Provinces of Indonesia

Last updated
Provinces of Indonesia
Indonesia, administrative divisions - en - monochrome.svg
Category Province
Location Indonesia
Created
  • 18 August 1945
Number38
PopulationsSmallest: 517,623 (South Papua)
Largest: 43,053,732 (West Java)
AreasSmallest: 664 km2 (256 sq mi) (Jakarta)
Largest: 153,564 km2 (59,291 sq mi) (Central Kalimantan)
Government
Subdivisions

Provinces of Indonesia are the 38 administrative divisions of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government (formerly called first-level region provinces or provinsi daerah tingkat I). Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities (formerly called second-level region regencies and cities or kabupaten/kotamadya daerah tingkat II), which are in turn subdivided into districts (kecamatan).

Contents

Background

Article 18 paragraph 1 of The 1945 Constitution states that "The Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia is divided into provincial regions and those provincial regions are divided into regencies and city, whereby every one of those provinces, regencies, and municipalities has its regional government, which shall be regulated by laws."

According to the Law on Regional Government (UU 23/2014) the authority of the Provincial Government includes:

  1. Development planning and control;
  2. Planning, utilization, and community peace;
  3. Implementation of public order and public peace;
  4. Provision of public facilities and infrastructure;
  5. Handling the health sector;
  6. Education and allocation of potential human resources;
  7. Handling social problems across districts/cities;
  8. Services in the field of manpower across districts/cities;
  9. Facilitating the development of cooperatives, small and medium enterprises, including across districts/cities;
  10. Environmental control;
  11. Defense services, including across districts/cities;
  12. Population and civil registration services;
  13. Government general administration services;
  14. Investment administration services, including across districts/cities;
  15. The implementation of other basic services that cannot be carried out by districts/cities; and
  16. Other mandatory affairs mandated by laws and regulations.

The authority of the provincial government are government affairs which are located across regencies/municipalities, government affairs whose users are across regencies/municipalities, government affairs whose benefits or negative impacts lie across regencies/municipalities, government affairs which use more resources. efficient if carried out by the province.

Each province has a local government, headed by a governor and a legislative body (DPRD). The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms, but governors can only serve for two terms. The general election to elect members of the DPRDs is conducted simultaneously with the national general election. Previously, the general elections for Governor and Vice Governor were not held simultaneously. However, since 2015 regional head elections have been held simultaneously. Under the plan, simultaneous partial local elections will be held in February 2017, June 2018, December 2020, culminating in simultaneous elections for all local executive posts on November 2024 and then every five years.

Current provinces

After the creation of Southwest Papua, Indonesia now has 38 provinces. Twenty-nine ordinary provinces, and nine provinces that have special status. The 1945 constitution mentions that the state of Indonesia acknowledges and respects the special status of some of its regional governments. The special status is divided into two seperate characteristics which in Indonesian are "Istimewa" and "Khusus". The main meaning for both is special in English, however istimewa could also be translated to "privileged".

6 provinces in Indonesia that have special characteristics are:

One province has "privileged" characteristics.

Another province has both characteristics

Click on a province name to go to its main article

Geographical units

The provinces are officially grouped into seven geographical units for statistical and national planning purposes, but without administrative function. [1]

NamePopulation
estimation
mid-2021 [2]
Sumatra 59,185,800
Java 152,787,800
Lesser Sunda Islands 15,140,400
Kalimantan 16,817,400
Sulawesi 20,077,000
Maluku Islands 3,161,800
Western New Guinea 5,512,300

