List of sovereign states

Last updated

The following is a list providing an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

Sovereign state Political organization with a centralized independent government

In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state.

Sovereignty concept that a state or governing body has the right and power to govern itself without outside interference

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity.

Contents

The 206 listed states can be divided into three categories based on membership within the United Nations system: 193 member states, [1] two observer states and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states, of which there are six member states, one observer state and nine other states).

United Nations Intergovernmental organization

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked with maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international co-operation, and being a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. It was established after World War II, with the aim of preventing future wars, and succeeded the ineffective League of Nations. Its headquarters, which are subject to extraterritoriality, are in Manhattan, New York City, and it has other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and the Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193.

Member states of the United Nations Sovereign states that are members of the United Nations (UN) and have equal representation in the UN General Assembly

The United Nations member states are the 193 sovereign states that are members of the United Nations (UN) and have equal representation in the UN General Assembly. The UN is the world's largest intergovernmental organization.

In addition to its 193 member states, the United Nations General Assembly may grant observer status to an international organization, entity or non-member state, which entitles the entity to participate in the work of the United Nations General Assembly, though with limitations. The General Assembly may determine what privileges it grants with the observer status, such as a right to speak at General Assembly meetings, vote on procedural matters, serve as signatories on working papers, and sign resolutions, but not to sponsor resolutions or vote on resolutions of substantive matters. Exceptionally, the EU was granted in 2011 the right to speak in debates, to submit proposals and amendments, the right of reply, to raise points of order and to circulate documents, etc. As of May 2011, the EU was the only international organisation to hold these enhanced rights, which has been likened to the rights of full membership, short of the right to vote.

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognised as having de facto status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms.

In law and government, de facto describes practices that exist in reality, even if not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure, which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called de facto standards.

List of states

Common and formal namesMembership within the UN System [lower-alpha 1] Sovereignty dispute [lower-alpha 2] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty [lower-alpha 4]
UN member states and observer states
Abkhazia → Abkhazia
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan  – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan UN member state None
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania  – Republic of Albania UN member state None
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria  – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria UN member state None
Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra  – Principality of Andorra UN member state NoneAndorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell, [2] who himself is appointed by the Holy See.
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola  – Republic of Angola UN member state None
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda UN member state NoneAntigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm [lower-alpha 5] with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina  – Argentine Republic [lower-alpha 7] UN member state NoneArgentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city.
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia  – Republic of Armenia UN member stateNot recognised by Pakistan.Armenia is not recognised by Pakistan due to the dispute over Artsakh. [4] [5] [6]
Artsakh → Artsakh
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia  – Commonwealth of Australia UN member state NoneAustralia is a Commonwealth realm [lower-alpha 5] and a federation of six states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria  – Republic of Austria UN member state NoneMember of the European Union. [lower-alpha 3] Austria is a federation of nine states.
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan  – Republic of Azerbaijan UN member state NoneAzerbaijan contains one autonomous region, Nakhchivan [lower-alpha 6] The de facto state of Artsakh has been established in the southwest of Azerbaijan.
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas, The  – Commonwealth of The Bahamas [8] UN member state NoneThe Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm. [lower-alpha 5]
Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain  – Kingdom of Bahrain UN member state None
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh  – People's Republic of Bangladesh UN member state None
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados UN member state NoneBarbados is a Commonwealth realm. [lower-alpha 5]
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus  – Republic of Belarus UN member state None
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium  – Kingdom of Belgium UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3] Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize UN member state NoneBelize is a Commonwealth realm. [lower-alpha 5]
Flag of Benin.svg  Benin  – Republic of Benin UN member state None
Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan  – Kingdom of Bhutan UN member state None
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia  – Plurinational State of Bolivia UN member state None
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina UN member state NoneBosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of two constituent units:

and Brčko District, a self-governing administrative unit. [9]

Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana  – Republic of Botswana UN member state None
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil  – Federative Republic of Brazil UN member state NoneBrazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district.
Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei  – Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace UN member state None
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria  – Republic of Bulgaria UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso UN member state None
Burma → Myanmar
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi  – Republic of Burundi UN member state None
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia  – Kingdom of Cambodia UN member state None
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon  – Republic of Cameroon UN member state None
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada [lower-alpha 8] UN member state NoneCanada is a Commonwealth realm [lower-alpha 5] and a federation of 10 provinces and 3 territories.
Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde  – Republic of Cabo Verde [lower-alpha 9] UN member state None
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic UN member state None
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad  – Republic of Chad UN member state None
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile  – Republic of Chile UN member state None
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  – People's Republic of China [lower-alpha 10] UN member state Partially unrecognised. Claimed by the Republic of China China contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Tibet, and Xinjiang. [lower-alpha 6] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

China claims, but does not control Taiwan, which is governed by a rival administration (the Republic of China) that claims all of China as its territory. [lower-alpha 11]

China is not recognised by 17 UN member states and the Holy See, which, with the exception of Bhutan, all recognise Taiwan instead. [lower-alpha 12]

China, Republic of → Taiwan
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia  – Republic of Colombia UN member state None
Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros  – Union of the Comoros UN member state NoneComoros is a federation of 3 islands. [lower-alpha 13]
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Congo, Democratic Republic of the [lower-alpha 14] UN member state None
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Congo, Republic of the [lower-alpha 15] UN member state None
Cook Islands → Cook Islands
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica  – Republic of Costa Rica UN member state None
Côte d'Ivoire → Ivory Coast
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia  – Republic of Croatia UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba  – Republic of Cuba UN member state None
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus  – Republic of Cyprus UN member stateNot recognised by Turkey [12] Member of the EU. [lower-alpha 3] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus.

Cyprus is not recognised by Turkey due to the Cyprus dispute, with Turkey recognising Northern Cyprus.

Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic [lower-alpha 16] UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea → Korea, North
Democratic Republic of the Congo → Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark  – Kingdom of Denmark UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3] The Kingdom of Denmark includes 2 self-governing territories:

The continental territory of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland form the three constituent countries of the Kingdom. [lower-alpha 17] The Kingdom of Denmark as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland. [13] [14]

Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti  – Republic of Djibouti UN member state None
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica  – Commonwealth of Dominica UN member state None
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic UN member state None
Flag of East Timor.svg  East Timor  – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste [lower-alpha 18] UN member state None
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador  – Republic of Ecuador UN member state None
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt  – Arab Republic of Egypt UN member state None
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador  – Republic of El Salvador UN member state None
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea  – Republic of Equatorial Guinea UN member state None
Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea  – State of Eritrea UN member state None
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia  – Republic of Estonia UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini  – Kingdom of Eswatini [lower-alpha 19] UN member state None
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia  – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia UN member state NoneEthiopia is a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji  – Republic of Fiji UN member state NoneFiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma. [lower-alpha 6] [15] [16]
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland  – Republic of Finland UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of France.svg  France  – French Republic UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3] France contains five overseas regions/departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:
Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon  – Gabonese Republic UN member state None
Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia, The  – Republic of The Gambia [17] UN member state None
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia UN member state NoneGeorgia contains two autonomous republics, Adjara and Abkhazia. [lower-alpha 6] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany  – Federal Republic of Germany UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states.
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana  – Republic of Ghana UN member state None
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece  – Hellenic Republic UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3] Greece contains one autonomous area, Mount Athos. [18]
Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada UN member state NoneGrenada is a Commonwealth realm. [lower-alpha 5]
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala  – Republic of Guatemala UN member state None
Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea  – Republic of Guinea [lower-alpha 21] UN member state None
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau  – Republic of Guinea-Bissau UN member state None
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana  – Co-operative Republic of Guyana UN member state None
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti  – Republic of Haiti UN member state None
Holy See → Vatican City
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras  – Republic of Honduras UN member state None
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland [lower-alpha 22] UN member state None
Flag of India.svg  India  – Republic of India UN member state NoneIndia is a federation of 29 states and seven union territories.
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia  – Republic of Indonesia UN member state NoneIndonesia has five autonomous provinces, Aceh, Jakarta, Papua, West Papua, and Yogyakarta. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran  – Islamic Republic of Iran UN member state None
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq  – Republic of Iraq UN member state NoneIraq is a federation [lower-alpha 13] [22] of 19 governorates, five of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland [lower-alpha 23] UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel  – State of Israel UN member state Partially unrecognised Israel exerts strong control over the territory claimed by Palestine. Israel annexed East Jerusalem, [24] an annexation not recognised by the international community. [25] Israel maintains varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank, and although Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, it is still considered by some to be the occupying power under international law. [26] [27] [28] [29] [30]

Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The Palestine Liberation Organization, which enjoys majority recognition as sole representative of the Palestinian people, also does not recognise Israel.

Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  – Italian Republic UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3] Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast  – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire [lower-alpha 24] UN member state None
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica UN member state NoneJamaica is a Commonwealth realm. [lower-alpha 5]
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan UN member state None
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan  – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan UN member state None
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan  – Republic of Kazakhstan UN member state None
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya  – Republic of Kenya UN member state None
Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati  – Republic of Kiribati UN member state None
Flag of North Korea.svg  Korea, North  – Democratic People's Republic of Korea UN member stateClaimed by South Korea North Korea is not recognised by three UN members, France, Japan, and South Korea, the last of which claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. [31]
Flag of South Korea.svg  Korea, South  – Republic of Korea UN member stateClaimed by North Korea South Korea has 1 autonomous region, Jejudo. [lower-alpha 6] [32]

South Korea is not recognised by North Korea, which claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

Kosovo → Kosovo
Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait  – State of Kuwait UN member state None
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan  – Kyrgyz Republic UN member state None
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos  – Lao People's Democratic Republic UN member state None
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia  – Republic of Latvia UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon  – Lebanese Republic UN member state None
Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho  – Kingdom of Lesotho UN member state None
Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia  – Republic of Liberia UN member state None
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya  – State of Libya UN member state None
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein  – Principality of Liechtenstein UN member state None
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania  – Republic of Lithuania UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg  – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Macedonia → North Macedonia
Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar  – Republic of Madagascar UN member state None
Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi  – Republic of Malawi UN member state None
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia UN member state NoneMalaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.
Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives  – Republic of Maldives UN member state None
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali  – Republic of Mali UN member state None
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta  – Republic of Malta UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands  – Republic of the Marshall Islands UN member state NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States.
Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania  – Islamic Republic of Mauritania UN member state None
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius  – Republic of Mauritius UN member state NoneMauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico  – United Mexican States UN member state NoneMexico is a federation of 31 states and one autonomous city.
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Federated States of Micronesia   UN member state NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of four states.
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova  – Republic of Moldova UN member state NoneMoldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state.
Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco  – Principality of Monaco UN member state None
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia UN member state None
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro UN member state None
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco  – Kingdom of Morocco UN member state NonePart of the Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara is controlled by the partially recognised Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique  – Republic of Mozambique UN member state None
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar  – Republic of the Union of Myanmar [lower-alpha 25] UN member state None
Nagorno-Karabakh → Artsakh
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia  – Republic of Namibia UN member state None
Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru  – Republic of Nauru UN member state None
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal  – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal UN member state NoneNepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands  – Kingdom of the Netherlands UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3] The Kingdom of the Netherlands includes four areas with substantial autonomy:

The continental part of the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten form the four constituent countries of the Kingdom. Three other territories (Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius) are special municipalities of the continental Netherlands. [lower-alpha 26] The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand UN member state NoneNew Zealand is a Commonwealth realm, [lower-alpha 5] and has the dependent territories of:

