils. Some London boroughs need more good sixth form colleges.[ citation needed ]

The region's 34 further education colleges are funded through the Skills Funding Agency and the Young People's Learning Agency. Large colleges include Kingston College, Havering College of Further and Higher Education, and Croydon College.

Universities

The University of London has 20 federated colleges and schools. The two main constituents of the University of London are (in order of total funding) University College London (UCL) and King's College London (KCL). Imperial College was part of the University of London until 2007, and is now an independent university. UCL, KCL and Imperial have very large research grants – some of the largest in England after Cambridge and Oxford, UCL and Imperial receive around £600 million each which is more than twice as much as any other in the region. The next largest institution by funding is Queen Mary University of London, followed by City, University of London. London is also home to the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), one of the few solely social science institutions in the world. Together with UCL and Imperial, they make up the London vertex of the Golden Triangle universities, the other institutions being Oxford and Cambridge. The region has many medical schools although these are part of other institutions such as UCL, KCL and Imperial. The Royal Veterinary College is based in Camden (with another site in North Mymms in Hertfordshire).

50% of students come from the region, and around 30% from other regions. Most students from other regions come from South East England, the East of England, and, to a lesser degree, South West England; the vast majority are from the south of England. Over 50% students native to the region stay in the region, with 15% going to South East England, 30% to either Scotland, Wales or the North East and around 5% go elsewhere. London is a draw for UK graduates from all over the UK.

Over 70% of UK students to graduate from the University of London remain in London; just under 15% go to the South-East, and just over 5% go to the East of England and 10% elsewhere.

Twin cities

The GLA has twin and sister city agreements with the following cities. [67]

Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China Shanghai Shanghai Municipality 2009 [68]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China Beijing Beijing Municipality 2006 [69]
Flag of France.svg France Paris Île-de-France 2001
Flag of Germany.svg Germany Berlin Berlin2000
Flag of Russia.svg Russia Moscow Russian federal city 2002
Flag of the United States.svg United States New York City New York 2001 [70]
Flag of Japan.svg Japan Tokyo Tokyo2005
Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia Zagreb City of Zagreb2009
Flag of India.svg India Mumbai Maharashtra

For Borough twinning, see List of twin towns and sister cities in England#London.

See also

Geographical
Political
Historical
Others

Notes

  1. Croydon and Southwark have made several failed applications for city status.

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The demography of Greater Manchester is analysed by the Office for National Statistics and data is produced for each of its ten metropolitan boroughs, each of the Greater Manchester electoral wards, the NUTS3 statistical sub-regions, each of the Parliamentary constituencies in Greater Manchester, the 15 civil parishes in Greater Manchester, and for all of Greater Manchester as a whole; the latter of which had a population of 2,682,500 at the 2011 UK census. Additionally, data is produced for the Greater Manchester Urban Area. Statistical information is produced about the size and geographical breakdown of the population, the number of people entering and leaving country and the number of people in each demographic subgroup.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Regions of England</span> Highest tier of sub-national division in England

The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England, established in 1994. Between 1994 and 2011, nine regions had officially devolved functions within government. While they no longer fulfil this role, they continue to be used for statistical and some administrative purposes. While the UK was a member of the European Union, they defined areas (constituencies) for the purposes of elections to the European Parliament. Eurostat also used them to demarcate first level Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) regions within the European Union, which in 2021 were superseded by International Territorial Level (ITL) regions. The regions generally follow the boundaries of the former standard regions, established in the 1940s for statistical purposes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">City of Leeds</span> City in West Yorkshire, England

The City of Leeds is a city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. The metropolitan borough includes the administrative centre of Leeds and the towns of Farsley, Garforth, Guiseley, Horsforth, Morley, Otley, Pudsey, Rothwell, Wetherby and Yeadon. It has a population of 811,956 (2021), making it technically the second largest city in England by population behind Birmingham, since London is not a single local government entity. It is Governed by Leeds City Council & the Borough's 32 Parish Councils.

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