Table of provinces

Provinces of Indonesia [3] [4]
Arms ProvinceIndonesian
name
Indonesian
acronym
ISO [5] CapitalPopulation
(mid-2021
estimate) [6]
Area (km2)Density
(/km2)
(2010)
Geographical unitNo. of cities &
regencies
No. of
cities
No. of
regencies
Coat of arms of Aceh.svg Aceh AcehAcehID - AC5,333,70057,95677 Sumatra 23518
Coat of arms of Bali.svg Bali BaliBaliID - BA4,362,7005,780621 Lesser Sunda Islands 918
Coat of arms of Bangka Belitung Islands.svg Bangka Belitung Islands Kepulauan Bangka BelitungBabelID - BB1,473,20016,42464 Sumatra 716
Coat of arms of Banten.svg Banten BantenBantenID - BT12,061,5009,662909 Java 844
Coat of arms of Bengkulu.svg Bengkulu BengkuluBengkuluID - BE2,032,90019,91984 Sumatra 1019
Coat of arms of Central Java.svg Central Java Jawa TengahJatengID - JT36,742,50040,800894 Java 35629
Coat of arms of Central Kalimantan.svg Central Kalimantan Kalimantan TengahKaltengID - KT2,702,200153,56414 Kalimantan 14113
Central Papua Papua TengahPateng1,409,00066,12927 Western New Guinea 808
Coat of arms of Central Sulawesi.svg Central Sulawesi Sulawesi TengahSultengID - ST3,021,90061,84141 Sulawesi 13112
Coat of arms of East Java.svg East Java Jawa TimurJatimID - JI40,878,80047,799828 Java 38929
Coat of arms of East Kalimantan.svg East Kalimantan [7] Kalimantan TimurKaltimID - KI3,808,200127,26722 Kalimantan 1037
Coat of Arms of East Nusa Tenggara NEW.png East Nusa Tenggara Nusa Tenggara TimurNTTID - NT5,387,70048,71892 Lesser Sunda Islands 22121
Coat of arms of Gorontalo.svg Gorontalo GorontaloGorontaloID - GO1,181,00011,25794 Sulawesi 615
Coat of arms of Highland Papua Province.png Highland Papua Papua Pegunungan1,408,600108,47620 Western New Guinea 808
Coat of arms of Jakarta.svg Capital Special Region of Jakarta Daerah Khusus Ibukota JakartaDKI JakartaID - JK10,609,70066412,786 Java 651
Coat of arms of Jambi.svg Jambi JambiJambiID - JA3,585,10050,05857 Sumatra 1129
Coat of arms of Lampung.svg Lampung LampungLampungID - LA9,081,80034,623226 Sumatra 15213
Coat of arms of Maluku.svg Maluku MalukuMalukuID - MA1,862,60046,91432 Maluku Islands 1129
Coat of arms of North Kalimantan.svg North Kalimantan Kalimantan UtaraKaltaraID - KU713,60072,27510 Kalimantan 514
Coat of arms of North Maluku.svg North Maluku Maluku UtaraMalutID - MU1,299,20031,98231 Maluku Islands 1028
Coat of arms of North Sulawesi.svg North Sulawesi Sulawesi UtaraSulutID - SA2,638,60013,851162 Sulawesi 15411
Coat of arms of North Sumatra.svg North Sumatra Sumatra UtaraSumutID - SU14,936,20072,981188 Sumatra 33825
Coat of arms of Papua 2.svg Papua Papua [lower-alpha 2] PapuaID - PA1,020,20081,04914 Western New Guinea 918
Coat of arms of Riau.svg Riau RiauRiauID - RI6,493,60087,02352 Sumatra 12210
Coat of arms of Riau Islands.svg Riau Islands Kepulauan RiauKepriID - KR2,118,2008,201208 Sumatra 725
Coat of arms of Southeast Sulawesi.svg Southeast Sulawesi Sulawesi TenggaraSultraID - SG2,659,20038,06751 Sulawesi 17215
Coat of arms of South Kalimantan.svg South Kalimantan Kalimantan SelatanKalselID - KS4,122,60038,74496 Kalimantan 13211
South Papua Papua SelatanPasel517,600131,4934.1 Western New Guinea 404
Coat of arms of South Sulawesi.svg South Sulawesi Sulawesi SelatanSulselID - SN9,139,50046,717151 Sulawesi 24321
Coat of arms of South Sumatra.svg South Sumatra Sumatra SelatanSumselID - SS8,550,90091,59286 Sumatra 17413
Southwest Papua Papua Barat DayaPBD591,06938,82115 Western New Guinea 615
Coat of arms of West Java.svg West Java Jawa BaratJabarID - JB48,782,40035,3771,176 Java 27918
Coat of arms of West Kalimantan.svg West Kalimantan Kalimantan BaratKalbarID - KB5,470,800147,30730 Kalimantan 14212
Coat of arms of West Nusa Tenggara.svg West Nusa Tenggara Nusa Tenggara BaratNTBID - NB5,390,00018,572234 Lesser Sunda Islands 1028
Coat of arms of West Papua.svg West Papua Papua BaratPabarID - PB [8] 1,156,80097,0248 Western New Guinea 707
Coat of arms of West Sulawesi.svg West Sulawesi Sulawesi BaratSulbarID - SR1,436,80016,78773 Sulawesi 606
Coat of arms of West Sumatra.svg West Sumatra Sumatra BaratSumbarID - SB5,580,20042,012110 Sumatra 19712
Coat of arms of Yogyakarta.svg Special Region of Yogyakarta Daerah Istimewa YogyakartaDIYID - YO3,712,9003,1331,138 Java 514