New Zealand has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 49 and 18 UN members respectively. [33] [34] [35] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN, [36] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua  – Republic of Nicaragua UN member state NoneNicaragua contains two autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger  – Republic of Niger UN member state None
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria  – Federal Republic of Nigeria UN member state NoneNigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.
Niue → Niue
North Korea → Korea, North
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia  – Republic of North Macedonia [lower-alpha 27] UN member state None
Northern Cyprus → Northern Cyprus
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway  – Kingdom of Norway UN member state None

Norway has the dependent territories of:

Flag of Oman.svg  Oman  – Sultanate of Oman UN member state None
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan  – Islamic Republic of Pakistan UN member state NonePakistan is a federation of four provinces and 1 capital territory. Pakistan exercises control over certain portions of Kashmir, but has not officially annexed any of it, [37] [38] instead regarding it as a disputed territory. [39] [40] The portions that it controls are divided into two territories, administered separately from Pakistan proper:

Azad Kashmir describes itself as a "self-governing state under Pakistani control", while Gilgit-Baltistan is described in its governance order as a group of "areas" with self-government. [41] [42] [43] These territories are not usually regarded as sovereign, as they do not fulfil the criteria set out by the declarative theory of statehood (for example, their current laws do not allow them to engage independently in relations with other states). Several state functions of these territories (such as foreign affairs and defence) are performed by Pakistan. [42] [44] [45]

Flag of Palau.svg  Palau  – Republic of Palau UN member state NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States.
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine  – State of Palestine UN observer state; member of 2 UN specialized agencies Partially unrecognised. Disputed by Israel The State of Palestine, declared in 1988, is not recognised as a state by Israel and has received diplomatic recognition from 137 states. [46] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control over much of the territory that it proclaimed. [47] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization. [48] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO, [49] UNIDO, and an observer state in the UN.
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama  – Republic of Panama UN member state None
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea  – Independent State of Papua New Guinea UN member state NonePapua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm [lower-alpha 5] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay  – Republic of Paraguay UN member state None
Flag of Peru (state).svg  Peru  – Republic of Peru UN member state None
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines  – Republic of the Philippines UN member state NoneThe Philippines contains one autonomous region, Bangsamoro. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland  – Republic of Poland UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal  – Portuguese Republic UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3] Portugal contains two autonomous regions, the Azores and Madeira. [lower-alpha 6]
Pridnestrovie → Transnistria
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar  – State of Qatar UN member state None
Republic of Korea → Korea, South
Republic of the Congo → Congo, Republic of the
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia  – Russian Federation UN member state NoneRussia is a federation of 85  federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda  – Republic of Rwanda UN member state None
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis  – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis UN member state NoneSaint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm [lower-alpha 5] and is a federation [lower-alpha 13] of two islands, St. Kitts and Nevis.
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia UN member state NoneSaint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm. [lower-alpha 5]
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines UN member state NoneSaint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm. [lower-alpha 5]
Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa  – Independent State of Samoa UN member state None
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino  – Republic of San Marino UN member state None
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe  – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe UN member state NoneSão Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia  – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia UN member state None
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal  – Republic of Senegal UN member state None
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia  – Republic of Serbia UN member state NoneSerbia contains two autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija. [lower-alpha 6] The latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo.
Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles  – Republic of Seychelles UN member state None
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone  – Republic of Sierra Leone UN member state None
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore  – Republic of Singapore UN member state None
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia  – Slovak Republic UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia  – Republic of Slovenia UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands UN member state NoneThe Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm. [lower-alpha 5]
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia  – Federal Republic of Somalia UN member state NoneSomalia has two self-declared autonomous regions, Puntland and Galmudug, while the territory of Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state.
Somaliland → Somaliland
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa  – Republic of South Africa UN member state None
South Korea → Korea, South
South Ossetia → South Ossetia
Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan  – Republic of South Sudan UN member state NoneSouth Sudan is a federation of 32 states.
  • The Abyei Area is a zone with "special administrative status" established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005. It is de-jure a condominium of South Sudan and Sudan, but de facto administered by two competeing administrations and the United Nations. [50] [51]
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain  – Kingdom of Spain UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3] Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 special autonomous cities. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka  – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka [lower-alpha 28] UN member state None
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan  – Republic of the Sudan UN member state NoneSudan is a federation of 18 states.
  • The Abyei Area is a zone with "special administrative status" established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005. It is de-jure a condominium of South Sudan and Sudan, but de facto administered by two competeing administrations and the United Nations. [50] [51]
Sudan, South → South Sudan
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname  – Republic of Suriname UN member state None
Swaziland → Eswatini
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden  – Kingdom of Sweden UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland  – Swiss Confederation UN member state NoneSwitzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria  – Syrian Arab Republic UN member state NoneThe Syrian National Coalition, which is recognised as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.