Former provinces

Old map of Sumatra (1950).svg
Old map of Sulawesi (1960).svg
Three-province Sumatra (1948–56) (L) and two-province Sulawesi (1960–64) with present-day municipality borders

Upon the independence of Indonesia, eight provinces were established. West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Maluku still exist as of today despite later divisions, while Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Nusa Tenggara, formerly Lesser Sunda (Sunda Kecil) were fully liquidated by dividing them into new provinces. The province of Central Sumatra existed from 1948 to 1957, while East Timor was annexed as a province from 1976 until its power transfer to UNTAET in 1999 prior to its independence as a country in 2002.

ProvinceCapitalPeriodSuccessor(s)
Sumatra [9] Bukittinggi / Medan 1945–1948 Central Sumatra
North Sumatra
South Sumatra
Kalimantan [10] Banjarmasin 1945–1956 East Kalimantan
South Kalimantan
West Kalimantan
Nusa Tenggara [11] Singaraja 1945–1958 Bali
East Nusa Tenggara
West Nusa Tenggara
Sulawesi [12] Makassar / Manado 1945–1960North-Central Sulawesi
South-Southeast Sulawesi
Central Sumatra
(Sumatra Tengah) [9] [13]
Bukittinggi 1948–1957 Jambi
Riau
West Sumatra
North-Central Sulawesi
(Sulawesi Utara-Tengah) [14]
Manado 1960–1964 North Sulawesi
Central Sulawesi
South-Southeast Sulawesi
(Sulawesi Selatan-Tenggara) [14]
Makassar 1960–1964 South Sulawesi
Southeast Sulawesi
East Timor
(Timor Timur) [15]
Dili 1976–1999 Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste

New provinces made from currently-existing provinces

New province
(current name)
YearNew province
(then name)
Province of origin
West Irian 1949, 1956, [16] 1963, 1969 Papua Maluku
Special Region of Yogyakarta 1950Yogyakarta Central Java
Aceh 1956Aceh North Sumatra
Central Kalimantan 1958Central Kalimantan South Kalimantan
Jakarta Special Capital Region 1959Greater Jakarta West Java
Lampung 1964Lampung South Sumatra
Bengkulu 1967BengkuluSouth Sumatra
North Maluku 1999North Maluku Maluku
Banten 2000BantenWest Java
Bangka Belitung Islands 2000Bangka Belitung IslandsSouth Sumatra
Gorontalo 2000GorontaloNorth Sulawesi
Riau Islands 2002Riau Islands Riau
West Papua 2003West Irian Jaya Irian Jaya
West Sulawesi 2004West Sulawesi South Sulawesi
North Kalimantan 2012North Kalimantan East Kalimantan
Central Papua 2022Central Papua Papua province
Highland Papua 2022Highland Papua Papua
South Papua 2022South Papua Papua
Southwest Papua 2022Southwest Papua West Papua

Renamed provinces

YearOld name
(Indonesian)
Old name
(English)
New name
(Indonesian)
New name
(English)
Current name
1954Sunda KecilLesser SundaNusa TenggaraNusa Tenggaranon-existent
1959AcehAcehDaerah Istimewa AcehAceh Special Region Aceh
1961Jakarta RayaGreater JakartaDaerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta RayaGreater Jakarta Special Capital Region Jakarta Special Capital Region
1973Irian BaratWest IrianIrian JayaIrian Jaya Papua
1990Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta RayaGreater Jakarta Special Capital RegionDaerah Khusus Ibukota JakartaJakarta Special Capital RegionJakarta Special Capital Region
2001Daerah Istimewa AcehAceh Special RegionNanggroë Aceh DarussalamState of Aceh, the Abode of PeaceAceh
2002Irian JayaIrian JayaPapuaPapuaPapua
2007Irian Jaya BaratWest Irian JayaPapua BaratWest Papua West Papua
2009Nanggroë Aceh DarussalamState of Aceh, the Abode of PeaceAcehAcehAceh
Old map of Maluku (before 1999).svg
Old map of Papua (before 2001).svg
Pre-1999 Maluku (L) and Irian Jaya (now Papua, R) with present-day municipality borders
Provinces in Western New Guinea, after the split of Papua Province into four provinces in July 2022 Indonesian administrative divisions in western New Guinea (as at July 2022).svg
Provinces in Western New Guinea, after the split of Papua Province into four provinces in July 2022