Syria has one self-declared autonomous region: Rojava.

Taiwan (Republic of China) → Taiwan
Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan  – Republic of Tajikistan UN member state NoneTajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania  – United Republic of Tanzania UN member state NoneTanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand  – Kingdom of Thailand UN member state None
The Bahamas → Bahamas, The
The Gambia → Gambia, The
Timor-Leste → East Timor
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo  – Togolese Republic UN member state None
Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga  – Kingdom of Tonga UN member state None
Transnistria → Transnistria
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago  – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago UN member state NoneTrinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia  – Republic of Tunisia UN member state None
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey  – Republic of Turkey UN member state None
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan UN member state None
Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu UN member state NoneTuvalu is a Commonwealth realm. [lower-alpha 5]
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda  – Republic of Uganda UN member state None
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine UN member state NoneUkraine claims Crimea as an autonomous republic, however it has been annexed by Russia.
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates UN member state NoneThe United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates.
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom  – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland UN member state NoneMember of the EU. [lower-alpha 3] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm [lower-alpha 5] consisting of four constituent countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

Flag of the United States.svg  United States  – United States of America UN member state NoneThe United States is a federation of 50 states with shared sovereignty, 1 federal district, and 1 incorporated territory. Additionally, the Federal government of the United States has sovereignty over 15 unincorporated territories. Of these territories the following are inhabited possessions:

It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:

It also disputes sovereignty over the following territories:

Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:

Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay  – Oriental Republic of Uruguay UN member state None
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan  – Republic of Uzbekistan UN member state NoneUzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan. [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu  – Republic of Vanuatu UN member state None
Flag of the Vatican City.svg   Vatican City  – Vatican City State UN observer state under the designation of "Holy See"; member of three UN specialized agencies and the IAEA NoneAdministered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic relations to 183 states. This figure consists of 180 UN member states, the Cook Islands, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and the State of Palestine. [52] In addition, the European Union and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta maintain diplomatic relations with the Holy See. The Holy See is a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State") [48] and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City.
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela  – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela UN member state NoneVenezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam  – Socialist Republic of Vietnam UN member state None
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen  – Republic of Yemen UN member state None
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia  – Republic of Zambia UN member state None
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe  – Republic of Zimbabwe UN member state None
UN member states and observer states
↓ Other states ↓
Flag of the Republic of Abkhazia.svg  Abkhazia  – Republic of Abkhazia No membershipClaimed by Georgia Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Artsakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria. [53] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
Flag of Artsakh.svg  Artsakh  – Republic of Artsakh [lower-alpha 29] No membershipClaimed by Azerbaijan A de facto independent state, [54] [55] [56] recognised only by Abkhazia, [57] South Ossetia [57] and Transnistria. [57] [58] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan. [59]
Flag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands Member of eight UN specialized agencies None
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands maintains diplomatic relations with 52 states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. [36] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo  – Republic of Kosovo Member of two UN specialized agencies Claimed by Serbia Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo was placed under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 1999. [60] Kosovo declared independence in 2008, and it has received diplomatic recognition from 112 UN member states and the Republic of China. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
Flag of Niue.svg  Niue Member of five UN specialized agencies None
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, Niue maintains diplomatic relations with 20 states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. [36] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg  Northern Cyprus  – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus No membershipClaimed by the Republic of Cyprus Recognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus. [61]
Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic No membershipClaimed by Morocco Recognised at some stage by 84 UN member states, 40 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian–African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian–African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
Flag of Somaliland.svg  Somaliland  – Republic of Somaliland No membershipClaimed by Somalia A de facto independent state, [54] [62] [63] [64] [65] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia. [66]
Flag of South Ossetia.svg  South Ossetia  – Republic of South Ossetia–the State of Alania No membershipClaimed by Georgia A de facto independent state, [67] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Syria, Venezuela, Abkhazia, Artsakh and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia. [68]
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan  – Republic of China [lower-alpha 10] Former UN member (as Republic of China, 1945–1971)
Observer in one UN specialized agency under the name "Chinese Taipei"
Claimed by the People's Republic of China A state competing (nominally) for recognition with the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China (ROC) controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands, and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland. [69] The ROC is recognised by 16 UN member states and the Holy See as of21August2018. All these states do not recognise the PRC either. Additionally, one UN member (Bhutan) has refrained from recognising either the ROC or the PRC.