Former provincial capitals

See also

Notes

  1. Jakarta is a province-level Capital Special Region comprising five Kota Administrasis (administrative cities/municipalities) and one Kabupaten Administrasi (administrative regency).
  2. Since 25 July 2022 Papua Province has been reduced to just the northern part of Western New Guinea, plus three regencies in Cenderawasih Bay, with most of the previous parts of the province split off to form three new provinces. Figures have been adjusted to take account of this separation.

    Related Research Articles

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Special Region of Yogyakarta</span> Special Region of Indonesia

    The Special Region of Yogyakarta is a provincial-level autonomous region of Indonesia in southern Java. It has also been known as the Special Territory of Yogyakarta.

    A regency, sometimes incorrectly referred to as a district, is an administrative division of Indonesia, directly under a province. Regencies and cities are divided into districts.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Subdivisions of Indonesia</span> Tiers of government

    Indonesia is divided into provinces. Provinces are made up of regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota). Provinces, regencies and cities have their own local governments and parliamentary bodies.

    In Indonesia, village or subdistrict is the fourth-level subdivision below a district, regency/city, and province. There are a number of names and types for villages in Indonesia, with desa being the most frequently used for regencies and kelurahan for cities. According to the 2019 report by the Ministry of Home Affairs, there are 8,488 urban villages and 74,953 rural villages in Indonesia.

    This is a list of some of the regions of Indonesia. Many regions are defined in law or regulations by the central government. At different times of Indonesia's history, the nation has been designated as having regions that do not necessarily correlate to the current administrative or physical geography of the territory of the nation.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Indonesia</span> Overview of and topical guide to Indonesia

    The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Indonesia:

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Minahasa Regency</span> Regency in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Minahasa Regency is a regency in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Its capital is Tondano. It covers an area of 1,141.64 km2 and had a population of 310,384 at the 2010 Census; this rose to 347,290 at the 2020 Census.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Tanjung Selor</span> City and capital of North Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Tanjung Selor is the capital of both the North Kalimantan province in Indonesia, and of the Bulungan Regency. It is among provincial capitals in Indonesia that as of 2021 does not yet have city status, together with Mamuju in West Sulawesi, Sofifi in North Maluku, Nabire in Central Papua, Wamena in Highland Papua, Merauke in South Papua, and Manokwari in West Papua. The district has an area of 677.77 km2 and had a population of 39,439 at the 2010 Census and 56,569 at the 2020 Census.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Attorney General's Office of Indonesia</span>

    The Office of the Attorney General of the Republic of Indonesia is the competent authority to advise the Government of Indonesia on matters of law. It serves as the central organization for the Indonesian Public Prosecution Service. The Attorney General's Office is seated in the national capital Jakarta.

    The term district, in the context of Indonesia, refers to the third-level administrative subdivision, below regency or city. The local term kecamatan is used in the majority of Indonesian areas, except in Papua, West Papua, and the Special Region of Yogyakarta. The term distrik is used in Papua and West Papua. In the Special Region of Yogyakarta, the term kapanewon is used for districts within the regencies, while the term kemantren is used for districts within Yogyakarta, the province's only city. According to Statistics Indonesia, there are a total of 7,252 districts in Indonesia as at 2019, subdivided into 83,820 administrative villages.

    In Indonesia, a regional regulation is a regulation that is passed by Indonesian local governments and carry the force of law in that region. There are two levels of regional regulations. Provinces pass provincial regulation, while the second tier subdivisions of Indonesia, known as regencies and cities pass regency regulation and city regulation, respectively. Each type of regional regulation is passed by the region's parliamentary body together with their chief executive.

    This is a list of emblems or coat of arms used in Indonesia. Indonesia is divided into 37 provinces, and each province is divided into regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota). There are 416 regencies and 98 cities. Each province, regency, and city has its own emblem.