The territory of the ROC is claimed in whole by the PRC. [lower-alpha 11] The ROC participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. The ROC was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the UN Security Council. See China and the United Nations.

Flag of Transnistria (state).svg  Transnistria  – Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic No membershipClaimed by Moldova A de facto independent state, [54] recognised only by Abkhazia, Artsakh and South Ossetia. [53] Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit. [70]
↑ Other states ↑
Legend "Membership within the UN System" column
  UN Member states
  UN Observer states
  Member of a UN Specialized Agency
  Observer in a UN Specialized Agency
  No membership in the UN System
Legend "Sovereignty dispute" column
  Undisputed sovereignty
  Sovereignty disputed

Criteria for inclusion

The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood, which was codified by the Montevideo Convention of 1933. The Convention defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) a capacity to enter into relations with the other states" so long as it was not "obtained by force whether this consists in the employment of arms, in threatening diplomatic representations, or in any other effective coercive measure". [71] [ improper synthesis? ]

Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom. Along with general principles of law and treaties, custom is considered by the International Court of Justice, jurists, the United Nations, and its member states to be among the primary sources of international law.

Montevideo Convention

The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States is a treaty signed at Montevideo, Uruguay, on December 26, 1933, during the Seventh International Conference of American States. The Convention codifies the declarative theory of statehood as accepted as part of customary international law. At the conference, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Secretary of State Cordell Hull declared the Good Neighbor Policy, which opposed U.S. armed intervention in inter-American affairs. The convention was signed by 19 states. The acceptance of three of the signatories was subject to minor reservations. Those states were Brazil, Peru and the United States.

Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognised as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:

Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state. Recognition can be reaccorded either de facto or de jure. Recognition can be a declaration to that effect by the recognizing government, or an act of recognition such as entering into a treaty with the other state. A vote by a country in the United Nations in favour of the membership of another country is an implicit recognition of that country by the country so voting, as only states may be members of the UN.

A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state. Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another nation or failed nation, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state. In 2010, the UN's International Court of Justice ruled in an advisory opinion in Kosovo that "International law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence", though the state from which the territory wishes to secede may regard the declaration as rebellion, which may lead to a war of independence or a constitutional settlement to resolve the crisis.

Note that in some cases, there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed. Unique political entities which fail to meet the classification of a sovereign state are considered proto-states. [72] [73]

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities: [74] [lower-alpha 30]

The table includes bullets representing entities which are either not sovereign states or have a close association to another sovereign state. It also includes subnational areas where the sovereignty of the titular state is limited by an international agreement. Taken together, these include:

See also

Notes

  1. This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations. [1] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  2. This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranational union. The EU has 28 member states. [7]
  4. Information is included on:
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see List of autonomous areas by country. [3]
  7. The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
  8. The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  9. The government of Cape Verde declared "Cabo Verde" to be the official English name of the country in 2013. [10]
  10. 1 2 The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, or by another alternative name.
  11. 1 2 In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC. In the view of the United Nations, no member of the organisation withdrew as a consequence of this but the ROC representatives declared that they were withdrawing. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  12. See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of China.
  13. 1 2 3 More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations. [11]
  14. Also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  15. Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
  16. A simpler official short name has been encouraged by the Czech government, "Czechia". This variant remains uncommon, but has been adopted by several companies and organisations. See Name of the Czech Republic.
  17. The designation "Denmark" can refer either to continental Denmark or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations).
  18. The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the official English name of the country.
  19. Formerly referred to as the Kingdom of Swaziland, its official name until 2018.
  20. Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  21. Also known as Guinea-Conakry.
  22. While sometimes referred to as the "Republic of Iceland" [19] [20] and sometimes its counterpart Lýðveldið Ísland in Icelandic, the official name of the country is simply "Iceland". [21] One example of the former is the name of the Constitution of Iceland, which in Icelandic is Stjórnarskrá lýðveldisins Íslands and literally means "the Constitution of the republic of Iceland". However, note that in this usage "republic" is not capitalised.
  23. "Ireland" is the official name of the country in English. "Republic of Ireland" (the official description in English) and "Éire" (the official name in Irish) have sometimes been used unofficially to distinguish the state from the larger island of Ireland, however, this is officially deprecated. [23] See names of the Irish state.
  24. The government of Ivory Coast uses "Côte d'Ivoire" as the official English name of the country.
  25. The country's official name of Myanmar, adopted in 1989, has been mixed and controversial, with the former name Burma still being used in many cases. See Names of Myanmar.
  26. The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to the continental Netherlands or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations).
  27. Formerly known constitutionally as the Republic of Macedonia from 1991 to 2019 and under the international designation of "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM) from 1993 to 2019 due to the Macedonia naming dispute with Greece. Following the Prespa agreement going into effect in February 2019, the country was renamed to North Macedonia.
  28. Formerly known as Ceylon until 1972.
  29. Formerly known as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, its official name from 1991 to 2017
  30. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is not included, as despite being a sovereign entity it lacks territory and does not claim statehood. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.

Related Research Articles

Country distinct region in geography; a broad term that can include political divisions or regions associated with distinct political characteristics

A country is a region that is identified as a distinct entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or part of a larger state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics. Regardless of the physical geography, in the modern internationally accepted legal definition as defined by the League of Nations in 1937 and reaffirmed by the United Nations in 1945, a resident of a country is subject to the independent exercise of legal jurisdiction. There is no hard and fast definition of what regions are countries and which are not.

A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more territorial entities or over the possession or control of land, usually between a new state and the occupying power.

Microstate sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area

A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area, and usually both. The meanings of "state" and "very small" are not well-defined in international law. Recent attempts, since 2010, to define microstates have focused on identifying political entities with unique qualitative features linked to their geographic or demographic limitations. According to a qualitative definition, microstates are: "modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints." In line with this and most other definitions, examples of microstates include Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, Andorra, the Cook Islands, Niue, and the Federated States of Micronesia.

National Olympic Committee national constituent of the worldwide Olympic movement

A National Olympic Committee (NOC) is a national constituent of the worldwide Olympic movement. Subject to the controls of the International Olympic Committee, NOCs are responsible for organizing their people's participation in the Olympic Games. They may nominate cities within their respective areas as candidates for future Olympic Games. NOCs also promote the development of athletes and training of coaches and officials at a national level within their geographies.

A constituent state is a state entity that constitutes a part of a sovereign state. A constituent state holds regional jurisdiction over a defined administrative territory, within a sovereign state. Government of a constituent state is a form of regional government. Throughout history, and also in modern political practice, most constituents states are parts of complex states, like federations or confederations. Constituent state can have republican or monarchical form of government. Those of republican form are usually called states or autonomous states, republics or autonomous republics, and also cantons. Those that have monarchical form of government are often defined by traditional hierarchical rank of their ruler.

Political status of the Cook Islands and Niue

The political status of the Cook Islands and Niue is formally defined as being states in free association within the Realm of New Zealand, which is made up of the Cook Islands, Niue, New Zealand and its territories: Tokelau and the Ross Dependency.

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  74. The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.

Bibliography