    In Indonesian law, the term "city" is generally defined as the second-level administrative subdivision of the Republic of Indonesia, an equivalent to regency. The difference between a city and a regency is that a city has non-agricultural economic activities and a dense urban population, while a regency comprises predominantly rural areas and is larger in area than a city. However, Indonesia historically had several classifications of cities.

    Regional Development Banks are a type of bank in Indonesia that is established and owned by the local provincial government. Its purpose is to boost regional development and provide initial capital to the province that private banks would not risk giving, as well as giving basic financial services for the general provincial population. It was first established on 25 March 1960 and regulated under Law Number 13 of 1962 and Law Number 16 of 1999 Decree from the Ministry of Home Affairs. According to the law, the shares of Regional Development Banks are divided into two; priority shares and regular shares. Priority shares ownership must be on the hand of provincial governments, while regular shares can be owned by second-level administrative governments under the respective provinces and individuals. The director of these banks are appointed directly by the governor of the respective provinces and hold the office for 4 years. Provincial governors also have the ability to remove directors from the office for several reasons such as incompetency and corruption, with recommendation from local provincial parliaments. If there is more than one director, the law also states that they are not allowed to be closely related and should not occupy other governmental positions unless recommended. As of 2021, there are 26 regional development banks according to the Financial Services Authority. Not all provinces currently have their own bank, especially newly established provinces such as North Kalimantan and the Bangka Belitung Islands, which both still share ownership of various bank companies with their respective parent provinces.

    References

    1. ISO 3166-2:ID
    2. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
    3. "Data Wilayah – Kementerian Dalam Negeri – Republik Indonesia". Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
    4. Buku Induk—Kode dan Data Wilayah Administrasi Pemerintahan per Provinsi, Kabupaten/Kota dan Kecamatan Seluruh Indonesia (PDF) (in Indonesian), Kementerian Dalam Negeri [Ministry of Home Affairs], archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-11-19
    5. ISO 3166-2:ID (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of Indonesia)
    6. Badan Pusat Statistik/Statistics Indonesia, Jakarta, 2022.
    7. Figures adjusted to take account of the separation of Tarakan city and four regencies, as confirmed by Badan Pusat Statistik, to form the new province of North Kalimantan, listed separately in this table.
    8. West Papua was created from the western portion of Papua province in February 2003, initially under the name of Irian Jaya Barat, and was renamed Papua Barat (West Papua) on 7 February 2007. The split remains controversial. In November 2004, the Constitutional Court of Indonesia ruled that the split violated Papua's autonomy laws. However, since the western province had already been created, it should remain separate from Papua. The ruling also aborted the creation of another proposed province, Central Irian Jaya, because the split was not yet completed. As of June 2008, an ISO 3166-2 code has not yet been published for West Papua. If one were to follow precedent, it would be ID-PB. Note: ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-1 (corrected 2010-02-19) page 18-19 confirms this as ID-PB. See http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_3166-2_newsletter_ii-1_corrected_2010-02-19.pdf . The code ID-IJ now refers to the larger geographical region including Papua and West Papua.
    9. 1 2 "Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 21 Tahun 1950" [Government Regulation Number 21 of 1950](PDF). hukum.unsrat.ac.id (in Indonesian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-11. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
    10. "Undang-Undang Nomor 25 Tahun 1956" [Act Number 25 of 1956]. hukumonline.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 November 2018.
    11. "Undang-Undang Nomor 64 Tahun 1958" [Act Number 64 of 1958]. hukumonline.com (in Indonesian). Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
    12. "Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang Nomor 47 Tahun 1960" [Government Regulation in Lieu of Law Number 47 of 1960]. hukumonline.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 November 2018.
    13. "Undang-Undang Darurat Nomor 19 Tahun 1957" [Emergency Act Number 19 Year 1957]. hukumonline.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 November 2018.
    14. 1 2 "Undang-Undang Nomor 13 Tahun 1964" [Act Number 13 of 1964]. hukumonline.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 29 January 2020.
    15. "Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 7 Tahun 1976" [Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 1976](PDF) (in Indonesian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-11-14. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
    16. "UU No. 15 Tahun 1956 tentang Pembentukan Daerah Otonom Propinsi Irian Barat [JDIH BPK RI]". peraturan.bpk.go.id. Retrieved 2022-10-15.